Synedrella nodiflora (synedrella)
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Biology and Ecology
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Uses List
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Synedrella nodiflora (L.) Gaertn. (1791)
Preferred Common Name
Other Scientific Names
- Verbesina nodiflora (L.)
International Common Names
- English: Cinderella weed (Australia)
- Spanish: cerbatana
Local Common Names
- Barbados: porter bush
- Brazil: barbatana; botao de ouro; vassourinha
- Colombia: cerbatana; flor amarilla; venturosa
- Cuba: cerbatana; espinillo
- Dominican Republic: selvatana
- Honduras: flor amarilla; guacara
- Indonesia: babadotan; barbadotan lalaki; beruan; glentang warwak; gletangan; jotang; jotang kuda; jotang lalaki; jotang tai embe; jukut gendring; jutuk berak kambing; krasuk; legatan; sarunen
- Japan: fushizakiso
- Malaysia: rumput babi
- Nigeria: awaro ona
- Papua New Guinea: pig grass
- Philippines: fantakuen; tuhod-manok
- Puerto Rico: cerbatana; sarbatana; scerbatana
- Samoa: lau'oti'oti; tae'oti
- Solomon Islands: knoli; pig grass
- Taiwan: fushizaki-so
- Thailand: phak-khral
- Tonga: pakaka
- Trinidad and Tobago: fatten barrow; porter bush
- USA/Hawaii: node weed
- Vietnam: bo xit
- SYDNO (Synedrella nodiflora)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Asterales
- Family: Asteraceae
- Genus: Synedrella
- Species: Synedrella nodiflora
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page The generic name Synedrella is a derivative of the Greek synedros (= placed together) and describes the crowding together of the small flowers, whilst the specific name nodiflora relates to the presence of the flower clusters around the nodes in the upper parts of the plant.
There are about 80 species within the genus; one other species is considered to be a minor weed.
Holm et al. (1997) report chromosome number (2n) = 40.
DescriptionTop of page S. nodiflora is an erect branched ephemeral herb usually 30-80 cm tall. The shallow root system is usually strongly branched.
The erect or ascending, sometimes woody stems, branch dichotomously from the base of the plant; they tend to have long internodes and swollen nodes, to be rounded or slightly angular in section, smooth, often finely hairy, and usually about 50 cm tall. The lower parts of the stems may root at the nodes, especially in damp conditions.
The leaves occur in opposite pairs and are 4-9 cm long, elliptic to ovate with three prominent veins and finely toothed margins, finely hairy with short petioles, and joined by a ridge across the stem.
The flowers occur in small crowded bunches of 2-8 inflorescences at nodes and tips throughout the upper third of the plant; each inflorescence consists of several erect bracts 3-5 mm long surrounding 5-6 marginal ray florets and 10-20 central disc florets, each 3-4 mm long with a yellow petal.
The dark brown to blackish (occasionally paler) seeds are dimorphic. Ray floret seeds are flattened, oblong, 3-5 mm long, with upwardly-pointing teeth along the paler marginal wing. Disc floret seeds are thickened, elongate, 3-4 mm long, with 2-4 stiff bristles at the apex. Both types of seed produce identical individuals, which in turn produce both types of seed.
The seedlings have epigeal germination. The hypocotyl is 8-19 mm long, often purplish, and hairless. The cotyledons are elliptic, 6-8 mm long, often reddish or purplish in colour and shortly stalked. The paired juvenile leaves are similar to the adult leaves but smaller.
DistributionTop of page S. nodiflora originated in tropical America from where it has spread throughout the warmer regions of the world. It is probably found in every tropical and subtropical country in situations which favour its growth.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Congo, Republic of the||Present||Holm et al. (1991); Szafranski et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)|
|Côte d'Ivoire||Present, Widespread||Holm et al. (1991)|
|Equatorial Guinea||Present||Adams (1963)|
|Gambia||Present||Holm et al. (1997)|
|Ghana||Present, Widespread||Holm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)|
|Guinea||Present||Holm et al. (1997)|
|Kenya||Present||Holm et al. (1997)|
|Mauritania||Present||Holm et al. (1997)|
|Nigeria||Present, Widespread||Sharma (1990); Holm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)|
|Senegal||Present||Holm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)|
|Sierra Leone||Present||Adams (1963)|
|Uganda||Present||Holm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)|
|Zambia||Present||Holm et al. (1997); CABI (Undated)|
|Cambodia||Present||Holm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)|
|China||Present||Holm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)|
|-Guangdong||Present||CABI (Undated)||Original citation: Wang, 1980|
|-Yunnan||Present||CABI (Undated)||Original citation: Wang, 1980|
|India||Present, Widespread||Holm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)|
|-Himachal Pradesh||Present||Rajesh Chauhan et al. (2014)|
|-Karnataka||Present||Nalini et al. (1993)|
|-Kerala||Present||Sulochana et al. (1982)|
|Indonesia||Present, Widespread||Kostermans et al. (1987); Holm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)|
|Laos||Present||Holm et al. (1997)|
|Malaysia||Present||Tasrif et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)|
|Philippines||Present, Widespread||Pancho et al. (1969); Madrid et al. (1972); Holm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)|
|Sri Lanka||Present||Holm et al. (1997)|
|Taiwan||Present, Widespread||Holm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)|
|Thailand||Present||Holm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)|
|Vietnam||Present||Holm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)|
|Costa Rica||Present||CABI (Undated)||Original citation: Anon (1997)|
|Cuba||Present||Holm et al. (1997)|
|Dominica||Present||Fournet and Hammerton (1991)|
|Dominican Republic||Present||Holm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)|
|El Salvador||Present||Holm et al. (1991)|
|Grenada||Present||Fournet and Hammerton (1991)|
|Guadeloupe||Present||Fournet and Hammerton (1991)|
|Honduras||Present, Widespread||Holm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)|
|Jamaica||Present, Widespread||Holm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)|
|Martinique||Present||Fournet and Hammerton (1991)|
|Mexico||Present||CABI (Undated)||Original citation: Anon (1997)|
|Montserrat||Present||Fournet and Hammerton (1991)|
|Puerto Rico||Present, Widespread||Holm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)|
|Saint Kitts and Nevis||Present||Fournet and Hammerton (1991)|
|Saint Lucia||Present||Fournet and Hammerton (1991)|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||Present||Fournet and Hammerton (1991)|
|Trinidad and Tobago||Present, Widespread||Holm et al. (1991)|
|United States||Present||Holm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)|
|-Hawaii||Present, Widespread||Holm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)|
|Australia||Present||CABI (Undated a)||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Northern Territory||Present||Hnatiuk (1990); Holm et al. (1997)|
|-Queensland||Present||Hnatiuk (1990); Holm et al. (1997)|
|-South Australia||Present||Hnatiuk (1990); Holm et al. (1997)|
|Christmas Island||Present||Puy et al. (1993)|
|Fiji||Present||Parham (1958); Holm et al. (1991)|
|French Polynesia||Present||Holm et al. (1997)|
|Guam||Present||Holm et al. (1997)|
|New Caledonia||Present||MacKee (1985); Holm et al. (1997)|
|Papua New Guinea||Present||Henty and Pritchard (1975); Holm et al. (1991)|
|Solomon Islands||Present||Hancock and Henderson (1988)|
|Tuvalu||Present||Invasive||Swarbrick (1997); PIER (2013)|
|Brazil||Present, Widespread||Aranha et al. (1982); Friere et al. (1988); Holm et al. (1997)|
|-Mato Grosso do Sul||Present||Lorenzi (1982)|
|-Minas Gerais||Present||Lorenzi (1982)|
|-Sao Paulo||Present||Lorenzi (1982)|
|Colombia||Present, Widespread||Holm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)|
|Ecuador||Present||Holm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)|
|Peru||Present, Widespread||Holm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)|
|Suriname||Present||Holm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)|
|Venezuela||Present||Holm et al. (1991); Holm et al. (1997)|
HabitatTop of page S. nodiflora grows in all disturbed tropical and subtropical habitats where there is sufficient soil moisture for its rapid germination, growth, flowering and seed set. It thrives where there is abundant soil and air moisture (but not soil saturation), grows in a very wide range of soils (although it is favoured by high organic content and good fertility), and, because of its very short life cycle, can tolerate most forms of cultivation. Whilst able to grow in full sunlight, this species prefers light or broken shade. It grows to altitudes of 1200 m in Indonesia.
Habitat ListTop of page
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page In addition to the crops listed S. nodiflora is also a common weed in a wide range of vegetable, plantation and orchard crops throughout the tropics as well as in pastures, nurseries, waste ground, roadsides, food gardens, lawns and all other disturbed sites and areas.
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Anacardium occidentale (cashew nut)||Anacardiaceae||Other|
|Ananas comosus (pineapple)||Bromeliaceae||Other|
|Arachis hypogaea (groundnut)||Fabaceae||Other|
|Camellia sinensis (tea)||Theaceae||Main|
|Cocos nucifera (coconut)||Arecaceae||Main|
|Cola acuminata (cola)||Sterculiaceae||Other|
|Colocasia esculenta (taro)||Araceae||Main|
|Corchorus olitorius (jute)||Tiliaceae||Other|
|Elaeis guineensis (African oil palm)||Arecaceae||Other|
|Hevea brasiliensis (rubber)||Euphorbiaceae||Other|
|Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle)||Malvaceae||Other|
|Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato)||Convolvulaceae||Other|
|Manihot esculenta (cassava)||Euphorbiaceae||Main|
|Musa textilis (manila hemp)||Musaceae||Other|
|Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)||Solanaceae||Other|
|Oryza sativa (rice)||Poaceae||Main|
|Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)||Solanaceae||Main|
|Sorghum bicolor (sorghum)||Poaceae||Main|
|Theobroma cacao (cocoa)||Malvaceae||Main|
|Vigna unguiculata (cowpea)||Fabaceae||Other|
|Zea mays (maize)||Poaceae||Main|
Biology and EcologyTop of page Under suitable conditions, S. nodiflora has a life cycle of a little over 100 days, allowing it to germinate, grow and reproduce very quickly, sometimes several times each year. Although it prefers moist lightly shaded areas, this species is very plastic, and can grow and reproduce under a wide range of tropical and subtropical conditions. It reproduces solely by seed, with single plants sometimes producing over 6000 seeds. Both ray and disc florets produce viable seeds; the disc floret seeds are dispersed first and are capable of immediate germination, whilst the ray floret seeds are released later and may be dormant for several months. The seeds are dispersed in soil, water and plant debris as well as on clothing, and possibly by the wind. Seeds from both parts of the inflorescence germinate in both continuous light and continuous darkness, and under a wide range of conditions. Buried seed may survive for up to a year at 15 cm depth. Soil under continuous maize in Belize has been found to contain 5700 viable seeds/m².
The detailed biology of S. nodiflora has been explored by Oladokun (1977a, b; 1978).
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page No natural enemies are known for S. nodiflora.
ImpactTop of page Holm et al. (1997) report that S. nodiflora is a weed of over 28 crops in 50 countries. In Holm et al. (1991) it is listed as a serious or principal weed in 7 countries. When dense stands occur, S. nodiflora may compete vigorously for light with low-growing crops such as vegetables. Dense stands may also raise the humidity around plants, encouraging fungal diseases. It is, however, very shallow rooted, and probably competes poorly for both soil moisture and nutrients. S. nodiflora is also an alternative host to root knot nematodes (Izquierdo et al., 1987). As it is palatable to stock it is less significant in pastures.
S. nodiflora is a common weed of gardens, lawns, parks and other disturbed places such as roadsides, rubbish dumps, around buildings and on wasteland.
The seeds have been found as contaminants of legume cover crop seeds (Tasrif et al., 1991).
This weed is an alternate host for Cylindrocladium quinqueseptatum [Calonectria quinqueseptata] in India (Sulochana et al., 1982), and for Corynespora cassiicola in Nigeria (Onesirosan et al., 1974).
UsesTop of page Young shoots can be eaten as a cooked vegetable, and the shoots are fed to pigs in Papua New Guinea. Crushed leaves have been used as a treatment for rheumatism, and when mixed with those of other plants to relieve stomach pains (Soerjani et al. 1987).
Uses ListTop of page
Animal feed, fodder, forage
- Fodder/animal feed
- Host of pest
Human food and beverage
- Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page Eleutheranthera ruderalis is a similar plant which is also a common weed throughout the tropics. It has a similar growth habit, leaves and flowers, but can be distinguished by its distinctly hairy stems and leaves, stalked (and often nodding) flower heads, and the existence of only one sort of seeds which lack either marginal or apical bristles and teeth.
Calyptocarpus vialis is sometimes confused with S. nodiflora. Whilst morphologically similar, it is smaller and is a weakly trailing and mat-forming perennial herb. It is also very widespread throughout the tropics and subtropics.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.Cultural Control
S. nodiflora is normally controlled by hand weeding or by cultivation, but this should be done before flowering. The tough stems tend to break off above the root, and the roots may be difficult to pull by hand. Seeds left in the soil usually ensure rapid reinfestation unless the area is deeply mulched.
There are no recorded chemical controls for S. nodiflora, although most non-selective pre-emergent residual, and post-emergent contact and translocated herbicides could be used for its control in suitable situations.
No work has been done on the biological control of S. nodiflora.
ReferencesTop of page
Adams CD, 1963. Compositae. In: Hutchinson J, Dalziel JM, Hepper FN, eds. Flora of West Tropical Africa, Volume 2, Second edition. London, UK: Crown Agents.
Anon., 1997. Estado de la Base de Datas. Sumario de la base do dates (BIMS) Colecion de Botanica Area de Conservacion de Tempique. World Wide Web page at macserv.inbio.ac.cr/Reportes/Botanica/Spp Tempique.
Aranha C; Bacchi O; Filho H de FL, 1982. Plantas Invasoras de Culturas. Vol. 2. Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil: Instituto Campineiro de Ensino Agricola.
Friere AS; Periera RC; Sacramento CV do; Silva-Friere A da; Kersul do Sacramento C, 1988. The effect of herbicides on guarana (Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke) seedlings and on the principal weeds occurring with the crop. Revista Theobroma, 18:67-81.
Hancock IR; Henderson CP, 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin No. 7. Honiara, Solomon Islands: Dodo Creek Research Station.
Hnatiuk RJ, 1990. Census of Australian Vascular Plants. Australian Flora and Fauna Series Number 11. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service.
Holm LG; Doll J; Holm E; Pancho JV; Herberger JP, 1997. World Weeds: Natural Histories and Distribution. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Kostermans AJGH; Wirjahardja S; Dekker RJ, 1987. The weeds: description, ecology and control. Weeds of rice in Indonesia [edited by Soerjani, M.; Kostermans, A.J.G.H.; Tjitrosoepomo, G.] Jakarta, Indonesia; Balai Pustaka, 24-565
Lorenzi H, 1982. Weeds of Brazil, terrestrial and aquatic, parasitic, poisonous and medicinal. (Plantas daninhas de Brasil, terrestres, aquaticas, parasitas, toxicas e medicinais.) Nova Odessa, Brazil: H. Lorenzi, 425 pp.
MacKee HS, 1985. Les Plantes Introduites et Cultivees en Nouvelle-Caledonie. Volume hors series, Flore de la Nouvelle-Caledonie et Dependances. Paris, France: Museum Nationelle d'Histoire Naturelle.
Madrid MT; Punzalan FL; Lubigan RT, 1972. Some Common Weeds and their Control. Manila, Philippines, Weed Science Society of the Philippines.
Oladokun MAO, 1977. Studies on four Nigerian weed species. 1. The effects of pH and organic matter leachate on germination. In: Proceedings of the Seventh Conference of the Weed Science Society of Nigeria, Department of Agronomy, Ibadan, Nigeria, 46-55.
Oladokun MAO, 1977. Studies on four Nigerian weed species. 2. Intraspecific competition. In: Proceedings of the Seventh Conference of the Weed Science Society of Nigeria, Department of Agronomy, Ibadan, Nigeria, 56-69.
Pancho JV; Vega MR; Plucknett DL, 1969. Some Common Weeds of the Philippines. Laguna, Philippines: Weed Science Society of the Philippines, University of the Philippines at Los Ba±os.
Parham JW, 1958. The Weeds of Fiji. Bulletin Fiji Department of Agriculture, 35. Suava, Fiji: Government Press.
PIER, 2013. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html
Puy DJ du; Telford IRH; Orchard AE, 1993. Asteraceae. In: Flora of Australia, Volume 50, Oceanic Islands 2. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service.
Rajesh Chauhan; Raina R; Dharam Chand, 2014. Synedrella nodiflora (L.) Gaertn (Asteraceae): new record to the flora of Himachal Pradesh, India. Indian Forester, 140(7):726-727. http://indianforester.co.in
Swarbrick JT, 1997. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. Technical paper No. 209. Noumea, New Caledonia: South Pacific Commission.
Wang ZR, 1990. Farmland Weeds in China. Beijing, China: Agricultural Publishing House.
Adams CD, 1963. Compositae. In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, 2 (Second) [ed. by Hutchinson J, Dalziel JM, Hepper FN]. London, UK: Crown Agents.
Aranha C, Bacchi O, Filho H de FL, 1982. (Plantas Invasoras de Culturas)., 2 Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil: Instituto Campineiro de Ensino Agricola.
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Friere AS, Periera RC, Sacramento CV do, Silva-Friere A da, Kersul do Sacramento C, 1988. The effect of herbicides on guarana (Paullinia cupana var. sorbilis (Mart.) Ducke) seedlings and on the principal weeds occurring with the crop. In: Revista Theobroma, 18 67-81.
Kostermans A J G H, Wirjahardja S, Dekker R J, 1987. The weeds: description, ecology and control. In: Weeds of rice in Indonesia. [ed. by Soerjani M, Kostermans AJGH, Tjitrosoepomo G]. Jakarta, Indonesia: Balai Pustaka. 24-565.
MacKee HS, 1985. (Les Plantes Introduites et Cultivees en Nouvelle-Caledonie. Volume hors series, Flore de la Nouvelle-Caledonie et Dependances)., Paris, France: Museum Nationelle d'Histoire Naturelle.
Madrid MT, Punzalan FL, Lubigan RT, 1972. Some Common Weeds and their Control., Manila, Philippines: Weed Science Society of the Philippines.
Pancho JV, Vega MR, Plucknett DL, 1969. Some Common Weeds of the Philippines., Laguna, Philippines: Weed Science Society of the Philippines, University of the Philippines at Los Baños.
Parham JW, 1958. The Weeds of Fiji. In: Bulletin Fiji Department of Agriculture, 35 Suava, Fiji: Government Press.
PIER, 2013. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html
Puy DJ du, Telford IRH, Orchard AE, 1993. Asteraceae. In: Flora of Australia, 50 Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service.
Rajesh Chauhan, Raina R, Dharam Chand, 2014. Synedrella nodiflora (L.) Gaertn (Asteraceae): new record to the flora of Himachal Pradesh, India. Indian Forester. 140 (7), 726-727. http://indianforester.co.in
Swarbrick JT, 1997. Weeds of the Pacific Islands. In: Technical paper No. 209, Noumea, New Caledonia, South Pacific Commission.
Szafranski F, Bloszyk E, Drozdz B, 1991. Biological activity of some plant extracts from the Kisangani area, Zaire. (Activité biologique des extraits de quelques plantes des environs de Kisangani (Zaire).). Belgian Journal of Botany. 124 (1), 60-70.
Distribution MapsTop of page
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