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Datasheet

Strawberry vein banding virus
(vein banding of strawberry)

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Datasheet

Strawberry vein banding virus (vein banding of strawberry)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 29 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Strawberry vein banding virus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • vein banding of strawberry
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Unknown: "DNA and RNA reverse transcribing viruses"
  •     Family: Caulimoviridae
  •       Genus: Caulimovirus
  •         Species: Strawberry vein banding virus

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Strawberry vein banding virus; F. vesca UC-4 clone with vein banding pattern of secondary veins.
TitleVein banding
CaptionStrawberry vein banding virus; F. vesca UC-4 clone with vein banding pattern of secondary veins.
CopyrightKarel Petrzik
Strawberry vein banding virus; F. vesca UC-4 clone with vein banding pattern of secondary veins.
Vein bandingStrawberry vein banding virus; F. vesca UC-4 clone with vein banding pattern of secondary veins.Karel Petrzik

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Strawberry vein banding virus

Preferred Common Name

  • vein banding of strawberry

Other Scientific Names

  • Strawberry veinbanding caulimovirus
  • Strawberry virus 5

International Common Names

  • English: strawberry leaf curl
  • Spanish: clorosis zonal de los nervios de la fresa
  • French: liséré des nervures du fraisier
  • Russian: okaimlenie zhilok zemlianiki

Local Common Names

  • Czechoslovakia (former): prosvetlování zilek jahodníku
  • Germany: Adernmosaik der Erdbeere

English acronym

  • SVBV

EPPO code

  • SVBV00 (Strawberry vein banding caulimovirus)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Unknown: "DNA and RNA reverse transcribing viruses"
  •         Family: Caulimoviridae
  •             Genus: Caulimovirus
  •                 Species: Strawberry vein banding virus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Strawberry vein banding virus is included in the Caulimovirus genus of the Caulimoviridae family. Strains of SVBV that have been identified include Strawberry leaf curl virus (Prentice, 1952), Strawberry yellow veinbanding virus (Frazier and Posnette, 1958), Strawberry necrosis virus (Schöninger, 1958), Strawberry chiloensis veinbanding virus (Frazier, 1960) and Strawberry eastern veinbanding virus (Frazier, 1960). In North America, most strains found on the west coast are more severe than those found along the east coast. The east coast isolates do not exist in ATCC. Four European isolates from the Czech Republic, Norway and Germany are more than 99% identical, according to the nucleotide sequence of part of the coat protein gene (Mráz et al., 1998b).
 

Description

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Cytoplasmic inclusion bodies typical of other caulimoviruses have been reported in the vascular parenchyma and mesophyll cells of infected plants (Kaname, 1975; Kitajima et al., 1973; Frazier and Converse, 1980; Morris et al., 1980). Isolated virions ca 50 nm in diameter were also found in phloem parenchyma cells of symptomatic Fragaria vesca indicator clones (Fránová-Honetslegrová et al., 1999). Native viral DNA is circular and double-stranded with two single-stranded discontinuities (Stenger et al., 1988). It contains 7876 nucleotides (Petrzik et al., 1998b). Seven open reading frames potentially code for proteins of 37.8; 18.3; 16.6; 56.0; 81.1; 59.0 and 12.6 kDa.

 

Distribution

Top of page Reports of the occurrence of SVBV before 1995 have been based exclusively on the disease symptoms. Nucleic acid-based detection techniques (polymerase chain reaction and western hybridization) confirmed the presence of SVBV infection in samples from the USA (western type), Germany, Norway, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Federal Republic Yugoslavia.

In Germany, old references are based on symptoms that might be strawberry vein banding. The German experts on strawberry viruses at the Landesanstalt für Pflanzenschutz in Stuttgart have never detected it. Mráz et al. (1996) detected SVBV in plants obtained from Germany.

In Norway, Mráz et al. (1996) detected SVBV in Danish strawberry plants (cv. Mimek) introduced to Norway for scientific purposes. Danish authorities report that the virus has never been detected in strawberry plants, inside or outside the compulsory certification system.


Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-HebeiPresentWang and Tang, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-HeilongjiangPresentWang and Tang, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-HubeiPresentWang and Tang, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-JiangxiPresentWang and Tang, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-JilinPresentWang and Tang, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-LiaoningPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-ShandongPresentWang and Tang, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-ShanxiPresentWang and Tang, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-ZhejiangPresentWang and Tang, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
JapanPresent, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014

Africa

EgyptPresentRagab et al., 2009

North America

CanadaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-British ColumbiaPresentConners, 1967; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-OntarioPresentConners, 1967; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
USARestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-ArkansasPresent, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-IdahoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-LouisianaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-MarylandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-OregonPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014

South America

BrazilPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-Sao PauloPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
ChilePresent, few occurrencesCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014

Europe

AustriaAbsent, no pest recordEPPO, 2014
Czech RepublicPresent, few occurrencesHonetslegrová et al., 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
Czechoslovakia (former)Restricted distributionErbenová, 1980
DenmarkAbsent, invalid recordCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
GermanyAbsent, invalid recordDomes et al., 1996; EPPO, 2014
HungaryRestricted distribution****CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
IrelandAbsent, invalid recordCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
ItalyRestricted distributionPisi, 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
NorwayAbsent, intercepted onlyMráz et al., 1996; EPPO, 2014
Russian FederationRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-Russian Far EastPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
SerbiaPresentPetrzik et al., 1998a; EPPO, 2014
SlovakiaPresent, few occurrencesPetrzik et al., 1998a; CABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
UKAbsent, intercepted onlyEPPO, 2014
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2002

Oceania

AustraliaRestricted distributionCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-New South WalesPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-TasmaniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2002; EPPO, 2014
-VictoriaPresentEPPO, 2012; EPPO, 2014

Risk of Introduction

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SVBV is listed as an A2 quarantine pest by EPPO (OEPP/EPPO, 1978) and is also of quarantine significance for IAPSC. The most important factors in evaluating the potential of SVBV in a new area are the presence of aphid vectors and their mobility. Because of the range of vector species, conditions can be defined only in so far as they affect aphids in general. For example, extremely low winter temperatures killing overwintering nymphs and adults; windy climates restricting activity of alatae.

Phytosanitary Measures

EPPO (EPPO, 1990) recommends that importing countries can require that Fragaria ananassa plants for planting, from countries where the pest occurs, should be derived from mother plants tested and found free from SVBV during the last three growing seasons and should have been maintained under conditions preventing their reinfestation; the consignment must come from a field found free (in the immediate vicinity) of the virus during the last growing season.

 

Hosts/Species Affected

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SVBV is known to occur only on species of Fragaria. The main host is Fragaria vesca (wild strawberry). Commercial strawberries may also be infected, but diagnostic symptoms are usually only apparent when Strawberry latent C virus is present simultaneously (EPPO/CABI, 1996). The garden burnet (Sanguisorba minor) has been established as a symptomless experimental host by graft inoculation and by the dark strawberry aphid vector Chaetosiphon jacobi (Mullin et al., 1980).
 

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

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Clear banding pattern along main and secondary veins is induced on F. vesca clones if SVBV is present alone in host plants. Usually SVBV occurs in strawberries in a complex with other diseases, which mask or intensify the vein banding pattern (Frazier and Morris, 1987).

Symptoms initially appear on the youngest developing leaf; there is epinasty of midribs and petioles, a tendency for opposite halves of leaflets to be appressed, irregular, wavy leaflet margins, and slight crinkling of the laminae. Usually, these symptoms are mild and are not all present simultaneously. It is not until the affected leaf expands that clearing, followed by yellowish banding of some or all of the veins, becomes visible. Often, this coloration occurs in scattered discontinuous streaks of varying lengths along the main and secondary veins.

The second and third leaves formed after symptom onset are affected more severely than the first or any subsequent leaf; in older leaves, chlorotic streaks are reduced in number, scattered and confined to portions of the leaflets. This may be followed by the appearance of a series of apparently healthy leaves and then reappearance of mild or severe symptoms (Frazier, 1955; Mellor and Fitzpatrick, 1961; Miller and Frazier, 1970; Smith, 1972).

On commercial strawberries, there are no very diagnostic symptoms but, if strawberry latent C disease is also present, the reaction to infection is intermediate to that on Fragaria vesca (EPPO/CABI, 1996). In cv. Marshall, for example, the veinbanding is usually diffuse, commonly located along the main veins and may often appear as spots. As affected leaves mature, the veinbanded areas may gradually disappear, or they may become brownish-red or necrotic. On outdoor plants especially, the veins become discoloured, without previous chlorosis. Affected leaflets characteristically exhibit epinasty, mild crinkling and wavy margins.

SVBV usually does not induce distinct symptoms in commercial cultivars, and often the only indications of infection are loss of vigour, stunting, lowered yields, and general 'running out' of a cultivar. SVBV rarely occurs singly in strawberry; frequently several viruses are present, and together they cause more severe reductions of productivity and fruit quality (Spiegel and Martin, 1998).
 

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / reduced size
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal patterns

Biology and Ecology

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Acyrthosiphon pelargonii, Amphorophora rubi, A. idaei, Aphis idaei, A. rubifolii, Aulacorthum solani, Chaetosiphon fragaefolii, C. jacobi, C. tetrarhodum, C. thomasi, Macrosiphum rosae, M. pelargonii, Myzus ascalonicus, M. ornatus and M. persicae are vectors of SVBV. Of these, Chaetosiphon species are the most efficient vectors in glasshouse experiments, although other genera are probably important vectors when they occur in large numbers and frequently move from plant to plant. Aphids can acquire and transmit the virus in 30-120 minutes, but persistence in the vector is short, usually less than 8 h (semi-persistent type). There are differences in the efficiency of clonal lines of aphids, and evidence that some species will transmit only certain strains of SVBV. Aphis gossypii, A. fabae, Aulacorthum solani and Macrosiphum euphorbiae failed to transmit the virus in a limited number of trials.

SVBV is transmissible by grafting and by Cuscuta subinclusa. Attempts to transmit SVBV mechanically have been unsuccessful. The incubation period in the indicator host varies from 2 to 5 weeks depending on the strain.

 

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page In the field, aphid vectors transmit the virus. Because of the ability of certain aphid species to undertake long, high-altitude flights, wide natural dissemination is possible. This is, however, limited by the relatively short persistence of the virus in the vector.

In international trade, SVBV is liable to be carried on infected plants and propagating material of strawberries.

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Leaves Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Chaetosiphon fragaefoliiEFSA Panel on Plant Health, PLH. Insect

Impact

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Fruit yield and size are affected and runner production reduced. In combination with strawberry latent C disease, SVBV reduced yield by 17% in the first fruiting year, and total and saleable fruit by 88 and 100%, respectively, in the third year (Bolton, 1974).
 

Diagnosis

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Diagnosis must usually be made or confirmed by use of virus-free Fragaria vesca indicator plants. Research in California, USA, has shown that the F. vesca clone UC-6 and the F. virginiana clone UC-12 are superior for detecting and diagnosing SVBV. A modified leaf grafting technique is used (Frazier, 1974). F. vesca semperflorens Alpine is also a very sensitive diagnostic indicator clone for this virus (Frazier and Morris, 1987). An ELISA test can be performed using Cauliflower mosaic virus antisera (Morris et al., 1980; Honetslegrová et al., 1995). However, routine serological detection requires the production of an SVBV-specific antiserum. A combination of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and southern blotting gives the best results: PCR alone can produce unclear or smeared bands in some samples. Treating PCR products with the corresponding SVBV probe clearly discriminates positive and negative samples. An amount of nucleic acid corresponding to 2 µg (50 µg) of fresh plant tissue could be detected in PCR (or in southern blots, respectively) (Mráz et al., 1999). Nucleic acid isolation from fresh plant tissue was the best template for PCR, and primers amplifying the shortest product should be recommended (Petrzik et al., 1998a). For further information on diagnosis and quantification of SVBV using molecular approaches, see Mahmoudpour (2004). Zhang et al. (2009) were able to detect SVBV using multiplex RT-PCR.

Vaskova et al. (2004) developed an assay for the detection of SVBV in Fragaria spp. based on nuleic acid sequence based amplification (NASBA) and real-time detection using molecular beacons (real-time NASBA). When compared with biological indexing and a PCR-based detection method, the assay was found to offer a fast, sensitive and reliable approach to the routine diagnosis of strawberry stock material. 

Detection and Inspection

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Visual examination of the symptoms of SVBV on commercial cultivars on strawberry is not reliable.

 

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Phylogenetic data carried out on the amino acid sequence of the ORF V reveals that SVBV shows a close relationship to Cauliflower mosaic virus, Figwort mosaic virus and Carnation etched ring virus (Petrzik et al., 1998b).

A serological relatedness between SVBV and some Cauliflower mosaic virus isolates has been reported (Morris et al., 1980).

 

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

There are no specific control measures. SVBV is highly resistant to inactivation by heat therapy but it can be eliminated from plants by means of meristem tip culture. As a consequence, the use of certified planting material is the best control procedure, and certification schemes for the production of healthy planting material of strawberry are in operation in several EPPO countries. EPPO is at present (November 2000) preparing an internationally acceptable certification scheme for strawberries. Control of aphids with insecticides could reduce the incidence of the disease.

Elimination of the virus from mother plants by runner tip culture (Miller and Belkengren, 1963) or by heat treatment for 10 days at 42°C (Bolton, 1967) has been reported. The elimination of the type strain of SVBV from experimentally infected Hood plants by meristem tip culture was 100% whether or not the plants were preheat treated for 6 weeks at 37°C (Mullin and Schlegel, 1978). In these tests, the cultured plants were indexed and discarded after 6 months. This could prove to be an insufficient incubation period for cloned meristems, as some dahlia plants similarly treated to eliminate Dahlia mosaic virus remained symptomless for up to 10 months (Mullin and Schlegel, 1978).
 

References

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Bolton AT, 1967. The inactivation of vein banding and latent C viruses in strawberries by heat treatment. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 47:375-380.

Bolton AT, 1974. Effects of three virus diseases and their combinations on fruit yield of strawberries. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 54(2):271-275

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp.

CABI/EPPO, 2002. Strawberry vein banding virus. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 876. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Conners IL, 1967. An annotated index of plant diseases in Canada and fungi recorded on plants in Alaska, Canada and Greenland. Research Branch, Canada Department of Agriculture, Publ. 1251.

Converse RH; (Editor), 1987. Virus diseases of small fruits. Agriculture Handbook, USDA, No. 631:xii + 277pp.

EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH), 2014. Scientific opinion on the pest categorisation of Strawberry vein banding virus. EFSA Journal, 12(7):3772. http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/doc/3772.pdf

EPPO, 1990. Specific quarantine requirements. EPPO Technical Documents, No. 1008. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization.

EPPO, 2012. EPPO Reporting Service. EPPO Reporting Service. Paris, France: EPPO. http://archives.eppo.org/EPPOReporting/Reporting_Archives.htm

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Erbenová M, 1980. The occurrence of some virus diseases on strawberry. Proceedings of the 8th Czechoslovak Plant Protection Conference, Prague, 177-178.

Fránová-Honetslegrová J; Mráz I; Nebesá¢ová J; Sfp M, 1999. Preferential banding of secondary veins in strawberry is caused by mixed virus infection. Acta Virologica, 43:349-355.

Frazier NW, 1955. Strawberry vein banding virus. Phytopathology, 45:307-312.

Frazier NW, 1960. Differential transmission of four strains of strawberry vein banding virus by four aphid vectors. Plant Disease Reporter, 44:436-437.

Frazier NW, 1974. Detection of graft-transmissible diseases in strawberry by a modified leaf grafting technique. Plant Disease Reporter, 58:203-207.

Frazier NW; Converse RH, 1980. Strawberry vein banding virus. Description of Plant Viruses No. 219. Kew, Surrey, UK: Commonwealth Mycological Institute and the Association of Applied Biologists.

Frazier NW; Morris TJ, 1987. Strawberry vein banding. In: Converse RH, ed. Virus diseases of small fruits. USDA Agriculture Handbook No. 632, 16-20.

Frazier NW; Posnette AF, 1958. Relationships of the strawberry viruses of England and California. Hilgardia, 27(17):455-513.

Honetslegrová J; Mráz I; Spak J, 1995. Detection and Isolation of Strawberry Vein Banding Virus in the Czech Republic. Acta Horticulturae, 385:29-32.

Kaname T, 1975. Particles discovered in Fragaria vesca infeccted with strawberry latent A virus (SLAV) and strawberry vein banding virus (SVBV). Annals of Phytopathological Society of Japan, 41:288.

Kitajima J; Betti A; Costa AS, 1973. Strawberry vein banding virus, a member of the cauliflower mosaic virus group. Journal of General Virology, 20:117-119.

Mahmoudpour A, 2004. . http://www.actahort.org

Mellor FC; Fitzpatrick RE, 1961. Strawberry viruses. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 41:218-255.

Miller PW; Belkengren RO, 1963. Elimination of yellow-edge, crinkle and vein banding viruses and certain other virus complexes from strawberries by excision and culturing of apical meristems. Plant Disease Reporter, 47:298-300.

Miller PW; Frazier NW, 1970. In: Frazier NW, ed. Virus diseases of small fruits and grapevines, a handbook. Berkeley, California, USA: University of California, 8-10.

Morris TJ; Mullin RH; Schlegel DE; Cole A; Alosi MC, 1980. Isolation of a caulimovirus from strawberry tissue infected with strawberry vein banding virus. Phytopathology, 70(2):156-160

Mráz I; Fránová J; Sfp M, 1996. Non-radioactive probe for the detection of strawberry vein banding virus. Proceedings of the 4th International EFPP symposium, Diagnosis and identification of plant pathogens, Bonn, Germany, 115.

Mráz I; Petrzik K; Chvalová D; Sfp M; Fránová J, 1999. Experiences with testing of strawberry vein banding virus in strawberries by PCR and dot blot hybridization. Journal of Plant Diseases and Protection, 106:231-236.

Mráz I; Petrzik K; Sfp M; Honetslegrová-Fránová J, 1998. Variability in coat protein sequence homology among American and European sources of strawberry vein banding virus. Plant Disease, 82:544-546.

Mullin RH; Morris TJ; Schlegel DE, 1980. Current research on strawberry virus diseases. IV. Experimental transmission of five strawberry viruses to Sanguisorba minor, the garden burnet. California Strawberry Advisory Board, Strawberry News Bulletin 26, No. 14.

Mullin RH; Schlegel DE, 1978. Meristem-tip culture of dahlia infected with dahlia mosaic virus. Plant Disease Reporter, 62(7):565-567

OEPP/EPPO, 1978. Strawberry vein banding virus. Bulletin OEPP/EPPO Bulletin 8 (2). EPPO data sheets on quarantine organisms No. 101.

Petrzik K; Benes V; Mrßz I; Honetslegrovß-Frßnovß J; Ansorge W; Spak J, 1998. Strawberry vein banding virus-definitive member of the genus Caulimovirus. Virus Genes, 16(3):303-305; 15 ref.

Petrzik K; Mráz I; Duliæ-Markoviæ I, 1998a. Quarantine strawberry vein banding virus firstly detected in another two european states. Acta Virologica, 42:87-89.

Pisi A, 1983. Le virosi delle piante da frutto. Italia Agricola.

Prentice IW, 1952. Resolution of strawberry virus complexes. V. Experiments with viruses 4 and 5. Annals of Applied Biology, 39:487-494.

Ragab M; El-Dougdoug K; Mousa S; Attia A; Sobolev I; Spiegel S; Freeman S; Zeidan M; Tzanetakis IE; Martin RR, 2009. Detection of strawberry viruses in Egypt. Acta Horticulturae [VI International Strawberry Symposium, Huelva, Spain, 3-7 March 2008.], No.842:319-322. http://www.actahort.org/books/842/842_58.htm

Schöninger G, 1958. Erdbeervirosen in Deutschland. III. Das Erdbeer-Nekrosevirus: Ein weiteres nichtpersistentes Virus. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 32:325-332.

Smith IM; McNamara DG; Scott PR; Holderness M, 1997. Quarantine pests for Europe. Second Edition. Data sheets on quarantine pests for the European Union and for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. Quarantine pests for Europe. Second Edition. Data sheets on quarantine pests for the European Union and for the European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization., Ed. 2:vii + 1425 pp.; many ref.

Smith KM, 1972. A Textbook of Plant Virus Diseases. London, UK: Longman, 684 pp.

Spiegel S; Martin RR, 1998. Virus and Virus-like Diseases. In: Maas JL, ed. Compendium of strawberry diseases. St. Paul, USA: APS Press, The American Phytopathological Society, 62-63.

Stenger DC; Mullin RH; Morris TJ, 1988. Isolation, molecular cloning, and detection of strawberry vein banding virus DNA. Phytopathology, 78(2):154-159

Thompson JR; Wetzel S; Klerks MM; Vašková D; Schoen CD; Špak J; Jelkmann W, 2003. Multiplex RT-PCR detection of four aphid-borne strawberry viruses in Fragaria spp. in combination with a plant mRNA specific internal control. Journal of Virological Methods, 111(2):85-93.

Vaskova D; Spak J; Klerks MM; Schoen CD; Thompson JR; Jelkmann W, 2004. Real-time NASBA for detection of strawberry vein banding virus. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 110(2):213-221.

Vaskova DH; Spak J; Petrzik K, 2006. Variability in sequence of Strawberry vein banding virus. Biologia Plantarum, 50(4):660-666. http://www.ueb.cas.cz/bp

Wang Q; Tang H, 1994. Strawberry culture in China. Chronica Horticulturae, 34:4-6.

Xiao Min; Zhang ZhiHong; Dai HongYan; Yang HongYi; Li He, 2005. Enhancing the stability of detection of Strawberry vein banding virus by PCR. Journal of Fruit Science, 22(5):483-487.

Zhang ZhiHong; Chang LinLin; Yang HongYi; Xiao Min; Li He; Dai HongYan, 2009. Diagnosis and molecular analysis of strawberry viruses in China. Acta Horticulturae [VI International Strawberry Symposium, Huelva, Spain, 3-7 March 2008.], No.842:187-190. http://www.actahort.org/books/842/842_25.htm

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