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Synedrella nodiflora
(synedrella)

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Datasheet

Synedrella nodiflora (synedrella)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Synedrella nodiflora
  • Preferred Common Name
  • synedrella
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Synedrella nodiflora (node weed, Cinderella weed); flowers and leaves. Punakea Loop LZ Launiupoko, Maui. March, 2009.
TitleFlowers and leaves
CaptionSynedrella nodiflora (node weed, Cinderella weed); flowers and leaves. Punakea Loop LZ Launiupoko, Maui. March, 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Synedrella nodiflora (node weed, Cinderella weed); flowers and leaves. Punakea Loop LZ Launiupoko, Maui. March, 2009.
Flowers and leavesSynedrella nodiflora (node weed, Cinderella weed); flowers and leaves. Punakea Loop LZ Launiupoko, Maui. March, 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Synedrella nodiflora (node weed, Cinderella weed); habit and flowers. Waikapu Tropical Plantation, Maui. February, 2009.
TitleHabit
CaptionSynedrella nodiflora (node weed, Cinderella weed); habit and flowers. Waikapu Tropical Plantation, Maui. February, 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Synedrella nodiflora (node weed, Cinderella weed); habit and flowers. Waikapu Tropical Plantation, Maui. February, 2009.
HabitSynedrella nodiflora (node weed, Cinderella weed); habit and flowers. Waikapu Tropical Plantation, Maui. February, 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Synedrella nodiflora (node weed, Cinderella weed); young plants. Makawao, Maui. December 31, 2006.
TitleYoung plants
CaptionSynedrella nodiflora (node weed, Cinderella weed); young plants. Makawao, Maui. December 31, 2006.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Synedrella nodiflora (node weed, Cinderella weed); young plants. Makawao, Maui. December 31, 2006.
Young plantsSynedrella nodiflora (node weed, Cinderella weed); young plants. Makawao, Maui. December 31, 2006.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Synedrella nodiflora (L.) Gaertn. (1791)

Preferred Common Name

  • synedrella

Other Scientific Names

  • Verbesina nodiflora (L.)

International Common Names

  • English: Cinderella weed (Australia)
  • Spanish: cerbatana

Local Common Names

  • Barbados: porter bush
  • Brazil: barbatana; botao de ouro; vassourinha
  • Colombia: cerbatana; flor amarilla; venturosa
  • Cuba: cerbatana; espinillo
  • Dominican Republic: selvatana
  • Honduras: flor amarilla; guacara
  • Indonesia: babadotan; barbadotan lalaki; beruan; glentang warwak; gletangan; jotang; jotang kuda; jotang lalaki; jotang tai embe; jukut gendring; jutuk berak kambing; krasuk; legatan; sarunen
  • Japan: fushizakiso
  • Malaysia: rumput babi
  • Nigeria: awaro ona
  • Papua New Guinea: pig grass
  • Philippines: fantakuen; tuhod-manok
  • Puerto Rico: cerbatana; sarbatana; scerbatana
  • Samoa: lau'oti'oti; tae'oti
  • Solomon Islands: knoli; pig grass
  • Taiwan: fushizaki-so
  • Thailand: phak-khral
  • Tonga: pakaka
  • Trinidad and Tobago: fatten barrow; porter bush
  • USA/Hawaii: node weed
  • Vietnam: bo xit

EPPO code

  • SYDNO (Synedrella nodiflora)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Asterales
  •                         Family: Asteraceae
  •                             Genus: Synedrella
  •                                 Species: Synedrella nodiflora

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page The generic name Synedrella is a derivative of the Greek synedros (= placed together) and describes the crowding together of the small flowers, whilst the specific name nodiflora relates to the presence of the flower clusters around the nodes in the upper parts of the plant.

There are about 80 species within the genus; one other species is considered to be a minor weed.

Holm et al. (1997) report chromosome number (2n) = 40.

Description

Top of page S. nodiflora is an erect branched ephemeral herb usually 30-80 cm tall. The shallow root system is usually strongly branched.

The erect or ascending, sometimes woody stems, branch dichotomously from the base of the plant; they tend to have long internodes and swollen nodes, to be rounded or slightly angular in section, smooth, often finely hairy, and usually about 50 cm tall. The lower parts of the stems may root at the nodes, especially in damp conditions.

The leaves occur in opposite pairs and are 4-9 cm long, elliptic to ovate with three prominent veins and finely toothed margins, finely hairy with short petioles, and joined by a ridge across the stem.

The flowers occur in small crowded bunches of 2-8 inflorescences at nodes and tips throughout the upper third of the plant; each inflorescence consists of several erect bracts 3-5 mm long surrounding 5-6 marginal ray florets and 10-20 central disc florets, each 3-4 mm long with a yellow petal.

The dark brown to blackish (occasionally paler) seeds are dimorphic. Ray floret seeds are flattened, oblong, 3-5 mm long, with upwardly-pointing teeth along the paler marginal wing. Disc floret seeds are thickened, elongate, 3-4 mm long, with 2-4 stiff bristles at the apex. Both types of seed produce identical individuals, which in turn produce both types of seed.

The seedlings have epigeal germination. The hypocotyl is 8-19 mm long, often purplish, and hairless. The cotyledons are elliptic, 6-8 mm long, often reddish or purplish in colour and shortly stalked. The paired juvenile leaves are similar to the adult leaves but smaller.

Distribution

Top of page S. nodiflora originated in tropical America from where it has spread throughout the warmer regions of the world. It is probably found in every tropical and subtropical country in situations which favour its growth.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

CameroonPresentAdams (1963)
Congo, Republic of thePresentHolm et al. (1991); Szafranski et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)
Côte d'IvoirePresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991)
Equatorial GuineaPresentAdams (1963)
GambiaPresentHolm et al. (1997)
GhanaPresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)
GuineaPresentHolm et al. (1997)
Guinea-BissauPresentAdams (1963)
KenyaPresentHolm et al. (1997)
MaliPresentAdams (1963)
MauritaniaPresentHolm et al. (1997)
NigeriaPresent, WidespreadSharma (1990); Holm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)
SenegalPresentHolm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)
Sierra LeonePresentAdams (1963)
UgandaPresentHolm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)
ZambiaPresentHolm et al. (1997); CABI (Undated)

Asia

CambodiaPresentHolm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)
ChinaPresentHolm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)
-GuangdongPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Wang, 1980
-YunnanPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Wang, 1980
IndiaPresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)
-Himachal PradeshPresentRajesh Chauhan et al. (2014)
-KarnatakaPresentNalini et al. (1993)
-KeralaPresentSulochana et al. (1982)
IndonesiaPresent, WidespreadKostermans et al. (1987); Holm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)
LaosPresentHolm et al. (1997)
MalaysiaPresentTasrif et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)
PhilippinesPresent, WidespreadPancho et al. (1969); Madrid et al. (1972); Holm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)
Sri LankaPresentHolm et al. (1997)
TaiwanPresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)
ThailandPresentHolm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)
VietnamPresentHolm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)

North America

Costa RicaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Anon (1997)
CubaPresentHolm et al. (1997)
DominicaPresentFournet and Hammerton (1991)
Dominican RepublicPresentHolm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)
El SalvadorPresentHolm et al. (1991)
GrenadaPresentFournet and Hammerton (1991)
GuadeloupePresentFournet and Hammerton (1991)
HondurasPresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)
JamaicaPresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)
MartiniquePresentFournet and Hammerton (1991)
MexicoPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Anon (1997)
MontserratPresentFournet and Hammerton (1991)
Puerto RicoPresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentFournet and Hammerton (1991)
Saint LuciaPresentFournet and Hammerton (1991)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentFournet and Hammerton (1991)
Trinidad and TobagoPresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991)
United StatesPresentHolm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)
-HawaiiPresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Northern TerritoryPresentHnatiuk (1990); Holm et al. (1997)
-QueenslandPresentHnatiuk (1990); Holm et al. (1997)
-South AustraliaPresentHnatiuk (1990); Holm et al. (1997)
Christmas IslandPresentPuy et al. (1993)
FijiPresentParham (1958); Holm et al. (1991)
French PolynesiaPresentHolm et al. (1997)
GuamPresentHolm et al. (1997)
New CaledoniaPresentMacKee (1985); Holm et al. (1997)
Papua New GuineaPresentHenty and Pritchard (1975); Holm et al. (1991)
SamoaPresentWhistler (1983)
Solomon IslandsPresentHancock and Henderson (1988)
TuvaluPresentInvasiveSwarbrick (1997); PIER (2013)

South America

BrazilPresent, WidespreadAranha et al. (1982); Friere et al. (1988); Holm et al. (1997)
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentLorenzi (1982)
-Minas GeraisPresentLorenzi (1982)
-ParanaPresentLorenzi (1982)
-Sao PauloPresentLorenzi (1982)
ColombiaPresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)
EcuadorPresentHolm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)
PeruPresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)
SurinamePresentHolm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)
VenezuelaPresentHolm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)

Habitat

Top of page S. nodiflora grows in all disturbed tropical and subtropical habitats where there is sufficient soil moisture for its rapid germination, growth, flowering and seed set. It thrives where there is abundant soil and air moisture (but not soil saturation), grows in a very wide range of soils (although it is favoured by high organic content and good fertility), and, because of its very short life cycle, can tolerate most forms of cultivation. Whilst able to grow in full sunlight, this species prefers light or broken shade. It grows to altitudes of 1200 m in Indonesia.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page In addition to the crops listed S. nodiflora is also a common weed in a wide range of vegetable, plantation and orchard crops throughout the tropics as well as in pastures, nurseries, waste ground, roadsides, food gardens, lawns and all other disturbed sites and areas.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Biology and Ecology

Top of page Under suitable conditions, S. nodiflora has a life cycle of a little over 100 days, allowing it to germinate, grow and reproduce very quickly, sometimes several times each year. Although it prefers moist lightly shaded areas, this species is very plastic, and can grow and reproduce under a wide range of tropical and subtropical conditions. It reproduces solely by seed, with single plants sometimes producing over 6000 seeds. Both ray and disc florets produce viable seeds; the disc floret seeds are dispersed first and are capable of immediate germination, whilst the ray floret seeds are released later and may be dormant for several months. The seeds are dispersed in soil, water and plant debris as well as on clothing, and possibly by the wind. Seeds from both parts of the inflorescence germinate in both continuous light and continuous darkness, and under a wide range of conditions. Buried seed may survive for up to a year at 15 cm depth. Soil under continuous maize in Belize has been found to contain 5700 viable seeds/m².

The detailed biology of S. nodiflora has been explored by Oladokun (1977a, b; 1978).

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page No natural enemies are known for S. nodiflora.

Impact

Top of page Holm et al. (1997) report that S. nodiflora is a weed of over 28 crops in 50 countries. In Holm et al. (1991) it is listed as a serious or principal weed in 7 countries. When dense stands occur, S. nodiflora may compete vigorously for light with low-growing crops such as vegetables. Dense stands may also raise the humidity around plants, encouraging fungal diseases. It is, however, very shallow rooted, and probably competes poorly for both soil moisture and nutrients. S. nodiflora is also an alternative host to root knot nematodes (Izquierdo et al., 1987). As it is palatable to stock it is less significant in pastures.

S. nodiflora is a common weed of gardens, lawns, parks and other disturbed places such as roadsides, rubbish dumps, around buildings and on wasteland.

The seeds have been found as contaminants of legume cover crop seeds (Tasrif et al., 1991).

This weed is an alternate host for Cylindrocladium quinqueseptatum [Calonectria quinqueseptata] in India (Sulochana et al., 1982), and for Corynespora cassiicola in Nigeria (Onesirosan et al., 1974).

Uses

Top of page Young shoots can be eaten as a cooked vegetable, and the shoots are fed to pigs in Papua New Guinea. Crushed leaves have been used as a treatment for rheumatism, and when mixed with those of other plants to relieve stomach pains (Soerjani et al. 1987).

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed

Environmental

  • Host of pest

Human food and beverage

  • Vegetable

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page Eleutheranthera ruderalis is a similar plant which is also a common weed throughout the tropics. It has a similar growth habit, leaves and flowers, but can be distinguished by its distinctly hairy stems and leaves, stalked (and often nodding) flower heads, and the existence of only one sort of seeds which lack either marginal or apical bristles and teeth.

Calyptocarpus vialis is sometimes confused with S. nodiflora. Whilst morphologically similar, it is smaller and is a weakly trailing and mat-forming perennial herb. It is also very widespread throughout the tropics and subtropics.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Cultural Control

S. nodiflora is normally controlled by hand weeding or by cultivation, but this should be done before flowering. The tough stems tend to break off above the root, and the roots may be difficult to pull by hand. Seeds left in the soil usually ensure rapid reinfestation unless the area is deeply mulched.

Chemical Control

There are no recorded chemical controls for S. nodiflora, although most non-selective pre-emergent residual, and post-emergent contact and translocated herbicides could be used for its control in suitable situations.

Biological Control

No work has been done on the biological control of S. nodiflora.

References

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Adams CD, 1963. Compositae. In: Hutchinson J, Dalziel JM, Hepper FN, eds. Flora of West Tropical Africa, Volume 2, Second edition. London, UK: Crown Agents.

Anon., 1997. Estado de la Base de Datas. Sumario de la base do dates (BIMS) Colecion de Botanica Area de Conservacion de Tempique. World Wide Web page at macserv.inbio.ac.cr/Reportes/Botanica/Spp Tempique.

Aranha C; Bacchi O; Filho H de FL, 1982. Plantas Invasoras de Culturas. Vol. 2. Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil: Instituto Campineiro de Ensino Agricola.

Fournet J; Hammerton JL, 1991. Weeds of the Lesser Antilles. Paris, France: Department d'Economie et Sociologie Rurales, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique.

Friere AS; Periera RC; Sacramento CV do; Silva-Friere A da; Kersul do Sacramento C, 1988. The effect of herbicides on guarana (Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke) seedlings and on the principal weeds occurring with the crop. Revista Theobroma, 18:67-81.

Hancock IR; Henderson CP, 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin No. 7. Honiara, Solomon Islands: Dodo Creek Research Station.

Henty EE; Pritchard GH, 1975. Weeds of New Guinea and their Control. Lp, Papua New Guinea: Department of Forests, Division of Botany, Botany Bulletin No.7.

Hnatiuk RJ, 1990. Census of Australian Vascular Plants. Australian Flora and Fauna Series Number 11. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Holm LG; Doll J; Holm E; Pancho JV; Herberger JP, 1997. World Weeds: Natural Histories and Distribution. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc.

Holm LG; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DL, 1991. A Geographic Atlas of World Weeds. Malabar, Florida, USA: Krieger Publishing Company.

Izquierdo JE; Huepp G; Chacon L, 1987. Detection of nematodes of the genus Meloidogyne in weeds associated with coffee plantations. Ciencia y Tecnica en la Agricultura, Cafe y Cacao, 9(1):47-54.

Kostermans AJGH; Wirjahardja S; Dekker RJ, 1987. The weeds: description, ecology and control. Weeds of rice in Indonesia [edited by Soerjani, M.; Kostermans, A.J.G.H.; Tjitrosoepomo, G.] Jakarta, Indonesia; Balai Pustaka, 24-565

Lorenzi H, 1982. Weeds of Brazil, terrestrial and aquatic, parasitic, poisonous and medicinal. (Plantas daninhas de Brasil, terrestres, aquaticas, parasitas, toxicas e medicinais.) Nova Odessa, Brazil: H. Lorenzi, 425 pp.

MacKee HS, 1985. Les Plantes Introduites et Cultivees en Nouvelle-Caledonie. Volume hors series, Flore de la Nouvelle-Caledonie et Dependances. Paris, France: Museum Nationelle d'Histoire Naturelle.

Madrid MT; Punzalan FL; Lubigan RT, 1972. Some Common Weeds and their Control. Manila, Philippines, Weed Science Society of the Philippines.

Nalini AS; Prabhakar AS; Uppar DS, 1993. Weed flora of University of Agricultural Sciences campus Dharwad. Farming systems, 9(1-2):59-60.

Oladokum MAO, 1978. Nigerian weed species: intraspecific competition. Weed Science, 26(6):713-718

Oladokun MAO, 1977. Studies on four Nigerian weed species. 1. The effects of pH and organic matter leachate on germination. In: Proceedings of the Seventh Conference of the Weed Science Society of Nigeria, Department of Agronomy, Ibadan, Nigeria, 46-55.

Oladokun MAO, 1977. Studies on four Nigerian weed species. 2. Intraspecific competition. In: Proceedings of the Seventh Conference of the Weed Science Society of Nigeria, Department of Agronomy, Ibadan, Nigeria, 56-69.

Onesirosan PT; Arny DC; Durbin RD, 1974. Host specificity of Nigerian and North American isolates of Corynespora cassiicola. Phytopathology, 64(10):1364-1367.

Pancho JV; Vega MR; Plucknett DL, 1969. Some Common Weeds of the Philippines. Laguna, Philippines: Weed Science Society of the Philippines, University of the Philippines at Los Ba±os.

Parham JW, 1958. The Weeds of Fiji. Bulletin Fiji Department of Agriculture, 35. Suava, Fiji: Government Press.

Peng C-I; Kao M-T, 1984. Calyptocarpus vialis Less. (Asteraceae), a newly naturalized weed in Taiwan. Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica, Taiwan, 25(2):171-176.

PIER, 2013. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Puy DJ du; Telford IRH; Orchard AE, 1993. Asteraceae. In: Flora of Australia, Volume 50, Oceanic Islands 2. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Rajesh Chauhan; Raina R; Dharam Chand, 2014. Synedrella nodiflora (L.) Gaertn (Asteraceae): new record to the flora of Himachal Pradesh, India. Indian Forester, 140(7):726-727. http://indianforester.co.in

Sharma BM, 1990. Ecological characteristics of some common weeds of Ibadan (south-west Nigeria). Feddes Repertorium, 101(11-12):603-609

Sulochana KK; Wilson KI; Nair MC, 1982. Some new host records for Cylindrocladium quinqueseptatum from India. Agricultural Research Journal of Kerala, 20(2):106-108.

Swarbrick JT, 1997. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. Technical paper No. 209. Noumea, New Caledonia: South Pacific Commission.

Szafranski F; Bloszyk E; Drozdz B, 1991. Biological activity of some plant extracts from the Kisangani area, Zaire. Belgian Journal of Botany, 124(1):60-70.

Tasrif A; Sahid IB; Sastroutomo SS; Latiff A, 1991. Purity study of imported leguminous cover crops. Plant Protection Quarterly, 6(4):190-193.

Verboom WC; Fanshawe DB; Wild H; Neale K, 1973. Common weeds of arable lands in Zambia. Common weeds of arable lands in Zambia. Ministry of Rural Development, P.O. Box R.W. 291. Lusaka Zambia, 130pp.

Wang ZR, 1990. Farmland Weeds in China. Beijing, China: Agricultural Publishing House.

Whistler WA, 1983. Weed handbook of Western Polynesia. Schriftenreihe der Deutschen Gesellschaft fnr Technische Zusammenarbeit, 157 pp.

Distribution References

Adams CD, 1963. Compositae. In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, 2 (Second) [ed. by Hutchinson J, Dalziel JM, Hepper FN]. London, UK: Crown Agents.

Aranha C, Bacchi O, Filho H de FL, 1982. (Plantas Invasoras de Culturas)., 2 Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil: Instituto Campineiro de Ensino Agricola.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Fournet J, Hammerton J L, 1991. Mauvaises Herbes des Petites Antilles. Paris, France: Département d'Économie et Sociologie Rurales, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique. 214 pp.

Friere AS, Periera RC, Sacramento CV do, Silva-Friere A da, Kersul do Sacramento C, 1988. The effect of herbicides on guarana (Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke) seedlings and on the principal weeds occurring with the crop. In: Revista Theobroma, 18 67-81.

Hancock I R, Henderson C P, 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. In: Research Bulletin - Dodo Creek Research Station, Honiara, Solomon Islands: ii + 203 pp.

Henty E E, Pritchard G H, 1975. Weeds of New Guinea and their control. In: Weeds of New Guinea and their control. Lae, Papua New. Guinea: 180 pp.

Hnatiuk R J, 1990. Census of Australian vascular plants. In: Census of Australian vascular plants. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service (AGPS). xvi + 650 pp.

Holm L G, Pancho J V, Herberger J P, Plucknett D L, 1991. A geographic atlas of world weeds. Malabar, Florida, USA: Krieger Publishing Co. 391 pp.

Holm L, Doll J, Holm E, Pancho J, Herberger J, 1997. World weeds: natural histories and distribution. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons. xv + 1129 pp.

Kostermans A J G H, Wirjahardja S, Dekker R J, 1987. The weeds: description, ecology and control. In: Weeds of rice in Indonesia. [ed. by Soerjani M, Kostermans AJGH, Tjitrosoepomo G]. Jakarta, Indonesia: Balai Pustaka. 24-565.

Lorenzi H, 1982. Plantas daninhas de Brasil, terrestres, aquaticas, parasitas, toxicas e medicinais. Nova Odessa, Brazil: H. Lorenzi. 425 pp.

MacKee HS, 1985. (Les Plantes Introduites et Cultivees en Nouvelle-Caledonie. Volume hors series, Flore de la Nouvelle-Caledonie et Dependances)., Paris, France: Museum Nationelle d'Histoire Naturelle.

Madrid MT, Punzalan FL, Lubigan RT, 1972. Some Common Weeds and their Control., Manila, Philippines: Weed Science Society of the Philippines.

Nalini A S, Prabhakar A S, Uppar D S, 1993. Weed flora of University of Agricultural Sciences campus Dharwad. Farming systems. 9 (1-2), 59-60.

Pancho JV, Vega MR, Plucknett DL, 1969. Some Common Weeds of the Philippines., Laguna, Philippines: Weed Science Society of the Philippines, University of the Philippines at Los Baños.

Parham JW, 1958. The Weeds of Fiji. In: Bulletin Fiji Department of Agriculture, 35 Suava, Fiji: Government Press.

PIER, 2013. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Puy DJ du, Telford IRH, Orchard AE, 1993. Asteraceae. In: Flora of Australia, 50 Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service.

Rajesh Chauhan, Raina R, Dharam Chand, 2014. Synedrella nodiflora (L.) Gaertn (Asteraceae): new record to the flora of Himachal Pradesh, India. Indian Forester. 140 (7), 726-727. http://indianforester.co.in

Sharma B M, 1990. Ecological characteristics of some common weeds of Ibadan (south-west Nigeria). Feddes Repertorium. 101 (11-12), 603-609. DOI:10.1002/fedr.19901011108

Sulochana K K, Wilson K I, Nair M C, 1982. Some new host records for Cylindrocladium quinqueseptatum from India. Agricultural Research Journal of Kerala. 20 (2), 106-108.

Swarbrick JT, 1997. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. In: Technical paper No. 209, Noumea, New Caledonia, South Pacific Commission.

Szafranski F, Bloszyk E, Drozdz B, 1991. Biological activity of some plant extracts from the Kisangani area, Zaire. (Activité biologique des extraits de quelques plantes des environs de Kisangani (Zaire).). Belgian Journal of Botany. 124 (1), 60-70.

Tasrif A, Sahid I B, Sastroutomo S S, Latiff A, 1991. Purity study of imported leguminous cover crops. Plant Protection Quarterly. 6 (4), 190-193.

Whistler W A, 1983. Weed handbook of Western Polynesia. In: Schriftenreihe der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit, 149pp.

Distribution Maps

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