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Sweet potato feathery mottle virus
(internal cork disease of sweet potato)

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Datasheet

Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (internal cork disease of sweet potato)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 24 October 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Sweet potato feathery mottle virus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • internal cork disease of sweet potato
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •       Family: Potyviridae
  •         Genus: Potyvirus

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Chlorotic leaf spotting in sweet potato cv. Brondal.
TitleChlorotic leaf spotting
CaptionChlorotic leaf spotting in sweet potato cv. Brondal.
CopyrightAlan A. Brunt
Chlorotic leaf spotting in sweet potato cv. Brondal.
Chlorotic leaf spottingChlorotic leaf spotting in sweet potato cv. Brondal.Alan A. Brunt
Severe chlorotic leaf spotting in a very susceptible but unknown cultivar.
TitleSevere chlorotic leaf spotting
CaptionSevere chlorotic leaf spotting in a very susceptible but unknown cultivar.
CopyrightAlan A. Brunt
Severe chlorotic leaf spotting in a very susceptible but unknown cultivar.
Severe chlorotic leaf spottingSevere chlorotic leaf spotting in a very susceptible but unknown cultivar.Alan A. Brunt
Red rimmed chlorotic spots (A) and veinbanding (B) in leaves of sweet potato cv. Brondal.
TitleChlorotic spots and veinbanding
CaptionRed rimmed chlorotic spots (A) and veinbanding (B) in leaves of sweet potato cv. Brondal.
CopyrightAlan A. Brunt
Red rimmed chlorotic spots (A) and veinbanding (B) in leaves of sweet potato cv. Brondal.
Chlorotic spots and veinbandingRed rimmed chlorotic spots (A) and veinbanding (B) in leaves of sweet potato cv. Brondal.Alan A. Brunt
Red rimmed chlorotic spots and veinbanding in sweet potato leaf.
TitleChlorotic spots and veinbanding
CaptionRed rimmed chlorotic spots and veinbanding in sweet potato leaf.
CopyrightAlan A. Brunt
Red rimmed chlorotic spots and veinbanding in sweet potato leaf.
Chlorotic spots and veinbandingRed rimmed chlorotic spots and veinbanding in sweet potato leaf.Alan A. Brunt
Chlorotic veinbanding in Ipomoea setosa graft inoculated with SPFMV: (A) acute symptom; (B) chronic symptom.
TitleChlorotic veinbanding
CaptionChlorotic veinbanding in Ipomoea setosa graft inoculated with SPFMV: (A) acute symptom; (B) chronic symptom.
CopyrightAlan A. Brunt
Chlorotic veinbanding in Ipomoea setosa graft inoculated with SPFMV: (A) acute symptom; (B) chronic symptom.
Chlorotic veinbandingChlorotic veinbanding in Ipomoea setosa graft inoculated with SPFMV: (A) acute symptom; (B) chronic symptom.Alan A. Brunt
Acute symptoms of chlorotic veinbanding in Ipomoea setosa graft inoculated with Sweet potato feathery mottle virus.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionAcute symptoms of chlorotic veinbanding in Ipomoea setosa graft inoculated with Sweet potato feathery mottle virus.
CopyrightAlan A. Brunt
Acute symptoms of chlorotic veinbanding in Ipomoea setosa graft inoculated with Sweet potato feathery mottle virus.
SymptomsAcute symptoms of chlorotic veinbanding in Ipomoea setosa graft inoculated with Sweet potato feathery mottle virus.Alan A. Brunt
Chronic symptoms of chlorotic veinbanding in Ipomoea setosa graft inoculated with Sweet potato feathery mottle virus.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionChronic symptoms of chlorotic veinbanding in Ipomoea setosa graft inoculated with Sweet potato feathery mottle virus.
CopyrightAlan A. Brunt
Chronic symptoms of chlorotic veinbanding in Ipomoea setosa graft inoculated with Sweet potato feathery mottle virus.
SymptomsChronic symptoms of chlorotic veinbanding in Ipomoea setosa graft inoculated with Sweet potato feathery mottle virus.Alan A. Brunt

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Sweet potato feathery mottle virus

Preferred Common Name

  • internal cork disease of sweet potato

Other Scientific Names

  • sweet potato chlorotic leaf spot virus
  • sweet potato feathery mottle potyvirus
  • sweet potato internal cork virus
  • sweet potato ringspot virus
  • sweet potato russet crack virus
  • sweet potato vein mosaic virus
  • sweet potato virus A

English acronym

  • SPFMV

EPPO code

  • SPFMV0 (Sweet potato feathery mottle potyvirus)

Subspecies

  • sweet potato vein clearing virus

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Virus
  •     Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •             Family: Potyviridae
  •                 Genus: Potyvirus
  •                     Species: Sweet potato feathery mottle virus

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV) is a typical species of the Potyvirus genus (Campbell et al., 1974; Moyer and Cali, 1985; Pozzer et al., 1995), one of six genera included in the family Potyviridae (Berger et al., 2005). Like many other potyviruses, SPFMV has a narrow host range, is transmissible in the non-persistent manner by aphids, induces in infected plants cytoplasmic intracellular inclusions, has flexuous filamentous particles, measuring ca 12 x 810-865 nm, that contain positive-sense single stranded RNA of ca 10 kb and a single coat protein of ca 36 kDa.

Several isolates and strains of SPFMV have been characterized in different parts of the world, perhaps the most important ones being the ordinary (O) (Usugi et al., 1991), russet crack (RC) (Moyer and Salazar, 1989), severe (S) (Mori et al., 1995) and East African (EA) strains because they directly affect root and tuber quality. Virus strains have also been shown to differ genomically (Mori et al., 1995; Colinet et al., 1998); the EA strain is known to occur only in East Africa and is genetically distant to other strains, but the RC strain occurs in Australia, Africa, North America and Asia, the O strain in Africa, Asia and South America and the S strain in Australia, Africa, Asia and North and South America (Tairo et al., 2005). SPFMV is serologically distantly related to Sweet potato latent virus (Hammond et al., 1992) and several other potyviruses (Jain et al., 1993).

Description

Top of page Like other potyviruses, SPFMV has flexuous filamentous particles; these mostly measure ca 12 x 810-865 nm and have helical symmetry with a pitch of ca 3.4 nm. The particles have a buoyant density of 1.31g/cm³ and a sedimentation coefficient of ca 150S. Each contains a single, positive-sense RNA of 9.7 kb and a capsid protein of 36 to 38 kDa (Nome et al., 1974; Moyer and Kennedy, 1978; Moyer and Cali, 1985; Clark and Moyer, 1988).

Distribution

Top of page Sweet potato probably originated in the Americas (Gibson and Aritua, 2002) and has long been grown in numerous countries worldwide. SPFMV has a very wide geographical distribution and now probably occurs wherever sweet potatoes are grown; this is probably due to inadvertent international distribution of virus-infected tubers for many years before the virus was recognized and/or methods were available for its detection and identification. It is reasonable, therefore, to consider that the virus is native to all countries in which it has been reported.

SPFMV is found with Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus in many countries; such complex infection causes a severe disease known as sweet potato virus disease. In Argentina, sweet potatoes containing SPFMV, SPCSV and Sweet potato mild speckling virus develop a very severe disease known as sweet potato chlorotic dwarf (Feo et al., 1995, 2000).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentNative Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-HenanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-JiangsuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-ShandongPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
IndiaPresentJeeva et al., 2004a; Kumar et al., 1991; Jain et al., 1993
-Andhra PradeshPresentPrasanth and Hegde, 2008
-KeralaPresentPrasanth and Hegde, 2008
-OdishaPresentPrasanth and Hegde, 2008
-West BengalPresentSinha and Tarafdar, 2007
IsraelAbsent, formerly presentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
JapanPresentNative Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-KyushuPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
Korea, Republic ofPresentNative Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
SyriaPresentAkel et al., 2010
TaiwanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
VietnamPresentHa et al., 2008

Africa

CameroonPresentNgeve and Bouwkamp, 1991
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentAtcham et al., 1983
EgyptPresent
EthiopiaPresentAdane, 2010
KenyaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
MadagascarPresentNative Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
NigerPresentNative Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
NigeriaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
RwandaPresentNjeru et al., 2008
South AfricaPresentDomola et al., 2008; Rännäli et al., 2009
South AfricaPresentDomola et al., 2008; Rännäli et al., 2009
TanzaniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
TogoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
UgandaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
ZambiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
ZimbabwePresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014

North America

CanadaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-OntarioPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
USAPresentNative Invasive CABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-CaliforniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-KansasPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-LouisianaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-MarylandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-MississippiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-North CarolinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresentValverde and Moreira, 2004
Puerto RicoPresentLaakso and Moyer, 1989

South America

ArgentinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
BrazilPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-GoiasPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-PernambucoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-Rio Grande do SulPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
ChilePresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Easter IslandPresentRännäli et al., 2009
PeruPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
VenezuelaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014

Europe

ItalyPresentParrella et al., 2006
SpainPresentValverde et al., 2004

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-New South WalesPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-QueenslandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
-Western AustraliaPresentJones and Dwyer, 2007
FijiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
French PolynesiaPresentRännäli et al., 2009
New ZealandPresentRännäli et al., 2009
Solomon IslandsPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014
TongaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2003; EPPO, 2014

Risk of Introduction

Top of page Risk Criteria Category

Economic Importance High
Distribution Worldwide
Seedborne Incidence No
Seed Transmitted No
Seed Treatment None
Vector Transmission High
Transmission in planting materials High

Overall Risk High

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page The main natural host of SPFMV is sweet potato, although the virus also occurs in wild Ipomoea species which are reservoirs of SPFMV (Clark et al., 1986).

The experimental host range of the virus is mainly restricted to species of the Convolvulaceae and Chenopodiaceae; a few strains, however, also infect species of the Solanaceae, of which Nicotiana benthamiana is a good propagation host for purification of the virus (Clark and Moyer, 1988). Several strains induce local lesions on Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa.

Chenopodiaceae: Chenopodium murale, C. amaranticolor, C. quinoa and Spinacia oleracea (several strains).

Convolvulaceae: Calonyction aculeatum, Ipomoea hederacea, I. incarnata, I. lacunosa, I. purpurea, I. trichocarpa, I. tricolor, I. wrightii, Merremia sibirica and Quamoclit lobata.

Solanaceae: Datura metel, Nicotiana benthamiana, N. clevelandii, N. occidentalis and N. tabacum (some strains).


Growth Stages

Top of page Post-harvest, Vegetative growing stage

Symptoms

Top of page Leaf symptoms of SPFMV are often inconspicuous or absent. If present, leaf symptoms appear as faint, irregular chlorotic spots occasionally bordered by purplish pigment. The classic irregular chlorotic patterns (feathering) along midribs and faint-to-distinct chlorotic spots, with or without purple margins, occur in some cultivars. Symptom intensity on foliage is influenced by cultivar susceptibility, degree of stress, growth stage and strain virulence. Increased stress can lead to symptom expression, whereas rapid growth may result in symptom remission. Symptoms on storage roots depend on the strain of SPFMV and the sweet potato variety. The common strain causes no symptom on any variety, but the 'russet crack' strain causes external necrotic lesions or internal cork on certain varieties (Clark and Moyer, 1988; Ames et al., 1996).

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal patterns

Biology and Ecology

Top of page SPFMV has a narrow host range; it is disseminated in infected tubers and cuttings, and is transmitted from infected to healthy plants by aphids in the non-persistent manner. It is not seedborne or soilborne but is experimentally transmissible by grafting and mechanical inoculation.


Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page Vector transmission

Like other potyviruses, SPFMV is transmitted from infected to healthy plants by aphids in the non-persistent manner (Sheffield, 1957; Clark and Moyer, 1988; Pozzer et al., 1993, 1995; Ames et al., 1996). The most important vector species are Myzus persicae, Aphis gossypii, A. craccivora and Lipaphis erysimi, but other species are also vectors (Pozzer et al., 1993, 1995; Ames et al., 1996).

Widespread dissemination

The virus is disseminated in infected tubers and cuttings taken from infected plants.

Seedborne spread

SPFMV is not seedborne.

Experimental transmission

The virus is transmissible experimentally by grafting and by mechanical inoculation to its known hosts.

Seedborne Aspects

Top of page The virus is not seedborne (Cadena-Hinojosa and Campbell, 1981; Wolters et al., 1990).

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Fruits (inc. pods) Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Leaves Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Growing medium accompanying plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

Top of page
VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Aphis gossypiiInsect

Impact

Top of page Some isolates of SPFMV cause economic losses (Campbell et al., 1974), especially in intolerant cultivars (Clark and Moyer, 1988; Byamukama et al., 2002; Bryan et al., 2003a,b; Carroll et al., 2004; Njeru et al., 2004; Zhang et al., 2005). SPFMV is very damaging when it occurs in complex with Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (e.g., Schaeffers and Terry 1976; Karyeija et al., 2000b; Yun et al., 2002; Gutierrez et al., 2003) and especially so in Argentina when Sweet potato mild fleck virus is also present in complex with both of the other viruses (Feo et al., 1995, 2000).

Virus-free sweet potato plants yield significantly more than those infected in the field (e.g., Pozzer et al., 1995; Bryan et al., 2003a,b; Zhang et al., 2005).

Diagnosis

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Diagnostic Hosts

SPFMV is mechanically transmissible to, and induces conspicuous symptoms in, the following useful indicator plants:

Ipomoea nil - systemic infection causing vein-clearing, vein banding, epinasty and crinkling of leaves. Some severe strains induce stunting, necrosis and the death of the plant.

Ipomoea setosa - systemic infection causing chlorotic vein-clearing, vein-banding and chlorotic spots of leaves. This plant is used as an indexing host when infected by grafting.

Chenopodium amaranticolor and C. quinoa - chlorotic lesions on inoculated leaves, but no systemic infection.

Serological Procedures

SPFMV is readily detected and identified by several serological techniques using polyclonal or monoclonal antibodies (Hammond et al., 1992; Muller et al., 2002) including Immunobsorbent electron microscopy (ISEM), Double antibody sandwich (DAS-) and Nitrocellulose membrane (NCM-) ELISA (Abad and Moyer, 1992; Kroth et al., 2001; Bryan et al., 2003a; Jeeva et al., 2004a; Tairo et al., 2004), Western blotting (Yun et al., 2002) and Dot Immunobinding Assay (Dje and Diallo, 2005). Detection of virus in sweet potatoes, however, is more difficult, especially in symptomless tissues or plants (Cadena-Hinojosa and Campbell, 1981; Kumar et al., 1991; Abad and Moyer, 1992; Gibb and Padovan, 1993; Jeeva et al., 2004a; Zhang et al., 2005).

Molecular Procedures

Nucleic acid Spot Hybridization (NASH)
Early detection of SPFMV is not usually possible using serological techniques. However, symptomless infection can be detected using NASH with strain-specific or wide spectrum non-radioactive (Abad and Moyer, 1992) or radioactive probes (Querci et al., 1992).

Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR)

SPFMV can be detected and identified by PCR using virus- or genus-specific primers (Colinet et al., 1994, 1998; Tanaka et al., 2001; Ryu and Choi, 2002; Mukasa et al., 2003a; Iwanami, 2004; Valverde et al., 2004; Zhang et al., 2005). Due to its great sensitivity and reliability, this is now the preferred method of detecting SPFMV where appropriate facilities are available.

More recently, Reverse Transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR) has been employed for diagnosis. An immune-capture RT-PCR method of SPFMV diagnosis was developed by Kroth et al. (2005). A multiplex RT-PCR assay was used to detect SPMFV in sweet potato in Uganda (Rukarwa et al., 2010).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

As SPFMV is transmitted in the non-persistent manner by aphids, control of the aphid vectors in field crops is not economically feasible. The main control measures are the production and use of virus-free planting material, sanitation, and the use of resistant varieties (Kai et al., 2000; Karyeija et al., 2000b; Gibson et al., 2004; Iwanami, 2004). Virus-free plants have been obtained in many countries by meristem tip culture (e.g., Wambugu, 1991; Mason and Beetham, 1998; Gao et al., 2000; Carroll et al., 2004; Jeeva et al., 2004b; Zhang et al., 2005) and thermotherapy (Jeeva et al., 2004b). Resistance to SPFMV is conferred by two recessive genes (Mwanga et al., 2002).

SPFMV is perpetuated between cropping cycles in infected cuttings, the lack of symptoms in the foliage makes it difficult for farmers to select SPFMV-free cuttings. Some wild species of Ipomoea are reservoirs of SPFMV and, if present, should be removed (Clark et al., 1986).

There is a possibility that transgenic resistant plants may in future be useful in limiting the deleterious effects of SPFMV (Cipriani et al., 2001; Okada et al., 2001, 2002; Wambugu, 2003).

References

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Abad JA; Moyer JW, 1992. Detection and distribution of sweetpotato feathery mottle virus in sweetpotato by in vitro-transcribed RNA probes (riboprobes), membrane immunobinding assay, and direct blotting. Phytopathology, 82(3):300-305

Adane A, 2010. Associated viruses threatening sweetpotato improvement and production in Ethiopia. African Crop Science Journal, 18(4):207-213. http://www.bioline.org.br/request?cs10024

Akel E; Ismail ID; Al-Chaabi S; Fuentes S, 2010. New natural weed hosts of Sweet potato feathery mottle virus in Syria. Arab Journal of Plant Protection, 28(1):96-100. http://www.asplantprotection.org/PDF/AJPP/28-1_2010/96-100.pdf

Ames T; Smit NEJM; Braun AR; O'Sullivan JN; Skoglund LG, 1996. Sweet potato: Major Pests Diseases, and Nutritional Disorders. Lima, Peru: Internacional Potato Center (CIP), 152 pp.

Atcham T; Lockhart B; Banttari E, 1983. Identification and characterization of a virus in sweet potato found in South-east Zaire, Central Africa. Phytopathology, 73:787.

Ateka EM; Njeru RW; Kibaru AG; Kimenju JW; Barg E; Gibson RW; Vetten HJ, 2004. Identification and distribution of viruses infecting sweet potato in Kenya. Annals of Applied Biology, 144(3): 371-379.

Berger PH; Adams MJ; Barnett OW, Brunt AA et al. , 2005. Potyviridae. In: Fauquet CM, Mayo MA, Maniloff J, Desselberger U, Ball LA, eds. Virus Taxonomy, VIIIth Report of the ICTV. London, UK: Elsevier/Academic Press, 819-841.

Binoy Babu; Vinayaka Hegde; Makeshkumar T; Jeeva ML, 2012. Rapid and sensitive detection of potyvirus infecting tropical tuber crops using genus specific primers and probes. African Journal of Biotechnology, 11(5):1023-1027. http://www.academicjournals.org/AJB/full%20text/2012/16Jan/Babu%20et%20al.htm

Bryan AD; Pesic-VanEsbroeck Z; Schultheis JR; Pecota KV; Swallow WH; Yencho GC, 2003. Cultivar decline in sweetpotato: I. Impact of micropropagation on yield, storage root quality, and virus incidence in ’Beauregard’. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 128(6): 846-855.

Bryan AD; Schultheis JR; Pesic-VanEsbroeck Z; Yencho GC, 2003. Cultivar decline in sweetpotato: II. Impact of virus infection on yield and storage root quality in ’Beauregard’ and ’Hernandez’. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 128(6): 856-863.

Byamukama E; Adipala E; Gibson R; Aritua V, 2002. Reaction of sweetpotato clones to virus disease and their yield performance in Uganda. African Crop Science Journal, 10(4):317-324.

Byamukama E; Gibson RW; Aritua V; Adipala E, 2004. Within-crop spread of sweet potato virus disease and the population dynamics of its whitefly and aphid vectors. Crop Protection, 23(2): 109-116.

CABI/EPPO, 2003. Sweet potato feathery mottle virus. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 892. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Cadena-Hinojosa MA; Campbell RN, 1981. Serologic detection of feathery mottle virus strains in sweet potatoes and Ipomoea incarnata. Plant Disease, 65(5):412-414

Campbell RN; Hall DH; Mielines NM, 1974. Etiology of sweet potato russet crack disease, Phytopathology, 64:210-218.

Carroll HW; Villordon AQ; Clark CA; Bonte DRla; Hoy MW, 2004. Studies on Beauregard sweetpotato clones naturally infected with viruses. International Journal of Pest Management, 50(2): 101-106.

Chavi F; Robertson AI; Verduin BJM, 1997. Survey and characterization of viruses in sweet potato from Zimbabwe. Plant Disease, 81(10):1115-1122; 26 ref.

Cipriani G; Fuentes S; Bello V; Salazar LF; Ghislain M; Zhang DP, 2001. Transgene expression of rice cysteine proteinase inhibitors for the development of resistance against sweetpotato feathery mottle virus. Scientist and farmer: partners in research for the 21st Century. Program Report 1999-2000, 267-271; 14 ref.

Clark CA; Derrick KS; Pace CS; Watson B, 1986. Survey of wild Ipomoea spp. as potential reservoirs of sweet potato feathery mottle virus in Louisiana. Plant Disease, 70(10):931-932

Clark CA; Moyer JW, 1988. Compendium of sweet potato diseases. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA; American Phytopathological Society, 74 pp.

Clerk GC, 1960. A vein-clearing virus of sweet potato in Ghana. Plant Disease Reporter, 44:931-933.

Cohen J; Salomon R; Loebenstein G, 1988. An improved method for purification of sweet potato feathery mottle virus directly from sweet potato. Phytopathology, 78(6):809-811

Colinet D; Kummert J; Lepoivre P; Semal J, 1994. Identification of distinct potyviruses in mixedly-infected sweetpotato by the polymerase chain reaction with degenerate primers. Phytopathology, 84(1):65-69

Colinet D; Nguyen M; Kummert J; Lepoivre P; Xia FengZu, 1998. Differentiation among potyviruses infecting sweet potato based on genus- and virus-specific reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Plant Disease, 82(2):223-229; 23 ref.

COPR, 1978. Sweet potato diseases. In: Pest control in tropical tuber crops. PANS Manual No. 4. London, UK: Centre for Overseas Pest Research.

Dje Y; Diallo HA, 2005. Detection and distribution of sweet potato feathery mottle virus in sweet potato using membrane immunobinding assay. African Journal of Biotechnology, 4(7): 717-723.

Domola MJ; Thompson GJ; Aveling TAS; Laurie SM; Strydom H; Berg AAvan den, 2008. Sweet potato viruses in South Africa and the effect of viral infection on storage root yield. African Plant Protection, 14:15-23. http://journals.sabinet.co.za/WebZ/AdvancedQuery?sessionid=01-33950-156879858&termA=2008&indexA=py%3A&format=B&advancednumrecs=50&entitytoprecno=1&entitycurrecno=1&entitytempjds=true&dbgroup=plantprog&next=/app/plantpro_abresult.html&bad=error/badsearchframe.html

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Feo Ldi; Biderbost E; Racca R; Nome S; Mollinedo V; Lopez-Lambertini P, 1995. Effect of ontogeny and chlorotic dwarf, a viral disease, on the productivity of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam.) cv. Morada-INTA. Fitopatologi^acute~a, 30(2):96-99; 16 ref.

Feo Ldi; Nome SF; Biderbost E; Fuentes S; Salazar LF, 2000. Etiology of sweet potato chlorotic dwarf disease in Argentina. Plant Disease, 84(1):35-39; 40 ref.

Gao F; Gong YF; Zhang PB, 2000. Production and deployment of virus-free sweetpotato in China. Crop Protection, 19(2): 105-111.

Gibb KS; Padovan AC, 1993. Detection of sweet potato feathery mottle potyvirus in sweet potato grown in northern Australia using an efficient and simple assay. International Journal of Pest Management, 39(2):223-228

Gibson RW; Aritua V, 2002. The perspective of sweetpotato chlorotic stunt virus in sweetpotato production in Africa: a review. African Crop Science Journal, 10(4): 281-31.

Gibson RW; Aritua V; Byamukama E; Mpembe I; Kayongo J, 2004. Control strategies for sweet potato virus disease in Africa. Virus Research, 100(1): 115-122.

GutiTrrez DL; Fuentes S; Salazar LF, 2003. Sweetpotato virus disease (SPVD): distribution, incidence, and effect on sweetpotato yield in Peru. Plant Disease, 87(3):297-302; 33 ref.

Ha C; Revill P; Harding RM; Vu M; Dale JL, 2008. Identification and sequence analysis of potyviruses infecting crops in Vietnam. Archives of Virology, 153(1):45-60. http://springerlink.metapress.com/content/90316764184520r2/fulltext.pdf

Hammond J; Jordan RL; Larsen RC; Moyer JW, 1992. Use of polyclonal antisera and monoclonal antibodies to examine serological relationships among three filamentous viruses of sweetpotato. Phytopathology, 82(6):713-717

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