Stachys arvensis (staggerweed)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Biology and Ecology
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Impact Summary
- Economic Impact
- Risk and Impact Factors
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Stachys arvensis (L.) L.
Preferred Common Name
Other Scientific Names
- Glechoma arvensis L.
International Common Names
- English: annual hedge nettle; corn woundwort; field hedge nettle; field nettle betony; field stachys; field woundwort; fieldnettle betony; wild mint
- Spanish: betonica; hierba del gato; supiquehka
- French: epiaire des champs
- Chinese: tian ye shui su
- Portuguese: orelha-de-urso
Local Common Names
- Brazil: hortela-das-rocas
- Canada: hedge-nettle
- Germany: Acker- Ziest
- Netherlands: Akkerandoorn
- Sweden: Aakersyska
- STAAR (Stachys arvensis)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
The species S. arvensis is an Old World herb species that has become naturalized in parts of the New World, and is reportedly a poison and potential seed contaminant (USDA-ARS, 2014). S. arvensis poses negative environmental, economic, and human health impacts. It is a serious weed in Austria, Brazil, and Hawaii as well as a principal and common weed elsewhere (Holm et al., 1979), and is known to be an agricultural weed in Italy and Slovenia, where it invades carrot crops (Randall, 2012). It is listed in the Global Compendium of Weeds as “agricultural weed, casual alien, environmental weed, naturalised, weed” (Randall, 2012) and is invasive to parts of Australia, China and Asia-Pacific (PIER, 2014). It causes nervous disorders to livestock (Hill, 1986).
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Lamiales
- Family: Lamiaceae
- Genus: Stachys
- Species: Stachys arvensis
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
The Lamiacae family, or mint family, is a family of herbs, shrubs, and trees comprising about 200 genera and 3,200 species, many with a long history of medicinal and food use (University of Hawaii, 2014). Many Lamiaceae species have square stems (although square stems are also found in other families), aromatic aerial parts when crushed, simple opposite leaves, and two-lipped flowers.
The genus Stachys, the ‘betony’ or ‘hedgenettle’ genus, consists of about 200-300 annual and perennial herb species, primarily of north temperate regions but also somewhat developed in the Southern Hemisphere in South America and South Africa (Burrows and Tyrl, 2012; Wagner et al., 2014). The genus name is the Greek word for ‘spike’ and was a name used by Dioscorides and the Greeks, presumably referring to the spike-shaped flowers of various members of the Labiatae (Smith, 1971; Burrows and Tyrl, 2012).
The species name S. arvensis refers to the species’ habitat of cultivated fields (Smith, 1971), and indeed, a vernacular name for this species is ‘field woundwort’. Another common name for this species is ‘stagger weed’, referring to the nervous disorders it causes to livestock, causing them to stagger (Hill, 1986). Linnaeus originally classified the species under the genus Glechoma, which derives its name from the Greek ‘glechon’, an old name for mint or thyme.
DescriptionTop of page
Herb with stems decumbent to ascending, many-branched, 2-6 dm long, hirsute. Leaves ovate to narrowly ovate, 1-3.5(-6) cm long, 0.6-2.3(-3.5) cm wide, hirsute, more densely so along veins on lower surface, margins crenate, apex rounded, base truncate to subcordate, petioles 0-2(-3.5) cm long. Flowers usually 3-6 in verticillasters, these arranged in terminal, leafy, spike-like inflorescences; calyx usually tinged purple, campanulate, 5-6 mm long, hirsute, especially along nerves, cleft ca. 1/2 its length, the teeth slightly unequal, lanceolate, upper lobes ca. 2.7-2.8 mm long, lower lobe ca. 2.2-2.3 mm long; corolla pink, rose, or blue, 5-7 mm long, upper lip erect, median lobe of lower lip ovate, faintly spotted red near base. Nutlets black, shiny, muricate, obovoid, ca. 2 mm long. [Wagner et al., 2014]
DistributionTop of page
S. arvensis is native and widespread across parts of Europe, temperate Asia, North Africa and, according to some sources, some of the Atlantic and Pacific Islands (Govaerts, 2014; PIER, 2014). As of 2008, the species was reportedly rare on the Sefton coast of northwest England (Smith, 2008), although it continues to be listed as present in the UK in Kew’s World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (Govaerts, 2014).
In several European countries including the UK, Germany, and Denmark, the species was listed as native by USDA-ARS (2014) and Govaerts (2014), but as an introduced species by DAISIE (2014).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Afghanistan||Present||Holm et al., 1979; Govaerts, 2014|
|China||Present||Holm et al., 1979; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; Govaerts, 2014; PIER, 2014|
|-Fujian||Present||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014||Weed in waste areas adjacent to cultivated land|
|-Guangdong||Present||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014||Weed in waste areas adjacent to cultivated land|
|-Guangxi||Present||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014||Weed in waste areas adjacent to cultivated land|
|Iran||Present||Holm et al., 1979|
|Israel||Present||Native||Govaerts, 2014; PIER, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014|
|Jordan||Present||Native||Holm et al., 1979; Govaerts, 2014|
|Syria||Present||Native||Govaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014|
|Taiwan||Present||Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; Govaerts, 2014; PIER, 2014||Weed in waste areas adjacent to cultivated land|
|Turkey||Present||Native||Holm et al., 1979; Govaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014|
|Algeria||Present||Native||Govaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014|
|Cape Verde||Present||Native||Govaerts, 2014|
|Equatorial Guinea||Present||Introduced||Govaerts, 2014||Gulf of Guinea Is|
|Mauritius||Present||Holm et al., 1979||Weed|
|Senegal||Unconfirmed record||Introduced||Govaerts, 2014|
|South Africa||Present||Introduced||Govaerts, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014||Cape provinces|
|-Canary Islands||Present||Native||Liogier and Martorell, 2000; Randall, 2012; Govaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014|
|Tunisia||Present||Native||Govaerts, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014|
|Canada||Present||Holm et al., 1979; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014|
|-British Columbia||Present||Introduced||Govaerts, 2014; NatureServe, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014|
|-Nova Scotia||Present||Introduced||Govaerts, 2014; NatureServe, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014|
|USA||Present||Introduced||Britton, 1918; Randall, 2012||Naturalised in Eastern United States|
|-California||Present||Introduced||Calflora, 2014; NatureServe, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014||Naturalised|
|-District of Columbia||Present||Introduced||Govaerts, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014|
|-Hawaii||Present||Invasive||Holm et al., 1979; NatureServe, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014; Wagner et al., 2014||Serious weed|
|-Louisiana||Present||Introduced||Govaerts, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014|
|-Maine||Present||Introduced||Govaerts, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014; NatureServe, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014|
|-Massachusetts||Present||Introduced||Govaerts, 2014; NatureServe, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014|
|-New Jersey||Present||Introduced||Govaerts, 2014; NatureServe, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014|
|-New York||Present||Introduced||Govaerts, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014; NatureServe, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014|
|-Oregon||Present||Introduced||Govaerts, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014|
|-Pennsylvania||Present||Introduced||Hill, 1986; Govaerts, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014; NatureServe, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014|
|-Texas||Present||Introduced||Govaerts, 2014; NatureServe, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014|
|-Virginia||Present||Introduced||Govaerts, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014; NatureServe, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014|
Central America and Caribbean
|Barbados||Present||Introduced||Liogier and Martorell, 2000|
|Dominica||Present||Introduced||Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012|
|Dominican Republic||Present||Introduced||Liogier and Martorell, 2000|
|Guadeloupe||Present||Introduced||Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012|
|Haiti||Present||Introduced||Liogier and Martorell, 2000|
|Jamaica||Present||Introduced||Britton, 1918; Holm et al., 1979|
|Martinique||Present||Introduced||Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012|
|Puerto Rico||Present||Introduced||Liogier and Martorell, 2000; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012; Govaerts, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014|
|Argentina||Present||Holm et al., 1979; Govaerts, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014||Common weed|
|Bolivia||Present||Bolivia Checklist, 2014||Cochabamba, La Paz|
|Brazil||Present||Invasive||Holm et al., 1979||Serious weed|
|-Bahia||Present||Introduced||Forzza R et al, 2010||Naturalised|
|-Minas Gerais||Present||Introduced||Forzza R et al, 2010||Naturalised|
|-Parana||Present||Introduced||Forzza R et al, 2010||Naturalised|
|-Rio de Janeiro||Present||Introduced||Forzza R et al, 2010||Naturalised|
|-Santa Catarina||Present||Introduced||Forzza R et al, 2010||Naturalised|
|-Sao Paulo||Present||Introduced||Forzza R et al, 2010||Naturalised|
|Chile||Present||Introduced||Govaerts, 2014; PIER, 2014||Central Chile, Juan Fernandez Is.|
|-Easter Island||Present||Introduced||Govaerts, 2014|
|Ecuador||Present||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Galapagos Islands||Present||Introduced||Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014; Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014|
|Peru||Present||Introduced||Holm et al., 1979; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014; Peru Checklist, 2014||Weed|
|Venezuela||Present||Introduced||Govaerts, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014|
|Albania||Present||Native||Govaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014|
|Austria||Present||Invasive||Holm et al., 1979; DAISIE, 2014; Govaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014||Serious weed|
|Belgium||Present||Native||Govaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014|
|Czech Republic||Present||Introduced||DAISIE, 2014||Established|
|Denmark||Present||Introduced||Randall, 2012; DAISIE, 2014; Govaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014||Naturalised|
|Finland||Present||Introduced||Randall, 2012; DAISIE, 2014||Casual alien|
|France||Present||Native||Govaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014|
|-Corsica||Present||Native||Govaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014|
|Germany||Present||Introduced||DAISIE, 2014; Govaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014||Established|
|Greece||Present||Native||Govaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014||Including Crete, East Aegean Is.|
|Ireland||Present||Introduced||DAISIE, 2014; Govaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014||Established|
|Italy||Present||Native||Govaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014||Including Sardinia and Sicily|
|Macedonia||Present||Native||Govaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014|
|Netherlands||Present||Native||Govaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014|
|Norway||Present||Holm et al., 1979; DAISIE, 2014||Weed|
|Poland||Present||Holm et al., 1979; Govaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014||Principal weed|
|Portugal||Present||Holm et al., 1979; Govaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014||Principal weed|
|-Azores||Present||Native||Liogier and Martorell, 2000; DAISIE, 2014; Govaerts, 2014|
|-Madeira||Present||Native||Govaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014|
|Russian Federation||Present||Native||Govaerts, 2014|
|Slovenia||Present||Randall, 2012||Agricultural weed|
|Spain||Present||Native||Govaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014|
|Sweden||Present||Holm et al., 1979; DAISIE, 2014; Govaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014||Principal weed|
|Switzerland||Present||Native||Govaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014|
|UK||Present||Introduced||Randall, 2012; DAISIE, 2014; Govaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014||Casual alien of the British Isles|
|-Channel Islands||Present||Introduced||DAISIE, 2014|
|Ukraine||Present||Native||Govaerts, 2014; Govaerts, 2014||Crimea|
|Yugoslavia (former)||Present||Native||Govaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014|
|Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)||Present||Native||Govaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014|
|Australia||Present||Holm et al., 1979; Randall, 2012|
|-Lord Howe Is.||Present||Introduced||Invasive||Queensland Government, 2012; PIER, 2014||Naturalised on Lord Howe Island and Norfolk Island|
|-New South Wales||Widespread||Introduced||Queensland Government, 2012||Widely naturalised; cultivation weed, environmental weed|
|-Queensland||Widespread||Introduced||Queensland Government, 2012||Widely naturalised|
|-South Australia||Present||Introduced||Queensland Government, 2012||Naturalised|
|-Tasmania||Widespread||Introduced||Queensland Government, 2012||Widely naturalised|
|-Victoria||Widespread||Introduced||Queensland Government, 2012||Widely naturalised|
|-Western Australia||Present||Introduced||Queensland Government, 2012||Widely naturalised|
|French Polynesia||Present||Introduced||Govaerts, 2014||Leeward Is|
|New Caledonia||Present||Introduced||Govaerts, 2014; PIER, 2014|
|New Zealand||Present||Introduced||Randall, 2012; Govaerts, 2014; PIER, 2014|
|Norfolk Island||Present||Introduced||Govaerts, 2014|
|Pitcairn Island||Present||Introduced||Invasive||PIER, 2014|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
Risk of introduction for this species appears to be mid-to-high, as it has spread beyond its native range and become naturalized, even invasive, to non-native environments (Randall, 2012; Govaerts, 2014; PIER, 2014). S. arvensis propagates by seeds and is a potential seed contaminant (USDA-ARS, 2014). As a low, creeping plant known to be a common invasive species in China, Chile, Australia, Taiwan, and parts of the Asia-Pacific (PIER, 2014), S. arvensis has been reported as a ‘serious weed’ in Austria, Brazil, and Hawaii, a ‘principal weed’ in Australia, Poland, Portugal, and Sweden, a ‘common weed’ in Argentina, England, Italy, and Turkey, and weedy in Canada, Iran, Jamaica, Jordan, Mauritius, Norway, New Zealand, Peru, and the United States (Holm et al., 1979). It is an agricultural weed in Australia and Europe, and in Italy and Slovenia it is known to invade carrot crops (Randall, 2012; Queensland Government, 2012). Considering both its known invasiveness and weediness around the world, but also that it is responsive to herbicides (Hurford, 2007), the risk of introduction for this species is mid-to-high.
HabitatTop of page
S. arvensis is often found in waste places and disturbed areas. It is reportedly a main agricultural weed in carrot crops in Italy and Slovenia (Randall, 2012). In China and Bermuda, it has been reported to be weedy in waste areas or previously cultivated land (Britton, 1918; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014). It is found in the Central Brazilian Savanna and Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil (Forzza et al., 2010), while in Bolivia, it occurs in the Yungas and dry valley vegetation zones (Bolivia Checklist, 2014). In Peru, it has been observed growing in coastal regions in disturbed areas and rocky slopes (Peru Checklist, 2014). In Queensland, Australia and New Zealand, the species is a weed of gardens, fields, pastures, waste places, roadsides, river beds, and cultivation and disturbed sites (PIER, 2014; Queensland Government, 2012).
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial – Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Managed forests, plantations and orchards||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Managed grasslands (grazing systems)||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Disturbed areas||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Rail / roadsides||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Urban / peri-urban areas||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-natural||Natural forests||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Riverbanks||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Rocky areas / lava flows||Present, no further details||Natural|
|Coastal areas||Present, no further details||Natural|
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
S. arvensis is an agricultural weed in Europe including Italy and Slovenia, where it invades carrot crops (Randall, 2012). In Wales, UK, S. arvensis was identified as an abundant arable weed that affects spring barley and grass crops (Hurford, 2007).
Biology and EcologyTop of page
Gametophytic count = 5; sporophytic count = 10, 18 (IPCN Chromosome Reports, 2014).
S. arvensis is reportedly intolerant of dense shade and generally prefers soils with pH of 6.0 or less (Hurford, 2007), dry habitats and low elevations. It has been reported growing in Peru at altitudes of 0-500 m (Peru Checklist, 2014), in the Galapagos Islands between elevations of 0 and 1000 m (Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014) and in the Andean region of Bolivia between elevations of 1500-2000 and 2500-3000 m (Bolivia Checklist, 2014). In Hawaii the species is reportedly naturalized at low elevations up to 1200 m with dry, disturbed habitats (PIER, 2014). It was previously reported to occur at 1400-1600 m in fields, meadows, and roadsides of Haiti (Urban, 1898-1928).
ClimateTop of page
|BS - Steppe climate||Preferred||> 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation|
|BW - Desert climate||Preferred||< 430mm annual precipitation|
|Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year||Tolerated||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year|
|Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer||Tolerated||Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers|
|Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter||Tolerated||Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)|
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
S. arvensis does not regenerate by cuttings, but is known as a potential seed contaminant (USDA-ARS, 2014). It is probably through seed contamination that the species was introduced beyond its native range and into the Neotropics, Asia-Pacific, and other areas where it has been reported, as there are no reports of its intentional cultivation. It is unlikely to be dispersed by livestock as it is known to be toxic, causing nervous disorders and ‘staggering’, especially among sheep (Hill, 1986).
Impact SummaryTop of page
Economic ImpactTop of page
The spread of S. arvensis presents negative environmental and economic impacts, as it is known to be an invasive species as well as an agricultural and environmental weed (Holm et al., 1979; Hurford, 2007; Randall, 2012; PIER, 2014). It causes nervous disorders in livestock, especially sheep (Hill, 1986), causing them to stagger- thus the common name ‘stagger weed’- and could thus pose a negative impact to human health.
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Invasiveness
- Proved invasive outside its native range
- Has a broad native range
- Abundant in its native range
- Pioneering in disturbed areas
- Highly mobile locally
- Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
- Negatively impacts agriculture
- Negatively impacts animal health
- Negatively impacts livelihoods
- Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
- Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
S. arvensis is very similar to a fellow member of the Lamiaceae family, Lamiumamplexicaule; these can be distinguished by the leaves on the flowering stems, which are stalked in S. arvensis and sessile (attached without a stalk) and kidney-shaped in L. amplexicaule.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
S. arvensis is reportedly sensitive to herbicides and nitrogen input as well as shade and soils with pH above 6; it is thus not considered difficult to control, and was listed in 100 of the most rapidly declining weed species in the UK (Hurford, 2007).
ReferencesTop of page
Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm
Bolivia Checklist, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Bolivia, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx?projectid=13
Britton NL, 1918. Flora of Bermuda. New York, USA: Charles Scribner's Sons. 585 pp.
Britton NL; Brown A, 1898. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions: From Newfoundland to the Parallel of the Southern Boundary of Virginia, and from the Atlantic Ocean Westward to the 102d Meridian. Volume 3, Apocynaceae to Compositae. New York NY, USA: Charles Scribner's Sons, 588 pp.
Burrows GE; Tyrl RJ, 2012. Toxic Plants of North America, 2nd edition. Arnes, AL, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 1390 pp.
Calflora, 2014. Calflora: Information on California plants for education, research and conservation, with data contributed by public and private institutions and individuals, including the Consortium of California Herbaria. Berkeley CA, USA: The Calflora Database. http://www.calflora.org/
DAISIE, 2014. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. www.europe-aliens.org/default.do
Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2
Forzza R, 2010. List of species of the Flora of Brazil (Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil). http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2012/
Govaerts R, 2014. World Checklist of Lamiaceae. Richmond, London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/
Hill RJ, 1986. Poisonous plants of Pennsylvania. Harrisburg, PA, USA: Pennsylvania Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry, 175 pp. http://cal.vet.upenn.edu/projects/poison/agbook/cover.htm
Holm LG; Pancho JV; Herbenger JP; Plucknett DL, 1979. A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons.
Hurford C, 2007. Monitoring arable weeds at Newton Farm. In: Monitoring nature conservation in cultural habitats: A practical guide and case studies [ed. by Hurford, C. \Schneider, M.]. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer Press, 169-184.
IPCN Chromosome Reports, 2014. Index to Plant Chromosome Numbers (IPCN), Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/IPCN
Kew Gardner Database, 2014. Database of George Gardner botanical collections from Brazil (Angiosperms). Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. http://www.kew.org/science/tropamerica/gardner/Database_Gardner.pdf
Liogier HA; Martorell LF, 2000. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis, 2nd edition revised. San Juan, Puerto Rico: La Editorial, University of Puerto Rico, 382 pp.
Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015. Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder. St. Louis, MO, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/plantfinder/plantfindersearch.aspx
NatureServe, 2014. NatureServe Explorer Comprehensive Species Reports. Arlington, VA, USA: NatureServe. http://explorer.natureserve.org/servlet/NatureServe
Peru Checklist, 2014. The Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PEC
PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html
Quattrocchi U, 2012. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology [ed. by Quattrocchi, U.]. London, UK: CRC Press Inc., 3960 pp.
Queensland Government, 2012. Weeds of Australia. Biosecurity Queensland Edition. Australia: The University of Queensland. http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/
Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf
Smith AW, 1971. A Gardener's Dictionary of Plant Names: A Handbook on the Origin and Meaning of Some Plant Names, revised and enlarged by William T. Stearn. London, UK: Cassell and Co., 391 pp.
Smith PH, 2008. Further additions to the Inventory of Vascular Plants for the Sefton Coast. http://www.seftoncoast.org.uk/pdf/smith_200801a.pdf
University of Hawaii, 2014. Department of Botany Vascular Plant Family Access Page: Lamiaceae (Labiatae). Honolulu, USA: University of Hawaii. http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/carr/lami.htm
Urban I, 1898-1928. Symbolae Antillanae: Seu fundamenta florae Indiae Occidentalis. Berolini, Germany: Fratres Borntraeger.
USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx
USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/
Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/CE
Wagner WL; Herbst DR; Lorence DH, 2014. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands website. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution,. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/index.htm
Wyk BEvan; Wink M, 2004. Medicinal Plants of the World: An Illustrated Scientific Guide to Important Medicinal Plants and Their Uses. Portland, OR, USA: Timber Press, 480 pp.
ContributorsTop of page
24/08/2014 Original text by:
Marianne Jennifer Datiles, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA
Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA
Distribution MapsTop of page
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