Invasive Species Compendium

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Syngonium podophyllum
(arrowhead vine)

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Syngonium podophyllum (arrowhead vine)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 15 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Natural Enemy
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Syngonium podophyllum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • arrowhead vine
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • S. podophyllum is a fast-growing vine listed as an environmental and agricultural weed in the Global Compendium of Weeds (...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Inflorescence of Syngonium podophyllum.  Note the presence of the “spathe” typical of plants in the Araceae familiy.
TitleInflorescence
CaptionInflorescence of Syngonium podophyllum. Note the presence of the “spathe” typical of plants in the Araceae familiy.
Copyright©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo
Inflorescence of Syngonium podophyllum.  Note the presence of the “spathe” typical of plants in the Araceae familiy.
InflorescenceInflorescence of Syngonium podophyllum. Note the presence of the “spathe” typical of plants in the Araceae familiy.©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo
Inflorescence of Syngonium podophyllum.  Note the presence of the “spathe” typical of plants in the Araceae familiy.
TitleInflorescence
CaptionInflorescence of Syngonium podophyllum. Note the presence of the “spathe” typical of plants in the Araceae familiy.
Copyright©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo
Inflorescence of Syngonium podophyllum.  Note the presence of the “spathe” typical of plants in the Araceae familiy.
InflorescenceInflorescence of Syngonium podophyllum. Note the presence of the “spathe” typical of plants in the Araceae familiy.©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Syngonium podophyllum Schott, 1851

Preferred Common Name

  • arrowhead vine

International Common Names

  • English: African evergreen; American evergreen; emerald jewel; five fingers; goosefoot; nephthytis
  • Spanish: malanga trepadora; pico de guara

Local Common Names

  • Costa Rica: garrobo
  • Dominican Republic: mano poderosa
  • Ecuador: singonio
  • Mexico: chapis; conté siete; plátano mono; singonio
  • Micronesia, Federated states of: selkesingketieu (Pohnpei)

EPPO code

  • SYNPO (Syngonium podophyllum)

Summary of Invasiveness

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S. podophyllum is a fast-growing vine listed as an environmental and agricultural weed in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012). It is becoming highly invasive in tropical and subtropical areas where it climbs from the forest floor into the forest canopy engulfing mature trees and shading-out native vegetation in the understory (Queensland Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, 2011; ISSG, 2012). S. podophyllum has established invasive populations in the United States (Florida and Hawaii), South Africa, Singapore, the West Indies (Cuba and Puerto Rico), and on several Pacific islands including American Samoa and Niue where infestations are having dramatic impacts on natural habitats (Space and Flynn, 2000; ISSG, 2012; PIER, 2012). In Florida, this species is listed as an invasive category I, considered to be altering native plant communities by displacing native species, changing community structures and ecological functions (Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2011). S. podophyllum is listed as a weed in Australia and it is quickly becoming more common and widespread in areas of Queensland and Western Australia (Queensland Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, 2011).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Arales
  •                         Family: Araceae
  •                             Genus: Syngonium
  •                                 Species: Syngonium podophyllum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Araceae is a family of monocotyledonous plants which comprises about 117 genera and 4095 species distributed mostly in tropical areas in the New World, but also in Australia, Africa, Madagascar, and north temperate regions (Stevens, 2012). The genus Syngonium includes about 33 species of epiphytes or semi-epiphytes native to the Neotropics, with a centre of diversity in Costa Rica and Panama, which together have a total of 16 species (Croat, 1981; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005). Croat (1981) divided the genus into four sections based on differences between juvenile (non-climbing), pre-adult, and adult phases of its foliage parts. S. podophyllum belongs to the section Syngonium, the largest and most variable section with widespread species. It is the most widespread and variable species in the genus, ranging from Mexico to the Guianas, Venezuela, and Bolivia (see distribution table for specific details; Croat, 1981).

Description

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S. podophyllum is a vine attaining up to 10 metres in length, climbing by means of adventitious roots produced at the nodes. Stems cylindrical, glaucous, 1-2 cm in diameter, producing milky latex when wounded. Juvenile plants with hastate leaves; adult plants with dimorphic leaves, the basal leaves hastate, the distal leaves digitate, with 3-11 leaflets, coriaceous, united or free at the base, the basal leaflets smaller and auriculate at the base, the middle leaflets 16-38 × 6-17 cm, obovate, elliptical, or lanceolate, with acuminate apex; petioles 15-60 cm long, almost cylindrical; inflorescences in groups of 4-11, ascendant; peduncles 8-9 cm long, slender; spathe ca. 10 cm long, convolute at the base to form a tube, the limb cream-coloured on the inner surface, green outside, concave, ephemeral; spadix whitish, sessile, cylindrical, with a constriction between the area of pistillate flowers and the staminate flowers. Fruit is a syncarp, ovoid, red, reddish orange, or yellow, 3-5.5 cm long (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005).

Plant Type

Top of page Perennial
Seed propagated
Vegetatively propagated
Vine / climber

Distribution

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S. podophyllum is native to Mexico, Central America and parts of South America. The species has been widely introduced as an ornamental in tropical and subtropical regions and currently it can be found in the United States (Florida and Hawaii), South Africa, Australia, Singapore, Malaysia, China, the West Indies, and on several islands in the Pacific (Govaerts, 2012; ISSG, 2012; PIER, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2013).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentIntroducedWu, 2001Cultivated an an ornamental
MalaysiaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2012Borneo
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2012
SingaporePresentIntroducedChong et al., 2010Potentially invasive

Africa

SeychellesPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2012
South AfricaPresentIntroduced Invasive Henderson, 2012

North America

MexicoPresentNativeCroat, 1981; Govaerts, 2012Campeche, Chiapas, Guerrero, Nayarit, Oaxaca, Puebla, San Luis Potosí, Tabasco, Tamaulipas, Veracruz, Yucatán
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroduced Invasive Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2011Invasive category I
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive Oppenheimer, 2004; Englberger, 2009; PIER, 2012

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
BahamasPresentIntroduced Invasive Govaerts, 2012; ISSG, 2013
BelizePresentNativeCroat, 1981; Govaerts, 2012
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012Virgin Gorda
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2012
Costa RicaPresentNativeCroat, 1981; Govaerts, 2012
CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive Gonzalez-Torres et al., 2012
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2012
El SalvadorPresentNativeCroat, 1981; Govaerts, 2012
GuatemalaPresentNativeCroat, 1981; Govaerts, 2012
HaitiPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2012
HondurasPresentNativeCroat, 1981; Govaerts, 2012
NicaraguaPresentNativeCroat, 1981; Govaerts, 2012
PanamaPresentNativeCroat, 1981; Govaerts, 2012
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced Invasive Croat, 1981; Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005Spreads rapidly
Saint LuciaLocalisedIntroduced Invasive Krauss et al., 2008; Graveson, 2012Uncommon, present in Millet and Roseau; risk in disturbed and burnt habitats
Trinidad and TobagoPresentNativeCroat, 1981; Govaerts, 2012
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced Not invasive St. John, St. Thomas

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BoliviaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2012Beni, La Paz, Pando, Santa Cruz
BrazilPresentNativeCroat, 1981; Englberger, 2009; Govaerts, 2012
ColombiaPresentNativeCroat, 1981; Govaerts, 2012Amazonas, Antioquia, Bolivar, Boyacá, Caldas, Cauca, Chocó, Meta, Putumayo
EcuadorPresentNativeCroat, 1981; Govaerts, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2013
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedCharles Darwin Foundation, 2008
French GuianaPresentNativeFunk et al., 2007; Govaerts, 2012
GuyanaPresentNativeFunk et al., 2007; Govaerts, 2012
PeruPresentNativeCroat, 1981; Govaerts, 2012Amazonas, Ayacucho, Huanuco, Junin, Loreto, San Martín
SurinamePresentNativeCroat, 1981; Govaerts, 2012Paramaribo
VenezuelaPresentNativeFunk et al., 2007; Govaerts, 2012Amazonas, Apure, Barinas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro, Merida, Tachira, Trujillo, Zulia

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroduced Invasive Space and Flynn, 2000; Englberger, 2009
AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-QueenslandPresentIntroduced Invasive Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroduced Invasive Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011
Cook IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2012Southern Cook Islands
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedEnglberger, 2009; Lorence and Wagner, 2013
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroduced Invasive Englberger, 2009; Herrera et al., 2010Invasive in Pohnpei. Also present in Kosrae
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedMacKee, 1994; Englberger, 2009
NiuePresentIntroduced Invasive Space et al., 2004; Englberger, 2009
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroducedHancock and Henderson, 1988; Englberger, 2009

History of Introduction and Spread

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S. podophyllum has been extensively introduced as an ornamental and houseplant in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. The year of introduction into different regions is very difficult to determine. In the West Indies, the species is commonly planted in gardens throughout the islands (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2005). At the Smithsonian Herbarium, the first record of this species for the Caribbean area comes from a collection made by E.P. Killip in Cuba in 1953. In Puerto Rico, the species was first collected in 1989 in Vega Baja, but recent collections show that it is spreading on this island (Smithsonian Herbarium Collection; Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005).

Chong et al. (2010) suggest from the absence of the species in earlier checklists for Singapore that naturalization in Singapore may have occurred only recently, perhaps in the early 1990s.

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of S. podophyllum is high. It is a fast growing vine that is widely planted as an ornamental in tropical and subtropical regions (ISSG, 2012; PIER, 2012). Even when it has been demonstrated that this species has the potential to become invasive (Possley, 2004; Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2011), it is still sold in the nursery and landscape trade around the world. Chong et al. (2010) strongly recommended in Singapore that growers should stop using the species as an ornamental plant due to its production of viable seeds and spontaneous spread.

Habitat

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S. podophyllum seems to be adapted to environmental conditions in both disturbed and undisturbed forests. It has escaped from gardens and cultivated areas and can now be found growing in shrublands, forest margins, disturbed sites, urban areas, abandoned land, agricultural land, wetlands, and roadsides in tropical and subtropical moist climates (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005; Chong et al., 2010; ISSG, 2012). The native habitat is in moist tropical forests of Central America (Chong et al., 2010).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Wetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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In Florida, S. podophyllum is invading habitats that are the home of two endangered fern species: Asplenium verecundum and Tectaria fimbriata (Possley, 2004). In Costa Rica, this species has been reported as a weed in banana plantations (Garita, 2003).

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number in S. podophyllum is 2n = 24 (Guha and Bhattacharya, 1987). 

Reproductive Biology

Although no pollinators have been reported in the literature for Syngonium species, Croat (1981) suggests that this genus may have the same type of pollination syndrome described for Philodendron, Dieffenbachia, and Xanthosoma, which are pollinated by large scarab beetles of the subfamilies Rutelinae and Dynastiniae.

Oppenheimer (2004) reported the discovery of a population in Hawaii that produced copious fruit, and the germination of 16 seedlings from 18 seeds collected from one of these fruits. 

Physiology and Phenology

In Puerto Rico, S. podophyllum has been collected in flower in February, July, and August, but there are no records of fruit production on this island (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005). In Australia, plants flower from January until late autumn, fruits mature during autumn-winter, seeds germinate in spring, and plants grow until summer (Queensland Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, 2011). 

Environmental Requirements

S. podophyllum grows in moist and shady conditions in tropical climates. This species grows in sandy and loam soils with a pH ranging from 5.5 to 6. Within its native range in Central America it is most frequent in lowland moist forests but also occurs in premontane wet forest. It ranges in elevations from sea level to 1000 m but is more abundant below 750 m and especially abundant between 100 and 500 (Croat, 1982; Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005; Queensland Department of Agriculture, Fisheries, and Forestry, 2011, ISSG, 2012; PIER, 2012).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • shallow

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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S. podophyllum spreads by seeds and vegetatively (Croat, 1981). It has been suggested that seeds may be dispersed by birds. However, in Singapore, it is suggested that the species may be dispersed by mammals (e.g. primates) instead of birds because the seeds are too large for dispersal by most birds in Singapore (Chong et al., 2010).

S. podophyllum can also spread vegetatively by stem segments and cuttings which are commonly dispersed in garden waste. In some areas outside its native distribution range (i.e., islands in the Pacific and West Indies), this species almost exclusively reproduces vegetatively in the wild and is propagated and spread by cuttings in cultivation. Stem segments can also be spread by mowers and flood waters (Space and Flynn, 2000; Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005; ISSG, 2012). In Queensland, it is spread by cultivation and the dumping of garden refuse: once established, it will take root wherever its stem touches the ground (Queensland Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, 2011).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Escape from confinement or garden escapeCommonly planted as an ornamental Yes Yes ISSG, 2012
Garden waste disposalCommonly planted as an ornamental, can be spread by vegetative fragments in garden waste Yes Yes ISSG, 2012
Internet salesPlants sold online Yes Yes
Nursery trade Yes Yes ISSG, 2012; PIER, 2012
Ornamental purposesPopular ornamental plant Yes Yes ISSG, 2012

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesFragments spread in garden waste and soil Yes Yes ISSG, 2012
Machinery and equipment Yes Yes ISSG, 2012
Soil, sand and gravelVegetative fragments spread in waste garden soil Yes Yes ISSG, 2012

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Environmental Impact

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S. podophyllum is a fast-growing invasive vine with the capability to impact both undisturbed and disturbed forests. S. podophyllum has escaped from cultivation into natural areas, where once established it grows forming dense colonies that engulf native vegetation, climbing from the floor of the forest to areas high into the canopies of mature trees and shading-out native vegetation in the understory (ISSG, 2012; PIER 2012). It has the potential to displace native species by changing plant community structures (Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2011; ISSG, 2012). The species can cause mild to severe poisoning if ingested, due to containing calcium oxalate crystals.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Host damage
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Causes allergic responses
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Competition - strangling
  • Poisoning
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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S. podophyllum is an ornamental vine that is cultivated in many tropical and subtropical countries. It is widely exported and still sold in the nursery and landscape trade despite being considered invasive in many countries (Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2011; ISSG, 2012; PIER, 2012).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity

General

  • Ornamental

Ornamental

  • Potted plant
  • Propagation material

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Different sections of the genus Syngonium are distinguished based on leaf morphology. S. podophyllum belongs to section Syngonium, where adult leaf laminas are markedly divided but the pre-adult climbing phase has simple, hastate or sagittate leaves. In contrast, species of Sections Oblongatum and Cordatum have simple leaf laminas all through the phases from juvenile to adult, while the last section Pinnatilobum has lobed leaf laminas for both the pre-adult climbing and the adult phases (Chong et al., 2010). Within the section Syngonium, S. podophyllum differs from Syngonium auritum by its ellipsoid spathe tube and ovoid fruiting spadix, while S. auritum has a longer, cylindroid spathe tube and an elongate or cylindroid fruiting spadix.

Prevention and Control

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Mechanical Control

Small infestations of S. podophyllum can be removed by hand pulling. Gloves should be worn when removing because the sap can be irritating to sensitive individuals. All plant segments must be removed from treated areas to achieve eradication because it may re-sprout from small root and plant fragments. Eradication of large infestations requires the use of special machinery (Space and Flynn, 2000; Queensland Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, 2011; ISSG, 2012; PIER, 2012).   

Chemical Control

Specific research on the use of herbicides to control S. podophyllum has not been undertaken to date (Queensland Department of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, 2011). For Queensland, use of the following herbicides is suggested based on registered controls for similar weeds:

  • glyphosate: 1 L/100 L water
  • triclopyr: 4 ml/1L water
  • 2,4-D: 4 ml/1 L water
  • fluroxypyr: 500 ml /100 L water
  • metsulfuron-methyl: 10g/100 L water

Follow-up treatments are recommended until control is completed (Queensland Department of Agriculture and Fisheries, 2011; PIER, 2012).

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 2005. Vines and climbing plants of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 51:483 pp.

Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2005. Monocots and Gymnosperms of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, volume 52:415 pp.

Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation, unpaginated.

Chong KY; Ang PT; Tan HTW, 2010. Identity and Spread of an Exotic Syngonium Species in Singapore. Nature in Singapore, 3:1-5. http://rmbr.nus.edu.sg/nis/bulletin2010/2010nis1-5.pdf

Croat TB, 1981. A revision of Syngonium (Araceae). Annals of the Missouri Botanical Garden, 68(4):565-651.

Englberger K, 2009. Invasive weeds of Pohnpei: A guide for identification and public awareness. Conservation Society of Pohnpei, 29 pp.

Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2011. Florida EPPC's 2011 Invasive Plant Species List. http://www.fleppc.org/list/11list.html

Funk V; Hollowell T; Berry P; Kelloff C; Alexander SN, 2007. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 584 pp.

Garita I, 2003. Important Weed Species in Crops and Countries. Data from 69 developing countries. FAO Weed Management Database. Important Weed Species in Crops and Countries. Data from 69 developing countries. FAO Weed Management Database. http://www.fao.org/agriculture/crops/core-themes/theme/biodiversity/weeds/db-countries/en/

González-Torres LR; Rankin R; Palmarola A (eds), 2012. Invasive plants in Cuba. (Plantas Invasoras en Cuba.) Bissea: Boletin sobre Conservacion de Plantad del Jardin Botanico Nacional, 6:1-140.

Govaerts R, 2012. World Checklist of Araceae. London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Graveson R, 2012. The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). http://www.saintlucianplants.com

Guha M; Bhattacharya GN, 1987. Chromosomes of four species of the genus Syngonium (Araceae). Proceedings of the Indian Science Congress Association, 74(3):198-199.

Hancock IR; Henderson CP, 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin - Dodo Creek Research Station, No. 7. Honiara, Solomon Islands ii + 203 pp.

Henderson L, 2012. Invasive Aroids. Sapia News. Newsletter of the Southern African plant invaders atlas, 23:1-5.

Herrera K; Lorence DH; Flynn T; Balick MJ, 2010. Checklist of the vascular plants of Pohnpei with local names and uses. Lawai, Hawaii, USA: National Tropical Botanical Garden, 146 pp.

ISSG, 2012. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Auckland, New Zealand: University of Auckland. http://www.issg.org/database

ISSG, 2013. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database/welcome/

Krauss U; Seier M; Stewart J, 2008. Mitigating the Threats of Invasive Alien Species in the Insular Caribbean. Report on Project Development Grant (PPG) Stakeholder Meeting, GFL-2328-2740-4995. Piarco, Trinidad and Tobago: GEF, UNEP, CABI Caribbean and Latin America, 43 pp.

Lorence DH; Wagner WL, 2013. Flora of the Marquesas Islands. National Tropical Botanical Garden and the Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/marquesasflora/

MacKee HS, 1994. Catalogue of introduced and cultivated plants in New Caledonia. (Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie.) Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, unpaginated.

Oppenheimer HL, 2004. New Hawaii plant records for 2004. Bishop Museum Occasional Papers, 88:10-15. [Records of the Hawaii Biological Survey for 2004-2005. Part 2: Notes.] http://hbs.bishopmuseum.org/pubs-online/pdf/op88.pdf

PIER, 2012. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., USA: Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry . http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Possley J, 2004. Exotic species threaten rare ferns in Miami-Dade County. Wildland Weeds, 7:12-15.

Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011. Special edition of Environmental Weeds of Australia for Biosecurity Queensland., Australia: The University of Queensland and Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries. http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/03030800-0b07-490a-8d04-0605030c0f01/media/Html/Index.htm

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Space JC; Flynn T, 2000. Observations on invasive plant species in American Samoa. USDA Forest Service, Honolulu, 51.

Space JC; Waterhouse BM; Newfield M; Bull C, 2004. Report to the Government of Niue and the United Nations Development Programme: Invasive plant species on Niue following Cyclone Heta. 80 pp. [UNDP NIU/98/G31 - Niue Enabling Activity.] http://www.hear.org/pier/reports/niue_report_2004.htm

Stevens PF, 2012. Angiosperm Phylogeny Website. http://www.mobot.org/MOBOT/research/APweb/

USDA-ARS, 2013. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

Wu T-L, 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin (revised), 1:384 pp.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Flora of the West Indieshttp://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/

Contributors

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12/07/13 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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