Tamarix gallica (French tamarisk)
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Plant Type
- Distribution Table
- Habitat List
- Biology and Ecology
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Pathway Vectors
- Plant Trade
- Impact Summary
- Uses List
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Tamarix gallica L. (1753)
Preferred Common Name
- French tamarisk
Other Scientific Names
- Tamarix algeriensis Hort. (1841)
- Tamarix anglica Webb (1841)
- Tamarix brachylepis Sennen (1932)
- Tamarix esperanza var. majoriflora Pau & Villar (1927)
- Tamarix matritensis Pau & Villar
- Tamarix pedemontana Savy ex Gand. (1910)
- Tamarix senegalensis DC.
International Common Names
- English: saltcedar; tamarisk
- Spanish: pinebete
- French: tamaris de France
Local Common Names
- Germany: Französische Tamariske
- Israel: ashel
- Italy: tamarice gallico
- TAAGA (Tamarix gallica)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Tamaricales
- Family: Tamaricaceae
- Genus: Tamarix
- Species: Tamarix gallica
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page T. gallica is one of a group of closely related invasive species in North America, which also includes T. ramosissima, T. chinensis and T. canariensis. Hybrids may occur between T. gallica and all these species, but most commonly with T. canariensis (Gaskin and Schall, 2002, 2003).
For further information on the weedy deciduous Tamarix species, see the full datasheet on T. ramosissima.
DescriptionTop of page Most morphological features are similar to those of T. ramosissima but T. gallica differs from that species and from T. chinensis in the insertion of filaments on the lobes of the nectary disc rather than between them (well illustrated in Gaskin and Schaal, 2003). It differs from T. canariensis in bract length (at least as long as the calyx in T. gallica, only half as long in T. canariensis) and in sepals (entire in T. gallica, distinctly denticulate in T. canariensis) (Baum, 1968).
Plant TypeTop of page Broadleaved
DistributionTop of page T. gallica has a restricted native distribution in southwestern Europe while its introduced range in USA is somewhat sporadic, mainly in southeastern states but also in California and New Mexico. Gaskin and Schaal (2002) note that the hybrid with T. canariensis is prevalent along the gulf coast of Louisiana and Texas, while hybrids with T. ramosissima and T. chinensis occur in the western half of Texas.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Planted||Reference||Notes|
|USA||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-New Mexico||Present||Introduced||USDA-NRCS, 2005|
|-North Carolina||Present||Introduced||USDA-NRCS, 2005|
|-South Carolina||Present||Introduced||USDA-NRCS, 2005|
|-Texas||Present, few occurrences||Introduced||Invasive||Baum, 1967; USDA-NRCS, 2005|
Central America and Caribbean
|Puerto Rico||Present||Introduced||USDA-NRCS, 2005|
|France||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Natural||Baum, 1978|
|Italy||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Natural||Baum, 1978|
|Spain||Widespread||Native||Not invasive||Natural||Baum, 1978|
|Switzerland||Restricted distribution||Native||Not invasive||Natural||Baum, 1978|
|Ukraine||Restricted distribution||Introduced||Not invasive||Baum, 1978|
HabitatTop of page Generally comparable with those of the closely related T. ramosissima but detailed data lacking.
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial – Managed||Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Present, no further details|
|Managed grasslands (grazing systems)||Present, no further details|
|Disturbed areas||Present, no further details|
|Rail / roadsides||Present, no further details|
|Urban / peri-urban areas||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
|Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-natural||Natural forests||Present, no further details|
|Natural grasslands||Present, no further details|
|Riverbanks||Present, no further details|
|Wetlands||Present, no further details|
|Deserts||Present, no further details|
|Coastal areas||Present, no further details|
Biology and EcologyTop of page The biology of T. canariensis is generally comparable with T. ramosissima (see the datasheet on that species), detailed data are lacking.
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page Most of the work on natural enemies has been carried out for T. ramosissima (see the separate datasheet for more details). It is reasonable to expect that the same pests could attack T. gallica.
Pathway VectorsTop of page
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches|
|True seeds (inc. grain)||seeds|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Fruits (inc. pods)|
|Growing medium accompanying plants|
Impact SummaryTop of page
|Fisheries / aquaculture||Negative|
Uses ListTop of page
- Erosion control or dune stabilization
- Shade and shelter
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page Details of morphological characters distinguishing T. gallica from the closely related species T. ramosissima, T. chinensis and T. canariensis are noted under Morphology, but it must be said that these are difficult to confirm in the field. T. parviflora is more readily distinguished by its four-part flowers, while T. aphylla is evergreen and has distinct foliage, the leaves not overlapping and strongly clasping the stem.
ReferencesTop of page
Barnes PL; Walker LR; Powell EA, 2004. Tamarix aphylla: A newly invasive tree in southern Nevada. Proceedings of the Ecological Society of America Meeting, Portland, Oregon, 1-6 August 2004. Abstracts, 31.
Baum B, 1968. 2. Tamarix L. In: Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Moore DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA, eds, Flora Europaea, Volume 2. Rosaceae to Umbelliferae. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 292-294.
Baum BR, 1967. Introduced and naturalized tamarisks in the United States and Canada (Tamaricaceae). Baileya, 15:19-25.
Baum BR, 1978. The Genus Tamarix. Jerusalem, Israel: Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities.
Crins WJ, 1989. The Tamaricaceae in the southeastern United States. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum, 70:403-425.
Gaskin JF; Schaal BA, 2002. Hybrid Tamarix widespread in U.S. invasion and undetected in native Asian range. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99(17):11256-11259; 26 ref.
USDA-NRCS, 2005. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov.
Distribution MapsTop of page
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