Invasive Species Compendium

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Stachys arvensis
(staggerweed)

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Datasheet

Stachys arvensis (staggerweed)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 08 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Stachys arvensis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • staggerweed
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • The species S. arvensis is an Old World herb species that has become naturalized in parts of the New World, and is reportedly a poison and potential seed contaminant (...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Stachys arvensis (staggerweed); flowers and leaves. Kilauea Pt NWR, Kauai, Gawaii, USA. March, 2013.
TitleFlowers
CaptionStachys arvensis (staggerweed); flowers and leaves. Kilauea Pt NWR, Kauai, Gawaii, USA. March, 2013.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Stachys arvensis (staggerweed); flowers and leaves. Kilauea Pt NWR, Kauai, Gawaii, USA. March, 2013.
FlowersStachys arvensis (staggerweed); flowers and leaves. Kilauea Pt NWR, Kauai, Gawaii, USA. March, 2013.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Stachys arvensis (staggerweed); habit (note presence of Plantago sp.). Kilauea Pt NWR, Kauai, Gawaii, USA. March, 2013.
TitleHabit
CaptionStachys arvensis (staggerweed); habit (note presence of Plantago sp.). Kilauea Pt NWR, Kauai, Gawaii, USA. March, 2013.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Stachys arvensis (staggerweed); habit (note presence of Plantago sp.). Kilauea Pt NWR, Kauai, Gawaii, USA. March, 2013.
HabitStachys arvensis (staggerweed); habit (note presence of Plantago sp.). Kilauea Pt NWR, Kauai, Gawaii, USA. March, 2013.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Stachys arvensis (staggerweed); flowers. Kilauea Pt NWR, Kauai, Gawaii, USA. March, 2013.
TitleFlowers
CaptionStachys arvensis (staggerweed); flowers. Kilauea Pt NWR, Kauai, Gawaii, USA. March, 2013.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Stachys arvensis (staggerweed); flowers. Kilauea Pt NWR, Kauai, Gawaii, USA. March, 2013.
FlowersStachys arvensis (staggerweed); flowers. Kilauea Pt NWR, Kauai, Gawaii, USA. March, 2013.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Stachys arvensis (L.) L.

Preferred Common Name

  • staggerweed

Other Scientific Names

  • Glechoma arvensis L.

International Common Names

  • English: annual hedge nettle; corn woundwort; field hedge nettle; field nettle betony; field stachys; field woundwort; fieldnettle betony; wild mint
  • Spanish: betonica; hierba del gato; supiquehka
  • French: epiaire des champs
  • Chinese: tian ye shui su
  • Portuguese: orelha-de-urso

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: hortela-das-rocas
  • Canada: hedge-nettle
  • Germany: Acker- Ziest
  • Netherlands: Akkerandoorn
  • Sweden: Aakersyska

EPPO code

  • STAAR (Stachys arvensis)

Summary of Invasiveness

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The species S. arvensis is an Old World herb species that has become naturalized in parts of the New World, and is reportedly a poison and potential seed contaminant (USDA-ARS, 2014). S. arvensis poses negative environmental, economic, and human health impacts. It is a serious weed in Austria, Brazil, and Hawaii as well as a principal and common weed elsewhere (Holm et al., 1979), and is known to be an agricultural weed in Italy and Slovenia, where it invades carrot crops (Randall, 2012). It is listed in the Global Compendium of Weeds as “agricultural weed, casual alien, environmental weed, naturalised, weed” (Randall, 2012) and is invasive to parts of Australia, China and Asia-Pacific (PIER, 2014). It causes nervous disorders to livestock (Hill, 1986).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Lamiales
  •                         Family: Lamiaceae
  •                             Genus: Stachys
  •                                 Species: Stachys arvensis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The Lamiacae family, or mint family, is a family of herbs, shrubs, and trees comprising about 200 genera and 3,200 species, many with a long history of medicinal and food use (University of Hawaii, 2014). Many Lamiaceae species have square stems (although square stems are also found in other families), aromatic aerial parts when crushed, simple opposite leaves, and two-lipped flowers.

The genus Stachys, the ‘betony’ or ‘hedgenettle’ genus, consists of about 200-300 annual and perennial herb species, primarily of north temperate regions but also somewhat developed in the Southern Hemisphere in South America and South Africa (Burrows and Tyrl, 2012; Wagner et al., 2014). The genus name is the Greek word for ‘spike’ and was a name used by Dioscorides and the Greeks, presumably referring to the spike-shaped flowers of various members of the Labiatae (Smith, 1971; Burrows and Tyrl, 2012).

The species name S. arvensis refers to the species’ habitat of cultivated fields (Smith, 1971), and indeed, a vernacular name for this species is ‘field woundwort’. Another common name for this species is ‘stagger weed’, referring to the nervous disorders it causes to livestock, causing them to stagger (Hill, 1986). Linnaeus originally classified the species under the genus Glechoma, which derives its name from the Greek ‘glechon’, an old name for mint or thyme. 

Description

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Herb with stems decumbent to ascending, many-branched, 2-6 dm long, hirsute. Leaves ovate to narrowly ovate, 1-3.5(-6) cm long, 0.6-2.3(-3.5) cm wide, hirsute, more densely so along veins on lower surface, margins crenate, apex rounded, base truncate to subcordate, petioles 0-2(-3.5) cm long. Flowers usually 3-6 in verticillasters, these arranged in terminal, leafy, spike-like inflorescences; calyx usually tinged purple, campanulate, 5-6 mm long, hirsute, especially along nerves, cleft ca. 1/2 its length, the teeth slightly unequal, lanceolate, upper lobes ca. 2.7-2.8 mm long, lower lobe ca. 2.2-2.3 mm long; corolla pink, rose, or blue, 5-7 mm long, upper lip erect, median lobe of lower lip ovate, faintly spotted red near base. Nutlets black, shiny, muricate, obovoid, ca. 2 mm long. [Wagner et al., 2014]

Distribution

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S. arvensis is native and widespread across parts of Europe, temperate Asia, North Africa and, according to some sources, some of the Atlantic and Pacific Islands (Govaerts, 2014; PIER, 2014). As of 2008, the species was reportedly rare on the Sefton coast of northwest England (Smith, 2008), although it continues to be listed as present in the UK in Kew’s World Checklist of Selected Plant Families (Govaerts, 2014).

In several European countries including the UK, Germany, and Denmark, the species was listed as native by USDA-ARS (2014) and Govaerts (2014), but as an introduced species by DAISIE (2014).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentHolm et al., 1979; Govaerts, 2014
ChinaPresentHolm et al., 1979; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; Govaerts, 2014; PIER, 2014
-FujianPresentFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Weed in waste areas adjacent to cultivated land
-GuangdongPresentFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Weed in waste areas adjacent to cultivated land
-GuangxiPresentFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014Weed in waste areas adjacent to cultivated land
IranPresentHolm et al., 1979
IsraelPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014; PIER, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014
JapanPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014
JordanPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979; Govaerts, 2014
SyriaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014
TaiwanPresentFlora of China Editorial Committee, 2014; Govaerts, 2014; PIER, 2014Weed in waste areas adjacent to cultivated land
TurkeyPresentNativeHolm et al., 1979; Govaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014

Africa

AlgeriaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014
Cape VerdePresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
Equatorial GuineaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014Gulf of Guinea Is
MaliPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
MauritiusPresentHolm et al., 1979Weed
MoroccoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
SenegalUnconfirmed recordIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
South AfricaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014Cape provinces
Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentNativeLiogier and Martorell, 2000; Randall, 2012; Govaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014
TunisiaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014

North America

BermudaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
CanadaPresentHolm et al., 1979; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014; NatureServe, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014
-Nova ScotiaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014; NatureServe, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014
USAPresentIntroducedBritton, 1918; Randall, 2012Naturalised in Eastern United States
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedCalflora, 2014; NatureServe, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014Naturalised
-District of ColumbiaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014
-HawaiiPresent Invasive Holm et al., 1979; NatureServe, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014; Wagner et al., 2014Serious weed
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014
-MainePresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014; NatureServe, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014
-MassachusettsPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014; NatureServe, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014
-NebraskaPresentIntroducedNatureServe, 2014
-New JerseyPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014; NatureServe, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014
-New YorkPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014; NatureServe, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014
-OregonPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroducedHill, 1986; Govaerts, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014; NatureServe, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014
-TexasPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014; NatureServe, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014
-VirginiaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014; NatureServe, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

BarbadosPresentIntroducedLiogier and Martorell, 2000
DominicaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedLiogier and Martorell, 2000
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
HaitiPresentIntroducedLiogier and Martorell, 2000
JamaicaPresentIntroducedBritton, 1918; Holm et al., 1979
MartiniquePresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedLiogier and Martorell, 2000; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012; Govaerts, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014

South America

ArgentinaPresentHolm et al., 1979; Govaerts, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014Common weed
BoliviaPresentBolivia Checklist, 2014Cochabamba, La Paz
BrazilPresent Invasive Holm et al., 1979Serious weed
-BahiaPresentIntroducedForzza R et al, 2010Naturalised
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroducedForzza R et al, 2010Naturalised
-ParanaPresentIntroducedForzza R et al, 2010Naturalised
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroducedForzza R et al, 2010Naturalised
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroducedForzza R et al, 2010Naturalised
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedForzza R et al, 2010Naturalised
ChilePresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014; PIER, 2014Central Chile, Juan Fernandez Is.
-Easter IslandPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
EcuadorPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden, 2014; Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014
ParaguayPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
PeruPresentIntroducedHolm et al., 1979; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014; Peru Checklist, 2014Weed
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014; Missouri Botanical Garden, 2014

Europe

AlbaniaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014
AustriaPresent Invasive Holm et al., 1979; DAISIE, 2014; Govaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014Serious weed
BelgiumPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014
Czech RepublicPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014Established
DenmarkPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012; DAISIE, 2014; Govaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014Naturalised
EstoniaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
FinlandPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012; DAISIE, 2014Casual alien
FrancePresentNativeGovaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014
-CorsicaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014
GermanyPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014; Govaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014Established
GreecePresentNativeGovaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014Including Crete, East Aegean Is.
IrelandPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014; Govaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014Established
ItalyPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014Including Sardinia and Sicily
LatviaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
LithuaniaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
MacedoniaPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014
NetherlandsPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014
NorwayPresentHolm et al., 1979; DAISIE, 2014Weed
PolandPresentHolm et al., 1979; Govaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014Principal weed
PortugalPresentHolm et al., 1979; Govaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014Principal weed
-AzoresPresentNativeLiogier and Martorell, 2000; DAISIE, 2014; Govaerts, 2014
-MadeiraPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014
Russian FederationPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014
SlovakiaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
SloveniaPresentRandall, 2012Agricultural weed
SpainPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014
SwedenPresentHolm et al., 1979; DAISIE, 2014; Govaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014Principal weed
SwitzerlandPresentNativeGovaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014
UKPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012; DAISIE, 2014; Govaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014Casual alien of the British Isles
-Channel IslandsPresentIntroducedDAISIE, 2014
UkrainePresentNativeGovaerts, 2014; Govaerts, 2014Crimea
Yugoslavia (former)PresentNativeGovaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentNativeGovaerts, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014

Oceania

AustraliaPresentHolm et al., 1979; Randall, 2012
-Lord Howe Is.PresentIntroduced Invasive Queensland Government, 2012; PIER, 2014Naturalised on Lord Howe Island and Norfolk Island
-New South WalesWidespreadIntroducedQueensland Government, 2012Widely naturalised; cultivation weed, environmental weed
-QueenslandWidespreadIntroducedQueensland Government, 2012Widely naturalised
-South AustraliaPresentIntroducedQueensland Government, 2012Naturalised
-TasmaniaWidespreadIntroducedQueensland Government, 2012Widely naturalised
-VictoriaWidespreadIntroducedQueensland Government, 2012Widely naturalised
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedQueensland Government, 2012Widely naturalised
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014Leeward Is
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014; PIER, 2014
New ZealandPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012; Govaerts, 2014; PIER, 2014
Norfolk IslandPresentIntroducedGovaerts, 2014
Pitcairn IslandPresentIntroduced Invasive PIER, 2014
TongaPresentIntroducedPIER, 2014Rare

Risk of Introduction

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Risk of introduction for this species appears to be mid-to-high, as it has spread beyond its native range and become naturalized, even invasive, to non-native environments (Randall, 2012; Govaerts, 2014; PIER, 2014). S. arvensis propagates by seeds and is a potential seed contaminant (USDA-ARS, 2014). As a low, creeping plant known to be a common invasive species in China, Chile, Australia, Taiwan, and parts of the Asia-Pacific (PIER, 2014), S. arvensis has been reported as a ‘serious weed’ in Austria, Brazil, and Hawaii, a ‘principal weed’ in Australia, Poland, Portugal, and Sweden, a ‘common weed’ in Argentina, England, Italy, and Turkey, and weedy in Canada, Iran, Jamaica, Jordan, Mauritius, Norway, New Zealand, Peru, and the United States  (Holm et al., 1979). It is an agricultural weed in Australia and Europe, and in Italy and Slovenia it is known to invade carrot crops (Randall, 2012; Queensland Government, 2012). Considering both its known invasiveness and weediness around the world, but also that it is responsive to herbicides (Hurford, 2007), the risk of introduction for this species is mid-to-high.  

Habitat

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S. arvensis is often found in waste places and disturbed areas. It is reportedly a main agricultural weed in carrot crops in Italy and Slovenia (Randall, 2012). In China and Bermuda, it has been reported to be weedy in waste areas or previously cultivated land (Britton, 1918; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014). It is found in the Central Brazilian Savanna and Atlantic Rainforest of Brazil (Forzza et al., 2010), while in Bolivia, it occurs in the Yungas and dry valley vegetation zones (Bolivia Checklist, 2014). In Peru, it has been observed growing in coastal regions in disturbed areas and rocky slopes (Peru Checklist, 2014). In Queensland, Australia and New Zealand, the species is a weed of gardens, fields, pastures, waste places, roadsides, river beds, and cultivation and disturbed sites (PIER, 2014; Queensland Government, 2012).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Natural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Rocky areas / lava flows Present, no further details Natural
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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S. arvensis is an agricultural weed in Europe including Italy and Slovenia, where it invades carrot crops (Randall, 2012). In Wales, UK, S. arvensis was identified as an abundant arable weed that affects spring barley and grass crops (Hurford, 2007).

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Gametophytic count = 5; sporophytic count = 10, 18 (IPCN Chromosome Reports, 2014).

Environmental Requirements

S. arvensis is reportedly intolerant of dense shade and generally prefers soils with pH of 6.0 or less (Hurford, 2007), dry habitats and low elevations. It has been reported growing in Peru at altitudes of 0-500 m (Peru Checklist, 2014), in the Galapagos Islands between elevations of 0 and 1000 m (Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014) and in the Andean region of Bolivia between elevations of 1500-2000 and 2500-3000 m (Bolivia Checklist, 2014). In Hawaii the species is reportedly naturalized at low elevations up to 1200 m with dry, disturbed habitats (PIER, 2014). It was previously reported to occur at 1400-1600 m in fields, meadows, and roadsides of Haiti (Urban, 1898-1928).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
BS - Steppe climate Preferred > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
BW - Desert climate Preferred < 430mm annual precipitation
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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S. arvensis does not regenerate by cuttings, but is known as a potential seed contaminant (USDA-ARS, 2014). It is probably through seed contamination that the species was introduced beyond its native range and into the Neotropics, Asia-Pacific, and other areas where it has been reported, as there are no reports of its intentional cultivation. It is unlikely to be dispersed by livestock as it is known to be toxic, causing nervous disorders and ‘staggering’, especially among sheep (Hill, 1986). 

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Human health Negative

Economic Impact

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The spread of S. arvensis presents negative environmental and economic impacts, as it is known to be an invasive species as well as an agricultural and environmental weed (Holm et al., 1979; Hurford, 2007; Randall, 2012; PIER, 2014). It causes nervous disorders in livestock, especially sheep (Hill, 1986), causing them to stagger- thus the common name ‘stagger weed’- and could thus pose a negative impact to human health.

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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S. arvensis is very similar to a fellow member of the Lamiaceae family, Lamiumamplexicaule; these can be distinguished by the leaves on the flowering stems, which are stalked in S. arvensis and sessile (attached without a stalk) and kidney-shaped in L. amplexicaule.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

S. arvensis is reportedly sensitive to herbicides and nitrogen input as well as shade and soils with pH above 6; it is thus not considered difficult to control, and was listed in 100 of the most rapidly declining weed species in the UK (Hurford, 2007).

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Bolivia Checklist, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Bolivia, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/NameSearch.aspx?projectid=13

Britton NL, 1918. Flora of Bermuda. New York, USA: Charles Scribner's Sons. 585 pp.

Britton NL; Brown A, 1898. An Illustrated Flora of the Northern United States, Canada and the British Possessions: From Newfoundland to the Parallel of the Southern Boundary of Virginia, and from the Atlantic Ocean Westward to the 102d Meridian. Volume 3, Apocynaceae to Compositae. New York NY, USA: Charles Scribner's Sons, 588 pp.

Burrows GE; Tyrl RJ, 2012. Toxic Plants of North America, 2nd edition. Arnes, AL, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 1390 pp.

Calflora, 2014. Calflora: Information on California plants for education, research and conservation, with data contributed by public and private institutions and individuals, including the Consortium of California Herbaria. Berkeley CA, USA: The Calflora Database. http://www.calflora.org/

DAISIE, 2014. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. www.europe-aliens.org/default.do

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Forzza R, 2010. List of species of the Flora of Brazil (Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil). http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2012/

Govaerts R, 2014. World Checklist of Lamiaceae. Richmond, London, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew. http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Hill RJ, 1986. Poisonous plants of Pennsylvania. Harrisburg, PA, USA: Pennsylvania Dept. of Agriculture, Bureau of Plant Industry, 175 pp. http://cal.vet.upenn.edu/projects/poison/agbook/cover.htm

Holm LG; Pancho JV; Herbenger JP; Plucknett DL, 1979. A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons.

Hurford C, 2007. Monitoring arable weeds at Newton Farm. In: Monitoring nature conservation in cultural habitats: A practical guide and case studies [ed. by Hurford, C. \Schneider, M.]. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Springer Press, 169-184.

IPCN Chromosome Reports, 2014. Index to Plant Chromosome Numbers (IPCN), Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://tropicos.org/Project/IPCN

Kew Gardner Database, 2014. Database of George Gardner botanical collections from Brazil (Angiosperms). Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens Kew. http://www.kew.org/science/tropamerica/gardner/Database_Gardner.pdf

Liogier HA; Martorell LF, 2000. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis, 2nd edition revised. San Juan, Puerto Rico: La Editorial, University of Puerto Rico, 382 pp.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2015. Missouri Botanical Garden Plant Finder. St. Louis, MO, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.missouribotanicalgarden.org/plantfinder/plantfindersearch.aspx

NatureServe, 2014. NatureServe Explorer Comprehensive Species Reports. Arlington, VA, USA: NatureServe. http://explorer.natureserve.org/servlet/NatureServe

Peru Checklist, 2014. The Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PEC

PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Quattrocchi U, 2012. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology [ed. by Quattrocchi, U.]. London, UK: CRC Press Inc., 3960 pp.

Queensland Government, 2012. Weeds of Australia. Biosecurity Queensland Edition. Australia: The University of Queensland. http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Smith AW, 1971. A Gardener's Dictionary of Plant Names: A Handbook on the Origin and Meaning of Some Plant Names, revised and enlarged by William T. Stearn. London, UK: Cassell and Co., 391 pp.

Smith PH, 2008. Further additions to the Inventory of Vascular Plants for the Sefton Coast. http://www.seftoncoast.org.uk/pdf/smith_200801a.pdf

University of Hawaii, 2014. Department of Botany Vascular Plant Family Access Page: Lamiaceae (Labiatae). Honolulu, USA: University of Hawaii. http://www.botany.hawaii.edu/faculty/carr/lami.htm

Urban I, 1898-1928. Symbolae Antillanae: Seu fundamenta florae Indiae Occidentalis. Berolini, Germany: Fratres Borntraeger.

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2014. The PLANTS Database. Baton Rouge, USA: National Plant Data Center. http://plants.usda.gov/

Vascular Plants of Ecuador, 2014. Catalogue of the Vascular Plants of Ecuador, Tropicos website. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://tropicos.org/Project/CE

Wagner WL; Herbst DR; Lorence DH, 2014. Flora of the Hawaiian Islands website. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution,. http://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/index.htm

Wyk BEvan; Wink M, 2004. Medicinal Plants of the World: An Illustrated Scientific Guide to Important Medicinal Plants and Their Uses. Portland, OR, USA: Timber Press, 480 pp.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indieshttp://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm
Flora of the Hawaiian Islandshttp://botany.si.edu/pacificislandbiodiversity/hawaiianflora/index.htm
Kew World Checklist of Selected Plant Familieshttp://apps.kew.org/wcsp/

Contributors

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24/08/2014 Original text by:

Marianne Jennifer Datiles, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Distribution Maps

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