Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Stellaria media
(common chickweed)

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Datasheet

Stellaria media (common chickweed)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 15 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Stellaria media
  • Preferred Common Name
  • common chickweed
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleFlowering plant
Caption
Copyright©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Flowering plant©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
Stellaria media.
TitleWhole plant - colour illustration
CaptionStellaria media.
CopyrightNOVARTIS
Stellaria media.
Whole plant - colour illustrationStellaria media.NOVARTIS

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Stellaria media (L.) Vill. 1753

Preferred Common Name

  • common chickweed

Other Scientific Names

  • Alsine media L.

International Common Names

  • English: chickweed; satin flower (USA); starwort (USA)
  • Spanish: berillo; bocado de gallina; borrisol; capiqui; hierba gallina; hierba pajarera; morrons; pamplina; revola; yerba gallinera
  • French: morgéline; mouron des oiseaux; stellaire intermediaire
  • Portuguese: morugem; morugem-branca; morugem-vulgar

Local Common Names

  • Argentina: caapiqui; ojo de gringo; pajarera; yerba de canarios; yerba de los caminos; yerba del pajarero
  • Brazil: meragem-branca
  • Chile: quilloi quilloi
  • Denmark: fugelgras
  • Finland: pihatahtimb
  • Germany: Hühnerdarm; Mäusedarm; Vogelmiere; Vogel-Miere; Vogel-Sternmiere
  • Iraq: kazazah
  • Italy: centocchio; paperina comune
  • Japan: hakobe; kohakobe
  • Netherlands: Muur; Vogelmuur
  • Norway: vassarv
  • South Africa: gewone sterremur
  • Sweden: vaatarv; våtarv
  • Turkey: serce dili
  • Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro): misjakinja

EPPO code

  • STEME (Stellaria media)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Caryophyllales
  •                         Family: Caryophyllaceae
  •                             Genus: Stellaria
  •                                 Species: Stellaria media

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page Stellaria media is the universally accepted name for this common and widespread weedy species. Chater and Heywood (1972) list three subspecies; media, postii and cupaniana, although other authorities consider that subsp. postii (Sinha, 1965) and subsp. cupaniana (Sinha, 1965; Scholte, 1978) should be included in S. neglecta. S. media exhibits a high degree of genotypic variation and chromosome numbers of 2n = 24, 28, 36, 38, 40, 42 and 44 have been reported from various parts of the world. 40, 42 and 44 are the most commonly reported numbers (Fedorov, 1969).

Description

Top of page S. media is a weakly tufted herb; roots fibrous, shallow, the plant sometimes taking root at the prominent joints; stems much branched, erect or ascending from a creeping base, rather weak, minutely pubescent in longitudinal lines bearing a single row of hairs on alternating sides of successive nodes, 20 to 80 cm long; leaves, opposite, simple, very variable in size in different plants, smooth, or fringed with hairs near the base, ovate-elliptic, acute or shortly acuminate, 6 to 30 mm long, 3 to 15 mm wide; petiole of lower leaves 5 to 20 mm long and having a line of hairs, petioles of the highest leaf often very short or sessile; flowers solitary or in few-flowered, terminal, leafy cymes, white; pedicels nearly capillary, ascending, reflexed or recurved, frequently pubescent; sepals five, lanceolate-oblong, 3.5 to 6 mm long, blunt to acute, usually with long soft hairs; petals five, deeply cleft, white, small, shorter than sepals, two-parted or absent; stamens three to five, rarely more; single pistil with three or four styles; fruit a many seeded dry capsule, ovoid, usually a little longer than the sepals, opening by six teeth, breaking into five segments at maturity; seeds dark brown, yellowish or dull reddish-brown, nearly circular, slightly elongated toward the notch at the scar, about 1 mm across, the surface covered with conspicuous curved rows of irregular wart-like projections, marginal projections are more prominent and toothed in appearance.

The seedling is a light, bright green and the cotyledons have prominent mid-veins. The petiole of the cotyledon is almost as long as the lamina, and has a few fine hairs at the base. Older seedlings have a characteristic single line of hairs along the stem.

Distribution

Top of page S. media is native to Europe, but has been spread through man's activities throughout the world, and is now one of the most widespread weeds in the world (Holm et al., 1977). It occurs throughout Europe, except for the extreme north of Scandinavia and Russia (Sobey, 1981). It extends from the tropical regions of Africa, South America and Asia (Good, 1974) to the Arctic (Polunin, 1954) and sub-Antarctic islands (Walton, 1975). In the UK, it ranges in altitude from sea-level to 950 m, in Europe it reaches 2470 m and in the Himalayas to 4408 m. In the tropics, it is usually only found at higher altitudes, for example, in Colombia, it is one of the most aggressive weeds at 2600 m and grows to the same altitude in Java, Indonesia.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentHolm et al., 1991
BhutanPresentParker, 1992
ChinaWidespreadHolm et al., 1977; Wang, 1990; Holm et al., 1991
-Hong KongPresentHolm et al., 1991
IndiaPresentHolm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991
IndonesiaPresentHolm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991
IranPresentHolm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991
IraqPresentHolm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991
IsraelPresentHolm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991
JapanWidespreadNumata and Yoshikawa, 1975; Holm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991
Korea, Republic ofPresentHolm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991
LebanonPresentEdgecombe, 1970
PakistanPresentHolm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991
TurkeyPresentHolm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991

Africa

BotswanaPresentWells et al., 1986
CameroonPresentHutchinson et al., 1954
Cape VerdePresentDiniz, 1995
EgyptPresentTackholm, 1974
Equatorial GuineaPresentHutchinson et al., 1954
EthiopiaWidespreadHolm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991
KenyaPresentHolm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991
LesothoPresentWells et al., 1986
MaliPresentHutchinson et al., 1954
MauritiusPresentHolm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991
NamibiaPresentWells et al., 1986
South AfricaPresentHolm et al., 1977; Wells et al., 1986; Holm et al., 1991
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentChater and Heywood, 1972
TanzaniaWidespreadHolm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991
TunisiaWidespreadHolm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991
ZimbabwePresentWild, 1961

North America

CanadaPresentHolm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991
MexicoPresentHolm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991
USAWidespreadHolm et al., 1977; Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987; Holm et al., 1991
-AlaskaWidespreadHolm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991
-HawaiiPresentHolm et al., 1991

South America

ArgentinaPresentHolm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991
BrazilWidespreadHolm et al., 1977; Lorenzi, 1982; Holm et al., 1991
-BahiaPresentLorenzi, 1982
-Espirito SantoPresentLorenzi, 1982
-GoiasPresentLorenzi, 1982
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentLorenzi, 1982
-Minas GeraisPresentLorenzi, 1982
-ParanaPresentLorenzi, 1982
-Rio de JaneiroPresentLorenzi, 1982
-Rio Grande do SulPresentLorenzi, 1982
-Santa CatarinaPresentLorenzi, 1982
-Sao PauloPresentLorenzi, 1982
ChileWidespreadHolm et al., 1991
ColombiaPresentHolm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991
UruguayPresentHolm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991

Europe

AlbaniaPresentChater and Heywood, 1972
AustriaPresentChater and Heywood, 1972; Neururer, 1990
BelgiumWidespreadChater and Heywood, 1972; Holm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991
BulgariaPresentChater and Heywood, 1972; Holm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991
CroatiaPresentChater and Heywood, 1972
Czech RepublicPresentChater and Heywood, 1972
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentChater and Heywood, 1972; Holm et al., 1991
DenmarkPresentChater and Heywood, 1972; Holm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991
EstoniaPresentChater and Heywood, 1972
FinlandWidespreadChater and Heywood, 1972; Holm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991
FrancePresentChater and Heywood, 1972; Holm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991
-CorsicaPresentChater and Heywood, 1972
GermanyPresentChater and Heywood, 1972; Holm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991
GreeceWidespreadChater and Heywood, 1972; Holm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991
HungaryPresentChater and Heywood, 1972; Holm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991
IcelandPresentHolm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991
IrelandWidespreadChater and Heywood, 1972; Holm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991
ItalyPresentChater and Heywood, 1972; Holm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991
LatviaPresentChater and Heywood, 1972
LithuaniaPresentChater and Heywood, 1972
MacedoniaPresentChater and Heywood, 1972
NetherlandsPresentChater and Heywood, 1972; Bouma et al., 1996
NorwayWidespreadChater and Heywood, 1972; Holm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991
PolandPresentChater and Heywood, 1972; Holm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991
PortugalPresentChater and Heywood, 1972; Holm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991
-AzoresPresentChater and Heywood, 1972
RomaniaPresentChater and Heywood, 1972; Slonovschi et al., 1987
Russian FederationWidespreadHolm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991
SpainPresentChater and Heywood, 1972; Holm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991
-Balearic IslandsPresentChater and Heywood, 1972
SwedenWidespreadChater and Heywood, 1972; Holm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991
SwitzerlandPresentChater and Heywood, 1972; Weiss and Nentwig, 1992
UKWidespreadChater and Heywood, 1972; Holm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991
UkrainePresentChater and Heywood, 1972; Petunova, 1995
Yugoslavia (former)PresentChater and Heywood, 1972; Holm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991

Oceania

AustraliaWidespreadHolm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991; Lazarides et al., 1997
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentLazarides et al., 1997
-New South WalesPresentLazarides et al., 1997
-QueenslandPresentHolm et al., 1977; Lazarides et al., 1997
-South AustraliaPresentHolm et al., 1977; Lazarides et al., 1997
-TasmaniaWidespreadHolm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991; Lazarides et al., 1997
-VictoriaPresentHolm et al., 1977; Lazarides et al., 1997
-Western AustraliaPresentHolm et al., 1977; Lazarides et al., 1997
New ZealandWidespreadHolm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991
Papua New GuineaPresentHolm et al., 1977; Holm et al., 1991

Habitat

Top of page S. media is found in cultivated fields, pastures, gardens, shady lawns, roadsides and wasteland. It is most successful in cool, moist and moderately shaded environments and, as a result, also thrives in orchards, nurseries, plantation crops and under trees and shrubs (Holm et al., 1997). In North America and Europe it declines in importance as a weed with increasing distance from coastal regions, a reflection of its preference for cooler, more humid conditions (Sobey, 1981), and is markedly more abundant in wetter summers (Lebedev, 1940). S. media may also be limited by temperature, and is rare in the lowland tropics, and at high altitudes in the colder regions of Europe. It will grow on a very wide range of substrates, but prefers moist, fertile soils with a neutral pH and good aeration. Salisbury (1961) suggests that there is some evidence that it is most aggressive on heavier soils.

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page S. media is a cosmopolitan, widespread and highly successful weedy species. It occurs in cereals, sugarbeet, vegetable and fruit crops, orchards, plantation crops and pastures. It is potentially a weed of almost any crop grown within its geographical range.

Biology and Ecology

Top of page S. media is an annual, winter annual (capable of survival during milder winters) or sometimes perennial herb. Reproduction is predominantly by seed, although short-term vegetative reproduction by vegetative fragments can occur. The first flowers may be produced within 4-5 weeks of germination (Whitehead and Sinha, 1967), and the first mature seeds within 5-7 weeks (Salisbury, 1961). In warm areas, flowering has been observed year-round, and Goppert (1881) reported survival of plants at -10°C. S. media is highly phenotypically variable, even at a single site. Pobedimova (1929) tested the response of individuals to varying light fluxes and demonstrated that leaf size and hairiness of stems were affected. Flowering plants whose longest shoot lengths were 4 cm have been observed on gravelly paths, whilst in Scotland, UK, stem lengths up to 98 cm and leaves up to 45 mm were observed in a herring gull colony.

Seed production is prolific. Champness and Morris (1948) recorded seed yields of between 5.5 and 10.8 kg/ha in pastures and arable lands, respectively, and Salisbury (1961) reported production of between 11 and 13 million seeds/ha. Germination may occur year-round, depending on conditions, with distinct peaks in the UK in spring (March to May) and autumn (Roberts and Feast, 1970). Seeds produced in differing habitats and geographical locations exhibit markedly different dormancy patterns and germination requirements. Seeds of plants from mild, maritime climates germinate relatively quickly after maturation, those from Arctic or Continental environments display little germination after 90 days, while those from Mediterranean areas need 40 to 50 days after-ripening before appreciable germination is observed. Laboratory trials have shown that germination is stimulated by moistening seeds with 0.2% potassium nitrate and keeping them in alternating temperatures between 20 and 30°C. In the field, seeds display three types of dormancy: innate (some seeds have an after-ripening requirement), enforced (seeds buried in soil remain dormant until conditions become favourable) and induced (seeds initially not possessing a light requirement can develop one during burial). This variation in germination requirement and dormancy characteristics may contribute greatly to the success of the species as a weed (Van der Vegte, 1978).

Seeds have been reported to live for as long as 60 years (Evans, 1962). In a long-term experiment, buried seed of S. media displayed 91 to 97% germination after 1 year and 6 to 22% germination after 10 years, no germination was observed after 16 years (Toole and Brown, 1946). In a similar experiment, Darlington and Steinbauer (1961) found some germination after 30 years. In the field, seeds germinate on, and slightly below the soil surface (Evans et al., 1974). Very few seeds germinate from below 2 cm (Chancellor, 1964).

The majority of seeds are dispersed close to the parent plant. Long-distance dispersal may be brought about by animals, and viable seed has been found in the faeces of pigs, horses, cattle, deer, sparrows, quail and magpies. Seeds may also be transported by ants and have been found in the casts of earthworms (McRill, 1974). Man has played a large part in the dispersal of this species through agricultural activities. The seed is able to survive immersion in seawater.

Many aspects of the biology and ecology of S. media are reviewed in detail by Turkington et al. (1980).

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Euphyia unangulata Herbivore
Macrolabis stellariae Herbivore Leaves
Stygnocoris rusticus Herbivore

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page Turkington et al. (1980) and Sobey (1981) provide comprehensive lists of the animal feeders, parasites and pathogens of S. media, the most ecologically important of which are listed. Euphyia unangulata, Macrolabis stellariae and Stygonocoris rusticus are reported to be specific to S. media. The significance of associated aphids, nematodes, fungal pathogens and viruses is largely related to the risk of cross-contamination to crop plants and is discussed in the Economic Impact section.

Impact

Top of page S. media was considered by Allard (1965) to be one of the 12 most successful colonizing species among non-cultivated plants, and has been reported as a weed in over 50 countries worldwide. It is regularly reported as a weed of annual (cereals, oilseeds, pulses and sugarbeet) and perennial (pastures, orchards, plantations) crops. Although only a small plant it has regularly been reported as a serious or principal weed. In trials in Germany, one S. media plant/m² resulted in yield losses of 0.09, 0.07 and 0.03% respectively for winter barley, winter wheat and spring barley (Roder et al., 1989). On the basis of these results economic thresholds of 15-20, 20-25 and 55-65 plants/m² were derived for S. media in winter barley, winter wheat and spring barley, respectively. In the Netherlands 11 plants/m² reduced the yield of a sugar beet crop by 21% (Kropff et al., 1987). In mixed weed communities in a barley crop in Belgium, S. media had the greatest effect on yield, particularly where it occurred early in crop development (Van Himme et al., 1983). Similarly, correlations between S. media density and yield losses were reported in winter and spring barley, even at relatively early growth stages and when weed densities were low (Schwar et al., 1977). In trials conducted in oilseed crops in the UK, however, it was shown that densities of less than 250 plants/m² resulted in yield losses of less than 5%. More recently, attempts have been made to establish economic thresholds for the control of S. media; in linseed crops in the UK this was calculated as 40 plants/m² (Carver et al., 1997). Davies (1987) estimated that in barley, the use of herbicides, particularly for control of S. media and Poa annua, prevented losses of 7-8%. In the east of Scotland, UK, in wheat trials carried out from 1979 to 1988 with a typical mix of weeds (primarily S. media), based on a yield level of 8.28 t/ha, losses were estimated at 3.5% (Davies, 1988). In Romania, control of the predominant weeds including S. media increased average wheat yields of 3.87 t/ha by 0.9 t/ha (Chirita and Henegar, 1985).

In comparative trials of weed competition and yield suppression in wheat (Farahbakhsh et al., 1987) and sugar beet (Farahbakhsh and Murphy, 1986), S. media was found to be less competitive than the grass weeds Avena fatua and Alopecurus myosuroides. In trials in winter wheat, S. media and other low growing, prostate species were found to be minor competitors unless present at high densities. The actual competitive effect and associated yield reduction caused by S. media will depend on a number of factors; clearly higher weed densities will result in the greatest yield losses. Time of emergence in relation to the crop is also critical. S. media displays vigorous early growth and will cause the greatest yield losses when it emerges at the same time or before the crop. It is also a highly plastic species (van Acker et al., 1997), meaning that early establishment and resource capture will result in larger more competitive individuals. S. media is a poor competitor against established crop plants.

S. media is also an alternative host for a number of economically important pathogens that attack a range of crop plants. A large number of nematode species which carry viral diseases are associated with S. media: these include the strawberry nematode (Aphelenchoides fragariae) (Yamada and Takakura, 1987), Meloidogyne ardenensis (Thomas and Brown, 1981), Heterodera schachtii (Gleiss and Bachthaler, 1988), Ditylenchus dispaci, Longidorus elongatus, Meloidogyne hapla, Pratylenchus penetrans, Trichodorus pachydermus and T. primitivus (Sobey, 1981). A wide range of viruses has also been isolated, including Oat blue dwarf virus (Vacke, 1998), Beet western yellows virus (Chod et al., 1997), Tomato spotted wilt virus (Bitterlich and MacDonald, 1993), Carnation ringspot virus (Rudel et al., 1977), Cucumber mosaic virus, Lettuce mosaic virus, Raspberry ringspot virus and Strawberry latent ringspot virus (Sobey, 1981).

Uses

Top of page Medicinal uses for S. media have been reported in China (Li et al., 1994) and farmers in Scandanavia encourage its growth as they believe a ground cover results in better fruit quality and yield.

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Host of pest

Human food and beverage

  • Vegetable

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page Chater and Heywood (1972) consider the three closely related species S. media, S. neglecta and S. pallida as the 'S. media group'.

S. neglecta is distinguished by the larger size of all its parts, and of the sepals in particular (5 to 6.5 mm), the number of stamens (usually 10), the seed size (1.3 to 1.7 mm), the seed surface which is dark reddish-brown, usually with slender acute tubercles, and the flowering period which is usually restricted to April to July (Sobey, 1981). It is distributed in Western, Central and Southern Europe extending to southern Sweden and southern Ukraine. Chromosome number is 2n = 22.

S. pallida, also of south and central Europe, is distinguished by its slender, often filiform, stems and pale green leaves, petals which are absent or minute, seeds which are 0.6 to 0.8 mm across, pale yellowish-brown, with small blunt tubercles and its flowering period which is confined to between March and June.

The genus Cerastium has a number of weedy species ('mouse-ear chickweeds' in English) with superficial resemblance to Stellaria: however, species of Cerastium have five styles (compared to three in Stellaria) and the petals are not deeply bifid.

Prevention and Control

Top of page Cultural Control

A range of cultural and integrated weed management strategies have been investigated for the control of S. media. In trials in the UK, the summer biomass of S. media was reduced more by spring- compared with autumn-harrowing in a winter wheat crop (Wilson et al., 1993). In Czechoslovakia, S. media occurred at higher frequencies on no-tillage than on tilled plots (Stach, 1992), whilst in Oregon, USA comparisons between daytime and night-time cultivation have indicated the potential for reducing the germination of buried weed seeds, including S. media, by as much as 75% if cultivation is practised at night (Scopel et al., 1994). The nature of crop rotation may also affect the weed flora present in arable fields, and long-term trials in Germany have indicated that S. media is favoured by rotations consisting of 80% compared with 50% cereals (Pallutt, 1991).

S. media has an unprotected growing point, and as such, is susceptible to flame weeding. In Sweden, 100% kill was achieved with a single treatment at the 0-4 leaf stage (Ascard, 1995). This technique was similarly successful in apple orchards in Italy (Ferrero et al., 1994).

Integrated approaches to weed management involving competitive crop varieties, high crop densities and increased N fertilization have been successful in suppressing weed populations (of which S. media was a major constituent), and increasing crop yields (Grundy et al., 1997).

Chemical Control

Recommendations for the chemical control of S. media are summarized below by crop type:

Cereals: S. media was one of the first weeds to increase in importance because of their tolerance of 2,4-D and MCPA. It is, however, susceptible to the closely related mecoprop, and many of the newer herbicides including fluoroglycofen + luoroglycofen + triasulfuron and terbutryn + triasulfuron in barley (Dovydaitis, 1997), ioxynil + prosulfocarb (Thiesson et al., 1996), metosulam + fluroxypyr (Daniau, 1996), isoproturon when applied to winter wheat crops in early May (Soroka et al., 1995) and methabenzthiazuron + isoxaben in winter cereals (Cheer et al., 1988).

Sugarbeet: triflusulfuron + phenmedipham (Toth and Peter, 1997).

Perennial crops: in trials in apple orchards, walnuts and vine crops in California and the Pacific Northwest, USA, thiazopyr successfully controlled S. media (Warner and Holmdal, 1995).

Oilseed rape: in Sweden, benazolin + clopyralid + cyanazine gave effective control of S. media and a range of other broad-leaved weeds (Roslon, 1991).

Pastures: in ryegrass, Phleum pratense and Trifolium repens swards, good control was achieved with autumn applications of a benazolin/2,4-DB/MCPA mixture (Swift et al., 1987), in ryegrass swards, methabenzthiazuron and ethofumesate controlled S. media without damaging L. perenne (Kirkham, 1983). Linuron has also been shown to be effective (Moll, 1981). Mamarot and Rodriguez (1997) provide suggestions for use of herbicides and herbicide mixtures in a wide range of crops in France.

Herbicide Resistance

Chlorsulfuron-resistant biotypes of S. media have been reported in Denmark (Andreasen and Jensen, 1994) and Alberta, Canada (O'Donovan et al., 1994). In pot experiments, a biotype from Denmark was resistant to a wide range of ALS inhibitors including chlorsulfuron, metsulfuron, tribenuron, triasulfuron, sulfometuron, flumetsulam and imazapyr (Kudsk et al., 1995). Hall and Devine (1990) detected cross-resistance to a triazolopyrimidine herbicide in a chlorsulfuron-resistant accession of S. media. Resistance of the species to mecoprop has also been reported in the UK (Lutman and Snow, 1987).

Biological Control

There is no evidence in the literature of research to establish potential biological control agents for S. media.


References

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Acker RCvan; Lutman PJW; Froud-Williams RJ, 1997. Predicting yield loss due to interference from two weed species using early observations of relative weed leaf area. Weed Research (Oxford), 37(5):287-299; 17 ref.

Allard R, 1965. Genetic systems associated with colonizing ability in predominantly self-pollinated species. In: Baker H, Stebbins G, eds. The Genetics of Colonizing Species. New York, USA: Academic Press.

Andreasen C; Jensen JE, 1994. Herbicide resistance in Denmark. SP Rapport, No. 6, presented at the 11th Danish Plant Protection Conference on the Side Effects of Pesticides used on Weeds, 261-270.

Ascard J, 1995. Effects of flame weeding on weed species at different developmental stages. Weed Research (Oxford), 35(5):397-411

Bitterlich I; MacDonald LS, 1993. The prevalence of tomato spotted wilt virus in weeds and crops in southwestern British Columbia. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 73(2):137-142

Bouma E; Weide RYvan der; Floot HWG, 1996. Influence of weather parameters on efficacy of reduced dosages of herbicides in winter wheat. Bulletin OEPP, 26(3/4):651-657; 12 ref.

Carver MFF; Overthrow RB; Lutman PJW; Andrews F, 1997. Weed control in spring linseed: effects of knotgrass, chickweed, fat hen and oats on yield. HGCA Oilseeds Project Report, No. OS19:84 pp.

Champness S; Morris K, 1948. The population of buried viable seeds in relation to contrasting pasture and soil types. Journal of Ecology, 36:149-173.

Chancellor RJ, 1964. The depth of weed seed germination in the field. Proceedings of the 7th British Weed Control Conference, 2:607-613.

Chater AO; Heywood VH, 1972. Stellaria L. In: Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Moore DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA, eds. Flora Europaea. Volume 1. Lycopodiaceae to Plantaceae, 133-136.

Cheer AB; Elliott RA; Bolton BJG, 1988. A combinated formulation of methabenzthiazuron and isoxaben for weed control in winter cereals. Aspects of Applied Biology, 18:239-246.

Chirita N; Henegar R, 1985. Results on the chemical control of weeds in winter wheat in the Roman area. Cercetari Agronomice în Moldova, 18(2):37-41; 5 ref.

Chod J; Chodovß D; Jokes M, 1997. Host and indicator plants of beet western yellows virus. Listy Cukrovarnicke^acute~ a R^hacek~epar^hacek~ske^acute~, 113(5):129-130; 4 ref.

Daniau P, 1996. Metosulam + fluroxypyr for early weed control in winter cereals. Seizie^grave~me confe^acute~rence du COLUMA. Journe^acute~es internationales sur la lutte contre les mauvaises herbes, Reims, France, 6-8 de^acute~cembre 1995. Tome 2., 585-592; 3 ref.

Darlington HT; Steinbauer GP, 1961. The eighty year period for Dr Beal's seed viability experiment. American Journal of Botany, 48:321-325.

Davies DHK, 1987. An approach towards reducing herbicide costs in winter barley. Proceedings, Crop Protection in Northern Britain 1987, Dundee University, 15-17 March 1987 Invergowie, Dundee, UK; Association for Crop Protection in Northern Britain, 7-12

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