Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Sterculia foetida
(Java olive)



Sterculia foetida (Java olive)


  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Sterculia foetida
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Java olive
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae

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Tree growing in an open ground in Sri Lanka.
CaptionTree growing in an open ground in Sri Lanka.
CopyrightD.K.N.G. Pushpakumara
Tree growing in an open ground in Sri Lanka.
TreeTree growing in an open ground in Sri Lanka.D.K.N.G. Pushpakumara
TitleBranch with fruits
CopyrightD.K.N.G. Pushpakumara
Branch with fruitsD.K.N.G. Pushpakumara
TitleSeeds and woody follicle
CopyrightD.K.N.G. Pushpakumara
Seeds and woody follicleD.K.N.G. Pushpakumara
1. Tree habit
2. Flowering twig
3. Fruit
4. Follicle in longitudinal section
TitleLine artwork
Caption1. Tree habit 2. Flowering twig 3. Fruit 4. Follicle in longitudinal section
CopyrightPROSEA Foundation
1. Tree habit
2. Flowering twig
3. Fruit
4. Follicle in longitudinal section
Line artwork1. Tree habit 2. Flowering twig 3. Fruit 4. Follicle in longitudinal sectionPROSEA Foundation


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Sterculia foetida L.

Preferred Common Name

  • Java olive

Other Scientific Names

  • Sterculia polyphylla R. Br.

International Common Names

  • English: bastard poon tree; wild almond tree

Local Common Names

  • Cambodia: samrong
  • India: asakshara; badam janjal; bhatala penari; goldaru; gurapu-badam; jungli badam; kabu-kabu; kepoh; kundre-goti; kuo-mhad; nagalkadu; pinari; pottaikayalam; pun; ran badam; sembadam; thondi; virhoi
  • Indonesia: kabu-kabu; kalupat; kepoh
  • Malaysia: kelumpang; kelumpang jari
  • Myanmar: letpan-shaw
  • Philippines: kelumpang
  • Sri Lanka: kurajadalka; telambu
  • Thailand: homrong; sam; samrong
  • Vietnam: tr(oo)m

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Malvales
  •                         Family: Sterculiaceae
  •                             Genus: Sterculia
  •                                 Species: Sterculia foetida

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes


BhutanPresent Planted
Brunei DarussalamPresent Planted
CambodiaPresent Planted
ChinaPresent Planted
IndiaPresentPlanted, Natural
-KarnatakaPresentPlanted, Natural
-Madhya PradeshPresentPlanted, Natural
-Tamil NaduPresentPlanted, Natural
-West BengalPresentPlanted, Natural
IndonesiaPresent Planted
-MoluccasPresent Planted
-SumatraPresent Planted
LaosPresent Planted
MalaysiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent Planted
MyanmarPresentPlanted, Natural
PhilippinesPresent Planted
SingaporePresent Planted
Sri LankaPresentPlanted, Natural
ThailandPresent Planted
VietnamPresent Planted


GuineaPresent Planted
KenyaPresent Planted
TanzaniaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-ZanzibarPresent Planted
UgandaPresent Planted

North America

USAPresent Planted
-HawaiiPresent Planted


AustraliaPresent Planted
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresent Planted
PalauPresent Planted
Papua New GuineaPresent Planted

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
22 -20 0 1000

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) 0
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 25 35


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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration34number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall10003500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • neutral

Soil texture

  • medium

Wood Products

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  • Boxes
  • Cases

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • Carpentry/joinery (exterior/interior)
  • For light construction

Wood-based materials

  • Plywood


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Ambasta SSP, 1986. The Useful Plants of India. New Delhi, India: Publication and Information Directorate, 501.

Ashton M; Gunatilleke S; De Zoysa N; Dassanayake MD; Gunatilleke N; Wijesundera S, 1997. A field guide to the common trees and shrubs of Sri Lanka. Sri Lanka: WHT Publications Private Limited for the Wildlife Heritage Trust of Sri Lanka.

Bhattacharyya AK; Mazumdar BC, 1989. Nutritive value of the Sterculia foetida nuts. Science and Culture, 55:220; 1 ref.

Bourdillon TF, 1908. The forest trees of Travancore. Trivandrum, India: The Travancore Government Press.

Burkill IH, 1966. A Dictionary of the Economic Products of the Malay Peninsula, 2(2nd edition):2444 pp.

Chadha YR, 1976. The wealth of India [- a dictionary of Indian raw materials and industrial products]. Raw materials. Vol. X (Sp-W); Vol. XI (X-Z + cumulative indexes). New Delhi, India: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research. 665 pp; 412 pp.; 6 pl.; 5 pl. See FA 31, 5170; many ref.

Chopra RN; Nayar SL; Copra IC, 1956. Glossary of Indian Medicinal Plants. New Delhi, India: Council of Scientific and Industrial Research.

Corner EJH, 1940. Wayside trees of Malaya. Vol I [text]; Vol II [plates] Singapore: The Government Printing Office, 1940. pp. vii + 770; pp. 228.

Dalziel JM, 1948. The Useful Plants of West Tropical Africa. London, UK: Crown Agents for the Colonies.

Dassanayake MD; Fosberg FR, 1980. A revised handbook to the flora of Ceylon. Volume I. New Delhi, India: Amerind Publishing Company Private Limited, 364-423. 1980, vii + 508 pp.

Dassanayake MD; Fosberg FR; Clayton WD, 1995. A revised handbook to the flora of Ceylon. Volume IX. A revised handbook to the flora of Ceylon. Volume IX., vi + 482 pp.; [Published for the Smithsonian Institution, and the National Science Foundation, Washington, DC, USA].

Deb DK; Paria N, 1986. Seedling morphology of some economic trees. Indian Agriculturist, 30(2):133-142; 10 ref.

Lemmens RHMJ; Soerianegara I; Wong WC, eds. 1995. Plant resources of South-East Asia No. 5 (2). Timber trees: minor commercial timbers. 655 pp.; Prosea Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia. Leiden: Backhuys Publishers.

Martin FW; Campbell CW; Ruberte RM, 1987. Perennial Edible Fruits of the Tropics: An Inventory. USA: US Department of Agriculture. Agriculture Handbook No. 642.

Perry LM, 1980. Medicinal Plants of East and South East Asia. Massachusetts, USA: MIT Press. 620 pp.

Rao SPC; Atluri JB; Rao CS, 1995. Sterculia foetida as a pollen source for the Indian honey bee, Apis cerana indica. Indian-Bee-Journal. 57: 1, 18-19; Bj.

Streets RJ, 1962. Exotic forest trees in the British Commonwealth. Oxford, UK: Clarendon Press.

Trimen H, 1974. A Handbook to the Flora of Ceylon, Part I. New Delhi, India: Amerind Publishing Company Private Limited.

Troup RS; Joshi HB, 1981. Troup's The Silviculture of Indian Trees. Volume III. Delhi, India; Controller of Publications.

Worthington TB, 1959. Ceylon trees. Colombo, Sri Lanka: The Colombo Apothecaries' Company Limited.

Zakaria M; Ahmad N, 1988. Colletotrichum leaf disease of ornamental trees. FRIM Technical Information, No. 5:4 pp.

Links to Websites

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GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gateway source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Distribution Maps

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