Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Strawberry crinkle virus
(crinkle disease of strawberry)

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Datasheet

Strawberry crinkle virus (crinkle disease of strawberry)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Strawberry crinkle virus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • crinkle disease of strawberry
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Group: "RNA viruses"
  •       Order: Mononegavirales
  •         Family: Rhabdoviridae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Flowers of Fragaria vesca var. semperflorans cv. Alpine: (a) petal streak symptoms; (b) normal.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionFlowers of Fragaria vesca var. semperflorans cv. Alpine: (a) petal streak symptoms; (b) normal.
CopyrightUSDA
Flowers of Fragaria vesca var. semperflorans cv. Alpine: (a) petal streak symptoms; (b) normal.
SymptomsFlowers of Fragaria vesca var. semperflorans cv. Alpine: (a) petal streak symptoms; (b) normal.USDA
(a) Strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis var. ananassa cv. Marshall) plants infected with Strawberry crinkle virus; (b)  Strawberry crinkle and Strawberry mild yellow edge viruses; (c) Strawberry crinkle, strawberry mild yellow edge and Strawberry mottle viruses.
TitleSymptoms
Caption(a) Strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis var. ananassa cv. Marshall) plants infected with Strawberry crinkle virus; (b) Strawberry crinkle and Strawberry mild yellow edge viruses; (c) Strawberry crinkle, strawberry mild yellow edge and Strawberry mottle viruses.
CopyrightUSDA
(a) Strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis var. ananassa cv. Marshall) plants infected with Strawberry crinkle virus; (b)  Strawberry crinkle and Strawberry mild yellow edge viruses; (c) Strawberry crinkle, strawberry mild yellow edge and Strawberry mottle viruses.
Symptoms(a) Strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis var. ananassa cv. Marshall) plants infected with Strawberry crinkle virus; (b) Strawberry crinkle and Strawberry mild yellow edge viruses; (c) Strawberry crinkle, strawberry mild yellow edge and Strawberry mottle viruses.USDA
Fragaria vesca var. semperflorans cv. Alpine showing early symptoms of epinasty and abaxially curled leaflets.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionFragaria vesca var. semperflorans cv. Alpine showing early symptoms of epinasty and abaxially curled leaflets.
CopyrightUSDA
Fragaria vesca var. semperflorans cv. Alpine showing early symptoms of epinasty and abaxially curled leaflets.
SymptomsFragaria vesca var. semperflorans cv. Alpine showing early symptoms of epinasty and abaxially curled leaflets.USDA
Chlorotic areas in leaflets of strawberry cv. Marshall.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionChlorotic areas in leaflets of strawberry cv. Marshall.
CopyrightUSDA
Chlorotic areas in leaflets of strawberry cv. Marshall.
SymptomsChlorotic areas in leaflets of strawberry cv. Marshall.USDA
Lesions in stolon tips and petiole segments of infected Fragaria vesca 'UC-1'.
TitleLesions
CaptionLesions in stolon tips and petiole segments of infected Fragaria vesca 'UC-1'.
CopyrightUSDA
Lesions in stolon tips and petiole segments of infected Fragaria vesca 'UC-1'.
LesionsLesions in stolon tips and petiole segments of infected Fragaria vesca 'UC-1'.USDA
Particles of Strawberry crinkle virus in cytoplasm of infected strawberry leaf parenchyma cell: note scale.
TitleParticles of Strawberry crinkle virus
CaptionParticles of Strawberry crinkle virus in cytoplasm of infected strawberry leaf parenchyma cell: note scale.
CopyrightR. Stace-Smith
Particles of Strawberry crinkle virus in cytoplasm of infected strawberry leaf parenchyma cell: note scale.
Particles of Strawberry crinkle virusParticles of Strawberry crinkle virus in cytoplasm of infected strawberry leaf parenchyma cell: note scale.R. Stace-Smith

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Strawberry crinkle virus

Preferred Common Name

  • crinkle disease of strawberry

Other Scientific Names

  • strawberry crinkle cytorhabdovirus
  • strawberry crinkle rhabdovirus
  • strawberry latent virus A
  • strawberry latent virus B

International Common Names

  • English: Strawberry latent virus, strains A and B; Strawberry lesion-A virus; Strawberry lesion-B virus; Strawberry vein chlorosis virus; Strawberry virus 3; Strawberry virus 4

English acronym

  • SCV

EPPO code

  • SCRV00 (Strawberry crinkle cytorhabdovirus)

Subspecies

  • strawberry latent A
  • strawberry latent A, (mild form)
  • strawberry latent B
  • strawberry lesion A
  • strawberry lesion B
  • strawberry vein chlorosis

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Virus
  •     Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Group: "RNA viruses"
  •             Order: Mononegavirales
  •                 Family: Rhabdoviridae
  •                     Genus: Cytorhabdovirus
  •                         Species: Strawberry crinkle virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

South AfricaPresent, Few occurrences

Asia

ChinaPresent, Widespread
-HebeiPresent
-HeilongjiangPresent
-HubeiPresent
-JiangxiPresent
-JilinPresent
-LiaoningPresent
-ShandongPresent
-ShanxiPresent
-ZhejiangPresent
IsraelAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
JapanPresent, Widespread
-HonshuPresent, Widespread
KazakhstanPresent
South KoreaPresent

Europe

AustriaAbsent
BelgiumPresent
BulgariaPresent, Widespread
CzechiaPresent, Few occurrences
CzechoslovakiaPresent
FrancePresent
GermanyPresent, Localized
ItalyPresent, Widespread
MoldovaPresent
NetherlandsPresent, Localized
PolandPresent, Few occurrences
SerbiaPresent
Serbia and MontenegroPresent
SlovakiaPresent
SloveniaAbsent
United KingdomPresent, Widespread
-EnglandPresent, Widespread
-ScotlandPresent, Widespread

North America

CanadaPresent, Localized
-British ColumbiaPresent
-OntarioPresent
-QuebecPresent
MexicoPresent
United StatesPresent, Localized
-CaliforniaPresent
-IndianaPresent
-MainePresent
-MarylandPresent
-MassachusettsPresent
-MichiganPresent
-MissouriPresent
-OhioPresent
-OregonPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent
-WashingtonPresent
-WisconsinPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, Localized
-New South WalesPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-TasmaniaPresent
-VictoriaPresent
FijiPresent
New ZealandPresent, Few occurrences

South America

ArgentinaPresent, Few occurrences
BrazilPresent, Localized
-Minas GeraisPresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ChilePresent

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Chaetosiphon fragaefoliiEFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH) (2014)Insect
Chaetosiphon jacobiInsect

References

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Autonell CR; Ratti C; Babini AR; Bianchi L; Pisi A; Vicchi V, 2006. .

Babini, A. R., Cieślińska, M., Karešová, R., Thompson, J. R., Cardoni, M., 2004. Occurrence and identification of strawberry viruses in five European countries. Acta Horticulturae, (No.656), 39-43. http://www.actahort.org

Babovic MV, 1976. Changes in the yield and quality of strawberry fruits infected by strawberry crinkle virus. In: Krczal H, ed. Acta Horticulturae, 25-28

Babovic MV, 1976. Investigation of strawberry virus diseases in Yugoslavia. In: Krczal H, ed. Acta Horticulturae, 19-23

Barritt BH; Loo HY, 1973. Effects of mottle, crinkle, and mild yellow-edge viruses on growth and yield of Hood and Northwest strawberries. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 53(3):605-607

Betti JA; Kitajima EW; Costa AS, 1973. Strawberry crinkle virus in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Fitopatologia (Lima), 8:2-3.

Betti JA; Kitajima EW; Costa AS; Santos AM, 1973. Four viruses in the ’Pelotas’ strawberry cultivation Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Fitopatologia (Lima), 8:3.

CABI/EPPO, 1998. Distribution maps of quarantine pests for Europe (edited by Smith IM, Charles LMF). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, xviii + 768 pp.

CABI/EPPO, 2004. Strawberry crinkle virus. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 936. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Chamberlain EE, 1954. Strawberry crinkle. In: Plant Virus Diseases in New Zealand. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin No.108.

Converse RH, 1987. Detection and elimination of virus and viruslike diseases in strawberry. In: Converse RH, ed. Virus Diseases of Small Fruits. Agricultural Handbook No. 631. Washington, D.C., USA: United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service; Government Printing Office, 4-7.

Converse RH; Schaper U, 1988. Irregular occurrence of rhabdoviruslike particles in tissues of Fragaria vesca plants infected with strawberry crinkle virus. Journal of Phytopathology, 123(4):289-296

Dolgikh VA; Vladimirova LA, 1980. Study of virus diseases of strawberry in the Alma Ata district. Vestnik Sel'skokhozyaistvennoi Nauki Kazakhstana, No.5:36-40

EFSA Panel on Plant Health (PLH), 2014. Scientific opinion on the risk to plant health posed by Strawberry crinkle virus to the EU territory with the identification and evaluation of risk reduction options. EFSA Journal, 12(4):3630. http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/doc/3630.pdf

Engelbrecht DJ, 1967. Studies of virus diseases of strawberries in Western Cape Province. II. The latent period of mild yellow edge and crinkle viruses in the vector Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (Ckll.). South African Journal of Agricultural Science, 10:575-582.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Frazier NW, 1953. A latent virus of Fragaria vesca. Plant Disease Reporter, 37:606-608.

Frazier NW, 1968. Transmission of strawberry crinkle virus by the dark strawberry aphid, Chaetosiphon jacobi. Phytopathology, 58:165-172.

Frazier NW, 1974. Six new strawberry indicator clones evaluated for the detection and diagnosis of twelve graft-transmissible diseases. Plant Disease Reporter, 58(1):28-31

Frazier NW; Posnette AF, 1958. Relationships of the strawberry viruses of England and California. Hilgardia, 27(17):455-513.

Frazier NW; Sylvester ES; Richardson J, 1987. Strawberry crinkle. In: Converse RH (ed.), Virus Diseases of Small Fruits. Agricultural Handbook No. 631. Washington, D.C., USA: United States Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research Service; Government Printing Office, 20-25.

Graichen K, 1982. Virus diseases of small fruits. Nachrichtenblatt für den Pflanzenschutz in der DDR, 36(11):224-226

Graichen K; Borck B; Kromat H, 1983. Spread and damage caused by strawberry viruses in the German Democratic Republic. Achiv für Gartenbau, 31(2):73-79.

Graichen K; Karl E; Katscharmasov V; Muller H; Borck B, 1980. Virus diseases of strawberry in the German Democratic Republic and control possibilities. Gartenbau, 27(3):VII-VIII

Greber RS, 1979. Virus diseases of Queensland strawberries and the epidemiological effects of the strawberry runner approval scheme. Queensland Journal of Agricultural and Animal Sciences, 36(1):93-103

Hokanson SC; Martin RR; Maas JL, 2000. First report of tobacco streak virus in strawberry in the Eastern United States. Plant Disease, 84(4):488; 2 ref.

Hunter BG; Richardson J; Dietzgen RG; Karu A; Sylvester ES; Jackson AO; Morris TJ, 1990. Purification and characterization of strawberry crinkle virus. Phytopathology, 80(3):282-287

IPPC, 2016. Finding of Strawberry crinkle virus (SCV) in Fragaria plants for planting, variety Fleurette, without symptoms. IPPC Official Pest Report, No. NLD-43/2. Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/

Jelkmann W; Lesemann DE; Casper R, 1988. Rhabdovirus-like particles in crinkle-diseased strawberries in Germany. Journal of Phytopathology, 121(2):143-149

Kacharmazov V; Khristov L, 1976. Studies on the causes of decreased viability of strawberry hybrids. 1. The appearance and spread of virus infection in breeding nurseries. Gradinarska i Lozarska Nauka, 13(6):42-49

Karl E; Graichen K, 1979. Occurrence and importance of strawberry aphid (Pentatrichopus fragpfolii (Cock.)) and strawberry virus disease in the GDR territory. Nachrichtenblatt fur den Pflanzenschutz in der DDR, 33(2):35-37

Karl E; Zamfirov T; Kacharmazov V, 1978. Observations on the occurrence of the strawberry aphid (Pentatrichopus fragpfolii (Cock.)) in various regions of the GDR. Archiv fur Phytopathologie und Pflanzenschutz, 14(5):333-335

Kondakova V, 1995. Biological and economic evaluation of strawberry plants recovered by tissue culture method. Rasteniev"dni Nauki, 32(4):55-57; 6 ref.

Kondakova V; Schuster G, 1991. Elimination of strawberry mottle virus and strawberry crinkle virus from isolated apices of three strawberry varieties by the addition of 2, 4-dioxohexahydro-1,3,5-triazine (5-azadihydrouracil) to the nutrient medium. Journal of Phytopathology, 132(1):84-86

Krczal H, 1979. Yellow edge and crinkle, two strawberry virus diseases new for the German Federal Republic. Mitteilungen aus der Biologischen Bundesanstalt fur Land- und Forstwirtschaft Berlin-Dahlem, No. 191:202-203

Krczal H, 1980. Transmission of the strawberry mild yellow edge and strawberry crinkle virus by the strawberry aphid Chptosiphon fragpfolii. Acta Horticulturae, No. 95:23-30

Krczal H, 1980. Transmission of the strawberry mild yellow edge and strawberry crinkle virus by the strawberry aphid Chptosiphon fragpfolii. Acta Phytopathologica, 15(1/4):97-102

Krczal H; Merbecks H, 1988. The effect of temperature on the lifespan of the strawberry aphid, Chptosiphon (Pentatrichopus) fragpfolii (Homoptera: Aphididae), and on the latent period of strawberry crinkle virus in the vector. Entomologia Generalis, 13(3-4):221-227

Martin LW; Converse RH, 1977. Influence of recent and chronic virus infections on strawberry growth and yield. Phytopathology, 67(5):573-575

Martin RR, 2001. Appendix 1. Recommended procedures for detection of viruses of small fruit crops. Acta Horticulturae, 551:113-123.

Martin RR; Heflebower RF; Hokanson SC; Maas JL; Rouse R, 2001. Survey of strawberry viruses occurring in commercial plantings in the State of Maryland, USA. Acta Horticulturae, No.551:71-74; 15 ref.

Martin RR; Tzanetakis IE, 2006. Characterization and recent advances in detection of strawberry viruses. Plant Disease, 90(4):384-396.

Mellor FC; Fitzpatrick RE, 1961. Strawberry viruses. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 41:218-255.

Mellor FC; Forbes AR, 1960. Studies of virus diseases of strawberries in British Columbia. III. Transmission of strawberry viruses by aphids. Canadian Journal of Botany, 38:343-352.

Miller PW; Belkengren RO, 1962. Obtaining virus-free strawberries by excision and culturing of apical meristems of plants infected with the yellow edge, crinkle,and veinbanding viruses and certain other complexes. Phytopathology, 52:743-744.

Mumford RA; Skelton AL; Boonham N; Posthuma KI; Kirby MJ; Adams AN, 2004. . http://www.actahort.org

Paulechova K; Maliarcikova V, 1988. Occurrence and identification of strawberry crinkle virus. Sbornik UVTIZ, Ochrana Rostlin, 24(2):81-86

Perotto MC; Luciani C; Celli MG; Torrico A; Conci VC, 2014. First report of Strawberry crinkle virus in Argentina. New Disease Reports, 30:5. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=030005

Pisi A, 1986. Epidemiology of virus infection in Central California coastal strawberry fields. Rivista della Ortoflorofrutticoltura, 70(1):1-11

Posnette AF, 1953. Heat inactivation of strawberry viruses. Nature (London), 171:312-313.

Posnette AF; Cropley R, 1958. Heat treatment for the inactivation of strawberry viruses. Journal of Horticultural Science, 33:282-288.

Posthuma KI; Adams AN; Hong Y; Kirby MJ, 2002. Detection of Strawberry crinkle virus in plants and aphids by RT-PCR using conserved L gene sequences. Plant Pathology, 51(3):266-274; 32 ref.

Posthuma KI; Hong YG; Adams AN, 2001. Molecular detection of Strawberry crinkle virus. Acta Horticulturae, No.551:75-79; 8 ref.

Prentice IW, 1949. Resolution of strawberry virus complexes. III. The isolation and some properties of virus 3. Annals of Applied Biology, 36:18-25.

Prentice IW; Woolcombe TM, 1951. Resolution of strawberry virus complexes. IV. The latent period of virus 3 in the vector. Annals of Applied Biology, 38:389-394.

Richardson J; Frazier NW; Sylvester ES, 1972. Rhabdoviruslike particles associated with strawberry crinkle virus. Phytopathology, 62(4):491-492

Schoen CD; Leone G, 1995. Towards molecular detection methods for aphid-borne strawberry viruses. Acta Horticulturae, No. 385:55-63; 17 ref.

Schoen CD; Limpens W; Moller I; Groeneveld L; Klerks MM; Lindner JL, 2004. . http://www.actahort.org

Shanks CH Jr; Barritt BH, 1974. Fragaria chiloensis clones resistant to the strawberry aphid. HortScience, 9(3):202-203

Silva-Rosales, L., Vázquez-Sánchez, M. N., Gallegos, V., Ortiz-Castellanos, M. L., Rivera-Bustamante, R., Dávalos-González, P. A., Jofre-Garfias, A. E., 2013. First report of Fragaria chiloensis cryptic virus, Fragaria chiloensis latent virus, Strawberry mild yellow edge virus, Strawberry necrotic shock virus, and Strawberry pallidosis associated virus in single and mixed infections in strawberry in central Mexico. Plant Disease, 97(7), 1002. doi: 10.1094/PDIS-11-12-1103-PDN

Sobczykiewicz D, 1980. Heat treatment and meristem culture for the production of virus-free strawberry plants. Acta Horticulturae, 79-82

Stoyanov S; Kachurmazov V, 1977. Studies on the recovery of strawberry plants from virus diseases. II. The effect of recovery on yield. Gradinarska i Lozarska Nauka, 14(8):26-33

Sylvester ES; Richardson J, 1981. Inoculation of the aphids Hyperomyzus lactucp and Chptosiphon jacobi with isolates of sowthistle yellow vein virus and strawberry crinkle virus. Phytopathology, 71(6):598-602

Sylvester ES; Richardson J, 1986. Consecutive serial passage of strawberry crinkle virus in Myzus ornatus by injection and its occasional transmission to Fragaria vesca. Phytopathology, 76(11):1161-1164

Sylvester ES; Richardson J; Frazier NW, 1974. Serial passage of strawberry crinkle virus in the aphid Chaetosiphon jacobi. Virology, 59(1):301-306

Sylvester ES; Richardson J; Stenger DC, 1987. Use of injected Macrosiphum euphorbip aphids as surrogate vectors for transfer of strawberry crinkle virus to Nicotiana species. Plant Disease, 71(11):972-975

Takai T, 1973. Studies on strawberry virus diseases in Japan. Bulletin of the Horticultural Research Station, C (Morioka), No. 8:59-104

Telez D; Trejo A, 1989. Strawberry virus diseases in Mexico. Revista Mexicana de Fitopatologia, 7:38-40.

Thompson JR; Wetzel S; Jelkmann W, 2004. . http://www.actahort.org

Thompson JR; Wetzel S; Klerks MM; Vašková D; Schoen CD; Špak J; Jelkmann W, 2003. Multiplex RT-PCR detection of four aphid-borne strawberry viruses in Fragaria spp. in combination with a plant mRNA specific internal control. Journal of Virological Methods, 111(2):85-93.

Tzanetakis, I. E., Martin, R. R., 2014. Incidence of major strawberry viruses in North America. Acta Horticulturae, (No.1049), 595-598. http://www.actahort.org/books/1049/1049_92.htm

Vaughan EK, 1933. Transmission of the 'crinkle' disease of strawberry. Phytopathology, 23:738-740.

Walker PJ; Benmansour A; Dietzgen R; Fang R-X; Jackson AO; Kurath G; Leong JC; Nadin-Davies S; Tesh RB; Tordo N, 2000. Family Rhabdoviridae. In: van Regenmortel MHV, Fauquet CM, Bishop DHL, Carstens EB, Estes MK, Lemon SM, Maniloff J, Mayo MA, McGeoch DJ, Pringle CR, Wickner RB, eds. Virus Taxonomy, Seventh Report of the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses. San Diego, USA: Academic Press.

Wood GA, 1998. Virus & virus-like diseases & non-infectious disorders of small fruits in New Zealand. Virus & virus-like diseases & non-infectious disorders of small fruits in New Zealand., x + 86 pp.; [The Royal Society of New Zealand Bulletin 33.].

Woodhead CE; Chamberlain EE, 1940. Report on a survey of small-fruit culture in New Zealand, November-December 1939. Diseases and Pests; The Orchardist of New Zealand, 13:139-141.

Yoshikawa N; Inouye T; Converse RH, 1986. Two types of rhabdovirus in strawberry. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 52(3):437-444

Zamfirov Ts, 1973. The white strawberry leaf aphid and the production of strawberry seedlings free from virus. Rastitelna Zashchita, 21(12):26-29

Zamfirov Ts, 1978. The spread of virus infections on strawberry transmitted by Pentatrichopus fragpfolii Cock. in strawberry plantings. Gradinarska i Lozarska Nauka, 15(3/4):30-36

Zeller SM; Vaughan EK, 1932. Crinkle disease of strawberry. Phytopathology, 22:709-713.

Distribution References

Babini A R, Cieślińska M, Karešová R, Thompson J R, Cardoni M, 2004. Occurrence and identification of strawberry viruses in five European countries. Acta Horticulturae. 39-43. http://www.actahort.org

Babovic M V, 1976. Investigation of strawberry virus diseases in Yugoslavia. Acta Horticulturae. 19-23.

Babovic M V, 1976a. Changes in the yield and quality of strawberry fruits infected by strawberry crinkle virus. Acta Horticulturae. 25-28.

Betti JA, Kitajima EW, Costa AS, 1973a. Strawberry crinkle virus in Sao Paulo, Brazil. In: Fitopatologia (Lima), 8 2-3.

Betti JA, Kitajima EW, Costa AS, Santos AM, 1973. Four viruses in the 'Pelotas' strawberry cultivation Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. In: Fitopatologia (Lima), 8 3.

CABI, EPPO, 2004. Strawberry crinkle virus. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 936. DOI:10.1079/DMPD/20066500936

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chamberlain E E, 1954. New Zealand Department of Scientific and Industrial Research Bulletin,

Converse R H, Schaper U, 1988. Irregular occurrence of rhabdoviruslike particles in tissues of Fragaria vesca plants infected with strawberry crinkle virus. Journal of Phytopathology. 123 (4), 289-296. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0434.1988.tb04480.x

Dolgikh V A, Vladimirova L A, 1980. Study of virus diseases of strawberry in the Alma Ata district. (Izuchenie virusnykh boleznei zemlyaniki v Alma-Atinskoi oblasti.). Vestnik Sel'skokhozyaistvennoi Nauki Kazakhstana. 36-40.

Engelbrecht DJ, 1967. Studies of virus diseases of strawberries in Western Cape Province. II. The latent period of mild yellow edge and crinkle viruses in the vector Chaetosiphon fragaefolii (Ckll.). In: South African Journal of Agricultural Science, 10 575-582.

EPPO, 2021. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

FRAZIER N W, 1953. A latent virus of Fragaria vesca. Plant Disease Reporter. 37 (12), 606-608 pp.

Frazier N W, 1974. Six new strawberry indicator clones evaluated for the detection and diagnosis of twelve graft-transmissible diseases. Plant Disease Reporter. 58 (1), 28-31.

Graichen K, 1982. Virus diseases of small fruits. (Viruskrankheiten des Beerenobstes.). Nachrichtenblatt fur den Pflanzenschutz in der DDR. 36 (11), 224-226.

Graichen K, Karl E, Katscharmasov V, Muller H, Borck B, 1980. Virus diseases of strawberry in the German Democratic Republic and control possibilities. (Viruskrankheiten der Erdbeere in der DDR und Moglichkeiten ihrer Bekampfung.). Gartenbau. 27 (3), VII-VIII.

Greber R S, 1979. Virus diseases of Queensland strawberries and the epidemiological effects of the strawberry runner approval scheme. Queensland Journal of Agricultural and Animal Sciences. 36 (1), 93-103.

Hokanson S C, Martin R R, Maas J L, 2000. First report of tobacco streak virus in strawberry in the Eastern United States. Plant Disease. 84 (4), 488. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2000.84.4.488A

IPPC, 2016. Finding of Strawberry crinkle virus (SCV) in Fragaria plants for planting, variety Fleurette, without symptoms. In: IPPC Official Pest Report, No. NLD-43/2, Rome, Italy: FAO. https://www.ippc.int/

Jelkmann W, Lesemann D E, Casper R, 1988. Rhabdovirus-like particles in crinkle-diseased strawberries in Germany. Journal of Phytopathology. 121 (2), 143-149. DOI:10.1111/j.1439-0434.1988.tb00965.x

Karl E, Graichen K, 1979. Occurrence and importance of strawberry aphid (Pentatrichopus fragaefolii (Cock.)) and strawberry virus disease in the GDR territory. (Auftreten und Bedeutung der Erdbeerknotenhaarlaus(Pentatrichopus fragaefolii (Cock.)) und der Erdbeer-virosen in Gebeit der DDR.). Nachrichtenblatt fur den Pflanzenschutz in der DDR. 33 (2), 35-37.

Kondakova V, 1995. Biological and economic evaluation of strawberry plants recovered by tissue culture method. Rasteniev"dni Nauki. 32 (4), 55-57.

Krczal H, 1979. Yellow edge and crinkle, two strawberry virus diseases new for the German Federal Republic. (Die Blattrandvergilbung und die Krauselkrankheit, zwei fur die Bundesrepublik Deutschland neue Viruskrankheiten der Erdbeere.). Mitteilungen aus der Biologischen Bundesanstalt fur Land- und Forstwirtschaft Berlin-Dahlem. 202-203.

Krczal H, 1980. Transmission of the strawberry mild yellow edge and strawberry crinkle virus by the strawberry aphid Chaetosiphon fragaefolii. Acta Horticulturae. 23-30.

Martin L W, Converse R H, 1977. Influence of recent and chronic virus infections on strawberry growth and yield. Phytopathology. 67 (5), 573-575. DOI:10.1094/Phyto-67-573

Martin R R, Heflebower R F, Hokanson S C, Maas J L, Rouse R, 2001. Survey of strawberry viruses occurring in commercial plantings in the State of Maryland, USA. Acta Horticulturae. 71-74.

MELLOR F C, FITZPATRICK R E, 1961. Strawberry viruses. Canadian Plant Disease Survey. 218-55.

Mellor FC, Forbes AR, 1960. Studies of virus diseases of strawberries in British Columbia. III. Transmission of strawberry viruses by aphids. In: Canadian Journal of Botany, 38 343-352.

NPPO of the Netherlands, 2013. Pest status of harmful organisms in the Netherlands., Wageningen, Netherlands:

Paulechová K, Maliarčíková V, 1988. Occurrence and identification of strawberry crinkle virus. (Výskyt a identifikácia vírusu kučeravosti jahody.). Sborník ÚVTIZ, Ochrana Rostlin. 24 (2), 81-86.

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