Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (internal cork disease of sweet potato)
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Risk of Introduction
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Seedborne Aspects
- Plant Trade
- Vectors and Intermediate Hosts
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Sweet potato feathery mottle virus
Preferred Common Name
- internal cork disease of sweet potato
Other Scientific Names
- sweet potato chlorotic leaf spot virus
- sweet potato feathery mottle potyvirus
- sweet potato internal cork virus
- sweet potato ringspot virus
- sweet potato russet crack virus
- sweet potato vein mosaic virus
- sweet potato virus A
- SPFMV0 (Sweet potato feathery mottle potyvirus)
- sweet potato vein clearing virus
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Virus
- Group: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
- Group: "RNA viruses"
- Family: Potyviridae
- Genus: Potyvirus
- Species: Sweet potato feathery mottle virus
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) is a typical species of the Potyvirus genus (Campbell et al., 1974; Moyer and Cali, 1985; Pozzer et al., 1995), one of six genera included in the family Potyviridae (Berger et al., 2005). Like many other potyviruses, SPFMV has a narrow host range, is transmissible in the non-persistent manner by aphids, induces in infected plants cytoplasmic intracellular inclusions, has flexuous filamentous particles, measuring ca 12 x 810-865 nm, that contain positive-sense single stranded RNA of ca 10 kb and a single coat protein of ca 36 kDa.
Several isolates and strains of SPFMV have been characterized in different parts of the world, perhaps the most important ones being the ordinary (O) (Usugi et al., 1991), russet crack (RC) (Moyer and Salazar, 1989), severe (S) (Mori et al., 1995) and East African (EA) strains because they directly affect root and tuber quality. Virus strains have also been shown to differ genomically (Mori et al., 1995; Colinet et al., 1998); the EA strain is known to occur only in East Africa and is genetically distant to other strains, but the RC strain occurs in Australia, Africa, North America and Asia, the O strain in Africa, Asia and South America and the S strain in Australia, Africa, Asia and North and South America (Tairo et al., 2005). SPFMV is serologically distantly related to Sweet potato latent virus (Hammond et al., 1992) and several other potyviruses (Jain et al., 1993).
DescriptionTop of page Like other potyviruses, SPFMV has flexuous filamentous particles; these mostly measure ca 12 x 810-865 nm and have helical symmetry with a pitch of ca 3.4 nm. The particles have a buoyant density of 1.31g/cm³ and a sedimentation coefficient of ca 150S. Each contains a single, positive-sense RNA of 9.7 kb and a capsid protein of 36 to 38 kDa (Nome et al., 1974; Moyer and Kennedy, 1978; Moyer and Cali, 1985; Clark and Moyer, 1988).
DistributionTop of page Sweet potato probably originated in the Americas (Gibson and Aritua, 2002) and has long been grown in numerous countries worldwide. SPFMV has a very wide geographical distribution and now probably occurs wherever sweet potatoes are grown; this is probably due to inadvertent international distribution of virus-infected tubers for many years before the virus was recognized and/or methods were available for its detection and identification. It is reasonable, therefore, to consider that the virus is native to all countries in which it has been reported.
SPFMV is found with Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus in many countries; such complex infection causes a severe disease known as sweet potato virus disease. In Argentina, sweet potatoes containing SPFMV, SPCSV and Sweet potato mild speckling virus develop a very severe disease known as sweet potato chlorotic dwarf (Feo et al., 1995, 2000).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Cameroon||Present||Ngeve and Bouwkamp (1991)|
|Congo, Democratic Republic of the||Present||Atcham et al. (1983)|
|Egypt||Present||CABI (Undated b)|
|Kenya||Present||CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)|
|Madagascar||Present||Native||Invasive||CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)|
|Niger||Present||Native||Invasive||CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)|
|Nigeria||Present||CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)|
|Rwanda||Present||Njeru et al. (2008)|
|South Africa||Present||Rännäli et al. (2009); Domola et al. (2008)|
|Tanzania||Present||CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)|
|Togo||Present||CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)|
|Uganda||Present||CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)|
|Zambia||Present||CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)|
|Zimbabwe||Present||CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)|
|China||Present||Native||Invasive||CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)|
|-Henan||Present||CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)|
|-Jiangsu||Present||CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)|
|-Shandong||Present||CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)|
|India||Present||Kumar et al. (1991); Jain et al. (1993); Jeeva et al. (2004)|
|-Andhra Pradesh||Present||Prasanth and Hegde (2008)|
|-Kerala||Present||Prasanth and Hegde (2008)|
|-Odisha||Present||Prasanth and Hegde (2008)|
|-West Bengal||Present||Sinha and Tarafdar (2007)|
|Israel||Absent, Formerly present||CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)|
|Japan||Present||Native||Invasive||CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)|
|-Kyushu||Present||CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)|
|-Ryukyu Islands||Present||CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)|
|South Korea||Present||Native||Invasive||CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)|
|Syria||Present||Akel et al. (2010)|
|Taiwan||Present||CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)|
|Vietnam||Present||Ha et al. (2008)|
|Italy||Present||Parrella et al. (2006)|
|Spain||Present||CABI (Undated)||Original citation: Valverde et al. (2004)|
|Canada||Present||CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)|
|-Ontario||Present||CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)|
|Costa Rica||Present||CABI (Undated)||Original citation: Valverde and Moreira (2004)|
|Puerto Rico||Present||Laakso and Moyer (1989)|
|United States||Present||Native||Invasive||CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)|
|-California||Present||CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)|
|-Kansas||Present||CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)|
|-Louisiana||Present||CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)|
|-Maryland||Present||CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)|
|-Mississippi||Present||CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)|
|-North Carolina||Present||CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)|
|Australia||Present||CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)|
|-New South Wales||Present||CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)|
|-Northern Territory||Present||CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)|
|-Queensland||Present||CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)|
|-Western Australia||Present||Jones and Dwyer (2007)|
|Fiji||Present||CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)|
|French Polynesia||Present||Rännäli et al. (2009)|
|New Zealand||Present||Rännäli et al. (2009)|
|Solomon Islands||Present||CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)|
|Tonga||Present||CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)|
|Argentina||Present||CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)|
|Brazil||Present||CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)|
|-Goias||Present||CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)|
|-Pernambuco||Present||CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)|
|-Rio Grande do Sul||Present||CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)|
|Chile||Present||CABI (Undated a)||Present based on regional distribution.|
|-Easter Island||Present||Rännäli et al. (2009)|
|Peru||Present||CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)|
|Venezuela||Present||CABI and EPPO (2003); EPPO (2020)|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page Risk Criteria Category
Economic Importance High
Seedborne Incidence No
Seed Transmitted No
Seed Treatment None
Vector Transmission High
Transmission in planting materials High
Overall Risk High
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page The main natural host of SPFMV is sweet potato, although the virus also occurs in wild Ipomoea species which are reservoirs of SPFMV (Clark et al., 1986).
The experimental host range of the virus is mainly restricted to species of the Convolvulaceae and Chenopodiaceae; a few strains, however, also infect species of the Solanaceae, of which Nicotiana benthamiana is a good propagation host for purification of the virus (Clark and Moyer, 1988). Several strains induce local lesions on Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa.
Chenopodiaceae: Chenopodium murale, C. amaranticolor, C. quinoa and Spinacia oleracea (several strains).
Convolvulaceae: Calonyction aculeatum, Ipomoea hederacea, I. incarnata, I. lacunosa, I. purpurea, I. trichocarpa, I. tricolor, I. wrightii, Merremia sibirica and Quamoclit lobata.
Solanaceae: Datura metel, Nicotiana benthamiana, N. clevelandii, N. occidentalis and N. tabacum (some strains).
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed)||Amaranthaceae||Wild host|
|Atriplex hastata||Chenopodiaceae||Wild host|
|Brassica oleracea var. capitata (cabbage)||Brassicaceae||Wild host|
|Calendula officinalis (Pot marigold)||Asteraceae||Wild host|
|Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)||Solanaceae||Wild host|
|Chenopodium (Goosefoot)||Chenopodiaceae||Wild host|
|Chenopodium polyspermum (Manyseeded goosefoot)||Chenopodiaceae||Wild host|
|Convolvulus arvensis (bindweed)||Convolvulaceae||Wild host|
|Cucurbita maxima (giant pumpkin)||Cucurbitaceae||Wild host|
|Hewittia sublobata||Convolvulaceae||Wild host|
|Ipomoea (morning glory)||Convolvulaceae||Wild host|
|Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato)||Convolvulaceae||Unknown|
|Lepistemon owariensis||Convolvulaceae||Wild host|
|Mentha arvensis (Corn mint)||Lamiaceae||Wild host|
|Phaseolus lunatus (lima bean)||Fabaceae||Wild host|
|Sinapis arvensis (wild mustard)||Brassicaceae||Wild host|
|Spinacia oleracea (spinach)||Chenopodiaceae||Wild host|
|Taraxacum officinale complex (dandelion)||Asteraceae||Wild host|
Growth StagesTop of page Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage
SymptomsTop of page Leaf symptoms of SPFMV are often inconspicuous or absent. If present, leaf symptoms appear as faint, irregular chlorotic spots occasionally bordered by purplish pigment. The classic irregular chlorotic patterns (feathering) along midribs and faint-to-distinct chlorotic spots, with or without purple margins, occur in some cultivars. Symptom intensity on foliage is influenced by cultivar susceptibility, degree of stress, growth stage and strain virulence. Increased stress can lead to symptom expression, whereas rapid growth may result in symptom remission. Symptoms on storage roots depend on the strain of SPFMV and the sweet potato variety. The common strain causes no symptom on any variety, but the 'russet crack' strain causes external necrotic lesions or internal cork on certain varieties (Clark and Moyer, 1988; Ames et al., 1996).
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Leaves / abnormal colours|
|Leaves / abnormal patterns|
Biology and EcologyTop of page SPFMV has a narrow host range; it is disseminated in infected tubers and cuttings, and is transmitted from infected to healthy plants by aphids in the non-persistent manner. It is not seedborne or soilborne but is experimentally transmissible by grafting and mechanical inoculation.
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page Vector transmission
Like other potyviruses, SPFMV is transmitted from infected to healthy plants by aphids in the non-persistent manner (Sheffield, 1957; Clark and Moyer, 1988; Pozzer et al., 1993, 1995; Ames et al., 1996). The most important vector species are Myzus persicae, Aphis gossypii, A. craccivora and Lipaphis erysimi, but other species are also vectors (Pozzer et al., 1993, 1995; Ames et al., 1996).
The virus is disseminated in infected tubers and cuttings taken from infected plants.
SPFMV is not seedborne.
The virus is transmissible experimentally by grafting and by mechanical inoculation to its known hosts.
Seedborne AspectsTop of page The virus is not seedborne (Cadena-Hinojosa and Campbell, 1981; Wolters et al., 1990).
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Fruits (inc. pods)||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Leaves||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Roots||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Seedlings/Micropropagated plants||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Growing medium accompanying plants|
|True seeds (inc. grain)|
Vectors and Intermediate HostsTop of page
ImpactTop of page Some isolates of SPFMV cause economic losses (Campbell et al., 1974), especially in intolerant cultivars (Clark and Moyer, 1988; Byamukama et al., 2002; Bryan et al., 2003a,b; Carroll et al., 2004; Njeru et al., 2004; Zhang et al., 2005). SPFMV is very damaging when it occurs in complex with Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (e.g., Schaeffers and Terry 1976; Karyeija et al., 2000b; Yun et al., 2002; Gutierrez et al., 2003) and especially so in Argentina when Sweet potato mild fleck virus is also present in complex with both of the other viruses (Feo et al., 1995, 2000).
Virus-free sweet potato plants yield significantly more than those infected in the field (e.g., Pozzer et al., 1995; Bryan et al., 2003a,b; Zhang et al., 2005).
DiagnosisTop of page
SPFMV is mechanically transmissible to, and induces conspicuous symptoms in, the following useful indicator plants:
Ipomoea nil - systemic infection causing vein-clearing, vein banding, epinasty and crinkling of leaves. Some severe strains induce stunting, necrosis and the death of the plant.
Ipomoea setosa - systemic infection causing chlorotic vein-clearing, vein-banding and chlorotic spots of leaves. This plant is used as an indexing host when infected by grafting.
Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa - chlorotic lesions on inoculated leaves, but no systemic infection.
SPFMV is readily detected and identified by several serological techniques using polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies (Hammond et al., 1992; Muller et al., 2002) including Immunobsorbent electron microscopy (ISEM), Double antibody sandwich (DAS-) and Nitrocellulose membrane (NCM-) ELISA (Abad and Moyer, 1992; Kroth et al., 2001; Bryan et al., 2003a; Jeeva et al., 2004a; Tairo et al., 2004), Western blotting (Yun et al., 2002) and Dot Immunobinding Assay (Dje and Diallo, 2005). Detection of virus in sweet potatoes, however, is more difficult, especially in symptomless tissues or plants (Cadena-Hinojosa and Campbell, 1981; Kumar et al., 1991; Abad and Moyer, 1992; Gibb and Padovan, 1993; Jeeva et al., 2004a; Zhang et al., 2005).
Nucleic acid Spot Hybridization (NASH)
Early detection of SPFMV is not usually possible using serological techniques. However, symptomless infection can be detected using NASH with strain-specific or wide spectrum non-radioactive (Abad and Moyer, 1992) or radioactive probes (Querci et al., 1992).
Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)
SPFMV can be detected and identified by PCR using virus- or genus-specific primers (Colinet et al., 1994, 1998; Tanaka et al., 2001; Ryu and Choi, 2002; Mukasa et al., 2003a; Iwanami, 2004; Valverde et al., 2004; Zhang et al., 2005). Due to its great sensitivity and reliability, this is now the preferred method of detecting SPFMV where appropriate facilities are available.
More recently, Reverse Transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) has been employed for diagnosis. An immune-capture RT-PCR method of SPFMV diagnosis was developed by Kroth et al. (2005). A multiplex RT-PCR assay was used to detect SPMFV in sweet potato in Uganda (Rukarwa et al., 2010).
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.As SPFMV is transmitted in the non-persistent manner by aphids, control of the aphid vectors in field crops is not economically feasible. The main control measures are the production and use of virus-free planting material, sanitation, and the use of resistant varieties (Kai et al., 2000; Karyeija et al., 2000b; Gibson et al., 2004; Iwanami, 2004). Virus-free plants have been obtained in many countries by meristem tip culture (e.g., Wambugu, 1991; Mason and Beetham, 1998; Gao et al., 2000; Carroll et al., 2004; Jeeva et al., 2004b; Zhang et al., 2005) and thermotherapy (Jeeva et al., 2004b). Resistance to SPFMV is conferred by two recessive genes (Mwanga et al., 2002).
SPFMV is perpetuated between cropping cycles in infected cuttings, the lack of symptoms in the foliage makes it difficult for farmers to select SPFMV-free cuttings. Some wild species of Ipomoea are reservoirs of SPFMV and, if present, should be removed (Clark et al., 1986).
There is a possibility that transgenic resistant plants may in future be useful in limiting the deleterious effects of SPFMV (Cipriani et al., 2001; Okada et al., 2001, 2002; Wambugu, 2003).
ReferencesTop of page
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