Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Spinacia oleracea



Spinacia oleracea (spinach)


  • Last modified
  • 17 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Spinacia oleracea
  • Preferred Common Name
  • spinach
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae

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Spinach (S. oleracea) seedlings grown as field crop.
TitleField crop
CaptionSpinach (S. oleracea) seedlings grown as field crop.
Spinach (S. oleracea) seedlings grown as field crop.
Field cropSpinach (S. oleracea) seedlings grown as field crop.©AgrEvo
Spinach (S. oleracea) being commercially harvested.
CaptionSpinach (S. oleracea) being commercially harvested.
Spinach (S. oleracea) being commercially harvested.
HarvestingSpinach (S. oleracea) being commercially harvested.©AgrEvo


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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Spinacia oleracea L.

Preferred Common Name

  • spinach

Other Scientific Names

  • Spinacia inermis Moench., nom. illeg.
  • Spinacia spinosa Moench., nom. illeg.

International Common Names

  • Spanish: espinaca
  • French: epinard
  • Portuguese: espinafre

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Spinat
  • India: pinni; saag
  • Italy: spinacio
  • Japan: horenso
  • Netherlands: spinazie
  • Sweden: spenat

EPPO code

  • SPQOL (Spinacia oleracea)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Caryophyllales
  •                         Family: Chenopodiaceae
  •                             Genus: Spinacia
  •                                 Species: Spinacia oleracea

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 14 Feb 2022
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes


Congo, Republic of thePresentSpinach production (2008) 1,200 MT (F)
EgyptPresentSpinach production (2008) 66,665 MT
KenyaPresentSpinach production (2008) 47,463 MT (F)
South AfricaPresent
TunisiaPresentSpinach production (2008) 19,000 MT (F)


BangladeshPresentSpinach production (2008) 44,030 MT
BruneiPresentSpinach production (2008) 600 MT (F)
ChinaPresentSpinach production (2008) 1,251,2005 MT (F)
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
IndonesiaPresentSpinach production (2008) 152,130 MT
IraqPresentSpinach production (2008) 3,000 MT (F)
IsraelPresentSpinach production (2008) 564 MT
JapanPresentSpinach production (2008) 302,000 MT (F)
JordanPresentSpinach production (2008) 4,850 MT
KuwaitPresentSpinach production (2008) 1,000 MT (F)
LebanonPresentSpinach production (2008) 3,600 MT (F)
PakistanPresentSpinach production (2008) 82,239 MT
PhilippinesPresentSpinach production (2008) 570 MT (F)
QatarPresentSpinach production (2008) 479 MT (F)
SingaporePresentSpinach production (2008) 2,012 MT (F)
South KoreaPresentSpinach production (2008) 93,441 MT
TurkeyPresentSpinach production (2008) 225,746 MT
United Arab EmiratesPresentSpinach production (2008) 1,150 MT (F)


AlbaniaPresentSpinach production (2008) 6,000 MT (F)
BelgiumPresentIntroducedFirst reported: <1850
BulgariaPresentSpinach production (2008) 492 MT
CzechiaPresentSpinach production (2008) 2,200 MT (F)
DenmarkPresentSpinach production (2008) 0 MT (M)
EstoniaPresent, Only in captivity/cultivationIntroduced1807
FinlandPresentSpinach production (2008) 766 MT
FrancePresentSpinach production (2008) 143,487 MT (F)
GermanyPresentSpinach production (2008) 62,472 MT
GreecePresentSpinach production (2008) 44,200 MT
HungaryPresentSpinach production (2008) 2,900 MT (F)
ItalyPresentSpinach production (2008) 90,000 MT (F)
LithuaniaPresentSpinach production (2008) 56 MT
MaltaPresentSpinach production (2008) 300 MT (F)
NetherlandsPresentSpinach production (2008) 42,500 MT
PortugalPresentSpinach production (2008) 16,000 MT (F)
RomaniaPresentSpinach production (2008) 1,408 MT
SlovakiaPresentIntroducedFirst reported: 1791. First reported in wild: 1830
SloveniaPresentSpinach production (2008) 329 MT
SpainPresentSpinach production (2008) 66,000 MT (F)
SwedenPresentIntroducedFirst reported: <1909
SwitzerlandPresentSpinach production (2008) 17,485 MT (F)
United KingdomPresentIntroducedFirst reported: 1887 (publication)

North America

CanadaPresentSpinach production (2008) 3,944 MT
HaitiPresentSpinach production (2008) 850 MT
JamaicaPresentSpinach production (2008) 11,184 MT
MexicoPresentSpinach production (2008) 17,250 MT
United StatesPresentSpinach production (2008) 331,430 MT
-New JerseyPresent
-New YorkPresent
-North CarolinaPresent


AustraliaPresentSpinach production (2008) 9,044 MT (F)
New ZealandPresentSpinach production (2008) 2,150 MT (F)

South America

-Sao PauloPresent
ColombiaPresentSpinach production (2008) 4,845 MT
PeruPresentSpinach production (2008) 11,952 MT (F)


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Elzebroek, T., Wind, K., 2008. Guide to cultivated plants., Guide to cultivated plants:vii-xi + 516 pp.


FAOSTAT, 2010. Spinach production statistics

Larson, L.L., 1997. Effects of adjuvants on the activity of Tracer™ 480SC on cotton in the laboratory. Arthropod Management Tests 22, 415–416.

LeStrange, M., Koike, S.T., 2012. UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Spinach. UC ANR Publication 3467, Diseases, UC Cooperative Extension, Statewide IPM Program. Available at: r732100111.html#SYMPTOMS (accessed 7 January 2013).

LeStrange, M., Koike, S.T., Chaney, W.E., 2012. UC IPM Pest Management Guidelines: Spinach, UC ANR Publication 3467, Insects and Mites, UC Cooperative Extension, Statewide IPM Program, Agriculture and Natural Resources. Available at: www.ipm.ucdavis. edu/PMG/r732300411.html (accessed 7 January 2013).

Rahmatullah Qureshi, Bhatti, G. R., 2001. Determination of weed communities in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) fields of district Sukkur. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 33(1), 109-115.

USDA, 2012. Vegetables 2011 summary

Welbaum, G. E., 2015. Vegetable production and practices., Vegetable production and practices:ix + 476 pp.

Distribution References

Ali H B, Agarwala B K, Kaddou I K, 2012. New records of aphids of the Subfamily Aphidinae (Homoptera: Aphididae) infested herbaceous plants and shrubs for Iraqi aphid fauna. Advances in Bio Research. 3 (4), 66-75.

Bassimba D D M, Mira J L, Vicent A, 2014. First report of leaf spot of spinach caused by Pleospora betae in Spain. Plant Disease. 98 (11), 1583. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-04-14-0367-PDN

Basyony A B A, Ibrahim I K A, Zeyadah S M A, Kawanna M A I, 2020. Survey of plant parasitic nematode associated with spinach, Swiss chard and table beet in north Egypt. Alexandria Science Exchange. 41 (4), 471-477. DOI:10.21608/asejaiqjsae.2020.128309

CABI, Undated. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Castillo P, Jiménez-Díaz R M, 2003. First report of Meloidogyne incognita infecting spinach in Southern Spain. Plant Disease. 87 (7), 874. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2003.87.7.874C

Correll J C, Feng C, 2014. First report of Peronospora farinosa f. sp. spinaciae causing downy mildew on spinach in Egypt. Plant Disease. 98 (7), 994. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-08-13-0870-PDN

Czajka A, Czubatka A, Sobolewski J, Robak J, 2015. First report of alternaria leaf spot caused by Alternaria alternata on spinach in Poland. Plant Disease. 99 (5), 729. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-10-14-1090-PDN

Demir N, Buzkan N, Balsak S C, 2019. Occurence of beet western yellows virus in spinach in Turkey. Journal of Plant Pathology. 101 (1), 205-205. DOI:10.1007/s42161-018-0153-4

Fotopoulos V, Dovas C I, Katis N I, 2011. Incidence of viruses infecting spinach in Greece, highlighting the importance of weeds as reservoir hosts. Journal of Plant Pathology. 93 (2), 389-395.

Garibaldi A, Gilardi G, Franco-Ortega S, Gullino M L, 2016. First report of leaf spot of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) caused by Myrothecium verrucaria in Italy. Plant Disease. 100 (8), 1786-1787. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-01-16-0012-PDN

Garibaldi A, Gilardi G, Ortu G, Gullino M L, 2015. Root rot of spinach in southern Italy caused by Pythium aphanidermatum. Plant Disease. 99 (1), 159. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-14-0769-PDN

Gilardi G, Franco-Ortega S, Gullino M L, Garibaldi A, 2018. First report of leaf spot of spinach caused by Stemphylium beticola in Italy. Plant Disease. 102 (10), 2036. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-02-18-0265-PDN

Giliomee J H, 2016. First record of Ellimenistes laesicollis (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as a garden pest in the Western Cape, South Africa. African Entomology. 24 (2), 536-538. DOI:10.4001/003.024.0536

Gratsia M E, Kyriakopoulou P E, Voloudakis A E, Fasseas C, Tzanetakis I E, 2012. First report of Olive mild mosaic virus and Sowbane mosaic virus in spinach in Greece. Plant Disease. 96 (8), 1230. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-03-12-0273-PDN

Irish B M, Correll J C, Koike S T, Morelock T E, 2007. Three new races of the spinach downy mildew pathogen identified by a modified set of spinach differentials. Plant Disease. 91 (11), 1392-1396. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-91-11-1392

Irish B M, Correll J C, Koike S T, Schafer J, Morelock T E, 2003. Identification and cultivar reaction to three new races of the spinach downy mildew pathogen from the United States and Europe. Plant Disease. 87 (5), 567-572. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2003.87.5.567

Irish B M, Correll J C, Raid R N, Morelock T E, 2004. First report of Peronospora farinosa f. sp. spinaciae race 5 causing downy mildew on spinach in Florida. Plant Disease. 88 (1), 84. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2004.88.1.84C

Kırıșık M, Topuz E, Çobanoğlu S, 2018. Tyrophagus neiswanderi (Acari: Acaridae) as a pest of greenhouse spinach in Antalya, Turkey. Tarim Bilimleri Dergisi. 24 (4), 517-522.

Knight N L, Vaghefi N, Kikkert J R, Pethybridge S J, 2019. Alternative hosts of Cercospora beticola in field surveys and inoculation trials. Plant Disease. 103 (8), 1983-1990. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-01-19-0229-RE

Koike S T, Azad H R, Cooksey D C, 2002. First report of bacterial leaf spot of spinach caused by a Pseudomonas syringae pathovar in California. Plant Disease. 86 (8), 921. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2002.86.8.921A

Koike S T, Feng C, Correll J C, 2015. Powdery mildew, caused by Leveillula taurica, on spinach in California. Plant Disease. 99 (4), 555. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-14-0977-PDN

Koike S T, Martin F N, 2010. First report of Phytophthora root rot caused by Phytophthora cryptogea on spinach in California. Plant Disease. 94 (1), 131. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-94-1-0131B

Koike S T, Tian T, Liu H Y, 2010. First report of Tobacco rattle virus in spinach in California. Plant Disease. 94 (1), 125. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-94-1-0125B

Kondaiah R H, Sreeramulu A, 2014. Survey on fungal diseased crops in Cuddapah District of Andhra Pradesh. Indian Journal of Fundamental and Applied Life Sciences. 4 (1), 244-251.

Kuramae E E, Buzeto A L, Ciampi M B, Souza N L, 2003. Identification of Rhizoctonia solani AG 1-IB in lettuce, AG 4 HG-I in tomato and melon, and AG 4 HG-III in broccoli and spinach, in Brazil. European Journal of Plant Pathology. 109 (4), 391-395. DOI:10.1023/A:1023591520981

Kurt Ș, Uysal A, Akgül D S, 2016. First report of anthracnose caused by Colletotrichum spinaciae on spinach in the Mediterranean region of Turkey. Plant Disease. 100 (1), 219. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-04-15-0488-PDN

Liu H Y, Mou B, Richardson K, Koike S T, 2010. First report of Beet necrotic yellow vein virus infecting spinach in California. Plant Disease. 94 (5), 640. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-94-5-0640A

Liu H Y, Sears J L, Mou B, 2009. Spinach (Spinacia oleracea) is a new natural host of Impatiens necrotic spot virus in California. Plant Disease. 93 (6), 673. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-93-6-0673C

Mukhtar I, Khokhar I, Yan Y, Xie B, 2019. First report of cercospora leaf spot caused by Cercospora beticola on spinach in Pakistan. Plant Disease. 103 (7), 1779-1780. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-12-18-2274-PDN

Rahmatullah Qureshi, Bhatti G R, 2001. Determination of weed communities in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) fields of district Sukkur. Pakistan Journal of Botany. 33 (1), 109-115.

Rashtra Vardhana, 2017. Plant's diseases of district Ghaziabad and adjacent areas. Plant Archives. 17 (1), 727-732.

Scruggs A C, Butler S C, Quesada-Ocampo L M, 2014. First report of Cladosporium leaf spot of spinach caused by Cladosporium variabile in North Carolina. Plant Disease. 98 (12), 1741. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-05-14-0474-PDN

Seebens H, Blackburn T M, Dyer E E, Genovesi P, Hulme P E, Jeschke J M, Pagad S, Pyšek P, Winter M, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Blasius B, Brundu G, Capinha C, Celesti-Grapow L, Dawson W, Dullinger S, Fuentes N, Jäger H, Kartesz J, Kenis M, Kreft H, Kühn I, Lenzner B, Liebhold A, Mosena A (et al), 2017. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nature Communications. 8 (2), 14435.

Sigillo L, Senape V, Serratore G, Infantino A, 2014. Occurrence of Fusarium wilt caused by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. spinaciae on spinach (Spinacia oleracea) in Southern Italy. Plant Disease. 98 (7), 1003. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-12-13-1208-PDN

Soylu E M, Kara M, Kurt Ș, Uysal A, Shin H D, Choi Y J, Soylu S, 2018a. First report of downy mildew disease caused by Peronospora effusa on spinach in Turkey. Plant Disease. 102 (9), 1854. DOI:10.1094/pdis-01-18-0102-pdn

Soylu S, Kara M, Kurt Ș, Uysal A, Shin H D, Choi Y J, Soylu E M, 2018. First report of white blister rust disease caused by Albugo occidentalis on spinach in Turkey. Plant Disease. 102 (4), 826-827. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-10-17-1561-PDN

Synoground T, Batson A, Derie M L, Koenick L B, Pethybridge S J, Toit L J du, 2020. First report of Cercospora leaf spot caused by Cercospora chenopodii on Spinacia oleracea in the U.S.A. Plant Disease. 104 (3), 976-976. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-19-1924-PDN

Takada H, 2002. Parasitoids (Hymenoptera: Braconidae, Aphidiinae; Aphelinidae) of four principal pest aphids (Homoptera: Aphididae) on greenhouse vegetable crops in Japan. Applied Entomology and Zoology. 37 (2), 237-249. DOI:10.1303/aez.2002.237

Toit L J du, Derie M L, Hernandez-Perez P, 2005. Verticillium wilt in spinach seed production. Plant Disease. 89 (1), 4-11. DOI:10.1094/PD-89-0004

Vakalounakis D J, Doulis A G, 2013. First record of white rust, caused by Albugo occidentalis, on spinach in Greece. Plant Disease. 97 (9), 1253-1254. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-02-13-0198-PDN

Yılmaz N D K, Altop E K, Mennan C J P H, 2016. New natural weed host Raphanus raphanistrum L. (Brassicaceae) for Beet necrotic yellow vein virus and its vector Polymyxa betae Keskin. Turkish Journal of Agriculture and Forestry. 40 (1), 120-126.

Yuki V A, Mituti T, Rezende J A M, Salarori R B, Kitajima E W, Kitajima J P, 2017. First report of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) wilt caused by Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) in Brazil. Plant Disease. 101 (12), 2154. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-04-17-0560-PDN

Distribution Maps

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