Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Tamarix gallica
(French tamarisk)

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Datasheet

Tamarix gallica (French tamarisk)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 08 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Tamarix gallica
  • Preferred Common Name
  • French tamarisk
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Tamarix gallica L. (1753)

Preferred Common Name

  • French tamarisk

Other Scientific Names

  • Tamarix algeriensis Hort. (1841)
  • Tamarix anglica Webb (1841)
  • Tamarix brachylepis Sennen (1932)
  • Tamarix esperanza var. majoriflora Pau & Villar (1927)
  • Tamarix matritensis Pau & Villar
  • Tamarix pedemontana Savy ex Gand. (1910)
  • Tamarix senegalensis DC.

International Common Names

  • English: saltcedar; tamarisk
  • Spanish: pinebete
  • French: tamaris de France

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Französische Tamariske
  • Israel: ashel
  • Italy: tamarice gallico

EPPO code

  • TAAGA (Tamarix gallica)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Tamaricales
  •                         Family: Tamaricaceae
  •                             Genus: Tamarix
  •                                 Species: Tamarix gallica

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page T. gallica is one of a group of closely related invasive species in North America, which also includes T. ramosissima, T. chinensis and T. canariensis. Hybrids may occur between T. gallica and all these species, but most commonly with T. canariensis (Gaskin and Schall, 2002, 2003).
For further information on the weedy deciduous Tamarix species, see the full datasheet on T. ramosissima.

Description

Top of page Most morphological features are similar to those of T. ramosissima but T. gallica differs from that species and from T. chinensis in the insertion of filaments on the lobes of the nectary disc rather than between them (well illustrated in Gaskin and Schaal, 2003). It differs from T. canariensis in bract length (at least as long as the calyx in T. gallica, only half as long in T. canariensis) and in sepals (entire in T. gallica, distinctly denticulate in T. canariensis) (Baum, 1968).

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Tree
Vegetatively propagated
Woody

Distribution

Top of page T. gallica has a restricted native distribution in southwestern Europe while its introduced range in USA is somewhat sporadic, mainly in southeastern states but also in California and New Mexico. Gaskin and Schaal (2002) note that the hybrid with T. canariensis is prevalent along the gulf coast of Louisiana and Texas, while hybrids with T. ramosissima and T. chinensis occur in the western half of Texas.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

North America

USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2005
-GeorgiaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2005
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2005
-New MexicoPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2005
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2005
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2005
-TexasPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced Invasive Baum, 1967; USDA-NRCS, 2005

Central America and Caribbean

Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2005

Europe

FranceWidespreadNative Not invasive Natural Baum, 1978
ItalyWidespreadNative Not invasive Natural Baum, 1978
SpainWidespreadNative Not invasive Natural Baum, 1978
SwitzerlandRestricted distributionNative Not invasive Natural Baum, 1978
UkraineRestricted distributionIntroduced Not invasive Baum, 1978

Habitat

Top of page Generally comparable with those of the closely related T. ramosissima but detailed data lacking.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedManaged forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details
Disturbed areas Present, no further details
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details
Natural grasslands Present, no further details
Riverbanks Present, no further details
Wetlands Present, no further details
Deserts Present, no further details
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details

Biology and Ecology

Top of page The biology of T. canariensis is generally comparable with T. ramosissima (see the datasheet on that species), detailed data are lacking.

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page Most of the work on natural enemies has been carried out for T. ramosissima (see the separate datasheet for more details). It is reasonable to expect that the same pests could attack T. gallica.

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessionsSmuggled flowers, cuttings Yes
Containers and packaging - woodCuttings, whole plants Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark
Leaves whole plants
Roots whole plants
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain) seeds
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Crop production Negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Fisheries / aquaculture Negative
Forestry production Negative
Human health Negative
Livestock production Negative
Native fauna Negative
Native flora Negative
Rare/protected species Negative
Tourism Negative
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel None

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Agroforestry
  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Shade and shelter

General

  • Ornamental

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page Details of morphological characters distinguishing T. gallica from the closely related species T. ramosissima, T. chinensis and T. canariensis are noted under Morphology, but it must be said that these are difficult to confirm in the field. T. parviflora is more readily distinguished by its four-part flowers, while T. aphylla is evergreen and has distinct foliage, the leaves not overlapping and strongly clasping the stem.

References

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Barnes PL; Walker LR; Powell EA, 2004. Tamarix aphylla: A newly invasive tree in southern Nevada. Proceedings of the Ecological Society of America Meeting, Portland, Oregon, 1-6 August 2004. Abstracts, 31.

Baum B, 1968. 2. Tamarix L. In: Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Moore DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA, eds, Flora Europaea, Volume 2. Rosaceae to Umbelliferae. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 292-294.

Baum BR, 1967. Introduced and naturalized tamarisks in the United States and Canada (Tamaricaceae). Baileya, 15:19-25.

Baum BR, 1978. The Genus Tamarix. Jerusalem, Israel: Israel Academy of Sciences and Humanities.

Crins WJ, 1989. The Tamaricaceae in the southeastern United States. Journal of the Arnold Arboretum, 70:403-425.

Gaskin JF; Schaal BA, 2002. Hybrid Tamarix widespread in U.S. invasion and undetected in native Asian range. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 99(17):11256-11259; 26 ref.

Gaskin JF; Schaal BA, 2003. Molecular phylogenetic investigation of U.S. invasive Tamarix. Systematic Botany, 28(1):86-95; 43 ref.

USDA-NRCS, 2005. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov.

Distribution Maps

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