Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Sphacelotheca reiliana
(head smut of maize)

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Datasheet

Sphacelotheca reiliana (head smut of maize)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Sphacelotheca reiliana
  • Preferred Common Name
  • head smut of maize
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pucciniomycotina
  •         Class: Microbotryomycetes
  • There are no pictures available for this datasheet

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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Profuse sporulation occurs in developing tassel tissue.
TitleSymptoms on shoot
CaptionProfuse sporulation occurs in developing tassel tissue.
Copyright©CABI BioScience
Profuse sporulation occurs in developing tassel tissue.
Symptoms on shootProfuse sporulation occurs in developing tassel tissue.©CABI BioScience
Infected maize ear.
TitleSymptoms on maize
CaptionInfected maize ear.
Copyright©CIMMYT
Infected maize ear.
Symptoms on maizeInfected maize ear.©CIMMYT
Infected maize tassel.
TitleSymptoms on maize
CaptionInfected maize tassel.
Copyright©CIMMYT
Infected maize tassel.
Symptoms on maizeInfected maize tassel.©CIMMYT
TitleInfected sorghum plant
Caption
CopyrightR.A. Frederiksen
Infected sorghum plantR.A. Frederiksen

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Sphacelotheca reiliana (J. G. Kühn) Clinton

Preferred Common Name

  • head smut of maize

Other Scientific Names

  • Cintractia reiliana (J. G. Kühn) Clinton
  • Sorosporium holci-sorghi (Riv.) Moesz
  • Sorosporium reilianum (J. G. Kühn) McAlpine
  • Sphacelotheca holci-sorghi (Riv.) Cif.
  • Sporisorium holci-sorghi (Riv.) Cif.
  • Sporisorium reilianum (J. G. Kühn) Langdon & Full.
  • Ustilago holci-sorghi Riv.
  • Ustilago reiliana J. G. Kühn 1875

International Common Names

  • English: loose smut
  • Spanish: carbon de la espiga del maiz
  • French: charbon des inflorescences

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Kolbenbrand: Mais; Kopfbrand: Hirse; Rispenbrand: Mais

EPPO code

  • SPHTRE (Sphacelotheca reiliana)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pucciniomycotina
  •                 Class: Microbotryomycetes
  •                     Order: Microbotryales
  •                         Family: Microbotryaceae
  •                             Genus: Sphacelotheca
  •                                 Species: Sphacelotheca reiliana

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

Burkina FasoPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
BurundiPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
CameroonPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
ChadPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentUK, CAB International (1987)
EgyptPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
EritreaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Rao et al. (2002)
EthiopiaPresent, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1987)
GhanaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
KenyaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
MalawiPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
MaliPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
MauritaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
MauritiusPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
MozambiquePresentUK, CAB International (1987)
NigerPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
NigeriaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
RwandaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
SenegalPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
SomaliaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
South AfricaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
SudanPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
TanzaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
TogoPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
UgandaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
ZambiaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
ZimbabwePresentUK, CAB International (1987)

Asia

BhutanPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
ChinaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1987); Sun (1990)
-HeilongjiangPresentHe ZiDian et al. (2007)
-JilinPresentHe ZiDian et al. (2007)
-LiaoningPresentHe ZiDian et al. (2007)
-ShaanxiPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Wong, 1987
-SichuanPresentHe ZiDian et al. (2007)
IndiaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
-SikkimPresentCABI (Undated b)
IndonesiaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
IranPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
IraqPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
IsraelPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
JapanPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
KazakhstanPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
MalaysiaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
MyanmarPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
NepalPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
PakistanPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
PhilippinesPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
South KoreaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
TaiwanPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
YemenPresentFAO (1986)

Europe

AustriaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1987)
BulgariaPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1987)
CyprusPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1987)
CzechoslovakiaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentPencic and Smiljakovic (1971); UK, CAB International (1987)
FrancePresent, LocalizedUK, CAB International (1987); CABI (Undated)
GermanyAbsent, Formerly present1963UK, CAB International (1987)
GreecePresentUK, CAB International (1987)
HungaryPresent, Few occurrencesManninger (1978); CABI (Undated)
ItalyPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
MoldovaPresentYurku et al. (2001)
PolandPresentKorbas (2006)
PortugalPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-AzoresPresent, Few occurrencesUK, CAB International (1987)
RomaniaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
RussiaPresent, LocalizedKaratygin (1977); Fed'ko et al. (1986); CABI (Undated)
-Russian Far EastPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
-SiberiaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
Serbia and MontenegroPresentCABI (Undated b)
SpainPresent, WidespreadUK, CAB International (1987)
SwitzerlandPresentGindrat (1997)
UkrainePresentSusidko and Grisenko (1979); Pereverzev et al. (1990)

North America

BarbadosPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
CanadaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-OntarioPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
El SalvadorPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
GuatemalaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
HondurasPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
JamaicaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
MexicoPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
PanamaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated b)
-CaliforniaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
-HawaiiPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
-IdahoPresentSimpson (1966)
-IndianaPresentUSDA (1970)
-KansasPresentSimpson (1966)
-MinnesotaPresentStromberg (1981)
-NebraskaPresentSimpson (1966)
-New YorkPresentUSDA (1970)
-OhioPresentUSDA (1970)
-OregonPresentSimpson (1966)
-TexasPresentFrederiksen et al. (1976)
-WashingtonPresentSimpson (1966)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentFranzmann (1992)
-New South WalesPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
-QueenslandPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
-VictoriaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
New ZealandPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
Papua New GuineaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)

South America

ArgentinaPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
BoliviaPresentCABI (Undated b)
BrazilPresentUK, CAB International (1987)
ColombiaPresentSilva Castillo and Zapata Colorado (1997)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Inflorescence / abnormal leaves (phyllody)
Inflorescence / black fungal spores
Inflorescence / discoloration panicle
Inflorescence / twisting and distortion
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / fungal growth
Seeds / empty grains
Seeds / galls
Seeds / rot
Stems / mould growth on lesion
Whole plant / dwarfing

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Anthribus sp. Parasite Spores
Lystronychus coeruleus Parasite Spores
Phalacrus sp. nr. obscurus Parasite Spores

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Growing medium accompanying plants spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Roots hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
True seeds (inc. grain) spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Fruits (inc. pods)
Wood

References

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awecki T, 2007. Occurrence of maize head smut (Sphacelotheca reiliana) in the provoked condition of grain and soil infestation and its control. (Wystepowanie gowni pylacej kukurydzy (Sphacelotheca reiliana) w warunkach prowokowanych zakazen ziarna i gleby oraz jej zwalczanie.) Progress in Plant Protection, 47(2):178-181. http://www.ior.poznan.pl/wydaw/Wyd-PO.htm

Ainsworth GC, 1965. Ustilago maydis. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria, No. 79. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Akhtar Ali; Baggett JR, 1990. Inheritance of resistance to head smut disease in corn. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 115(4):668-672

Ali A; Baggett JR, 1986. Predisposition of corn plants to the head smut disease by clipping for the selection of resistant genotypes. Journal of Agricultural Research (Lahore), 24(3):223-227

Al-Sohaily IA; Mankin CJ; Semeniuk G, 1963. Physiologic specialization of Sphacelotheca reiliana to sorghum and corn. Phytopathology, 53:723-726.

Bai J; Pan S; Qi P, 1980. The seedling test as a method of forecasting the infection of head smut in sorghum with notes on the process of systemic infection. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica, 10(1):37-42

Botros SE, 1999. A study of the morphological forms of Sphacelotheca reiliana (Kuehn) Clint [Syn. Sorosporium reilianum (Kuehn) Mc. Alpine] and its pathogenicity with sorghum cultivars in Upper Egypt. Assiut Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 30(3):155-163; 20 ref.

Bressman EN; Barss HP, 1933. Experiments with head smut of corn in Western Oregon. Phytopathology, 23:396-403

Cao RH; Ren JH; Wang XL, 1986. A study on the inheritance of resistance to maize head smut. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica, 16(2):93-98

Cao YH; Wang XL; Ren JH; Nan CH, 1988. Study of resistance to head smut in sorghum and its inheritance. Acta Genetica Sinica, 15(3):170-173

Danilevskii AE; Klok VS; Chekalenko AF, 1973. Fertilizers and disease infection on maize. Zashchita Rastenii, No.3, 48.

Dodman RL; Obst NR; Henzell RG, 1985. Races of sorghum head smut (Sporisorium reilianum) in South-East Queensland. Australasian Plant Pathology, 14(2):45

Dracea AE, 1970. On the influence of sowing date on the occurrence and development of some maize diseases. Lucrari Stiintifice Institutul Agronomic Timisoara. Agronomie, 13:343-353.

FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 1986. 34(2):73-76.

Fed'ko IA; Morshchatskii AA; Tereshchenko BA, 1986. Resistance of maize to smuts. Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya, No. 8:100-103

Franzmann BA, 1992. Diseases. Sorghum Newsletter, 33:29-31

Frederiksen RA, 1977. Head smuts of corn and sorghum. In: Proc. Annu. Corn Sorghum Res. Conf. 32, American Seed Trade Association, Washington D.C, 89-105.

Frederiksen RA; Berry RW; Foster JH, 1976. Head smut of maize in Texas. Plant Disease Reporter, 60(7):610-611

Frederiksen RA; Reyes L; 1980, The head smut program at Texas A & M. In: Proceedings of the international workshop on sorghum diseases. Hyderabad, India, 11-15 December 1978. Patancheru, India: ICRISAT, 367-372.

Frederiksen RA; Rosenow DT; Reyes L, 1975. Races of Sphacelotheca reiliana on sorghum in Texas. Plant Disease Reporter, 59(7):549-551

Georgadze LI; Sakhvadze LI; Undilashvili EI, 1972. Effect of phosphorobacterin on the microflora of the rhizosphere of maize and infection by loose smut. Trudy NII Zemledeliya Gruz SSR, 19:31-38

Gevers HO, 1975. Ecology of smut in the high rainfall area. In: Plessis JG du, Grogan CO, Kuhn HC, Walters MC, eds. Proceedings of the first South African maize breeding symposium held in Potchefstroom, Highveld Region, 13, 14, 15 March, 1974. 5. Insect and disease problems and progress. Technical-Communication, Department of Agricultural Technical Services, Republic of South Africa, 95-97.

Gindrat D, 1997. Le charbon des inflorescences du mais en Suisse. [Head smut of maize in Switzerland.] Revue Suisse d'Agriculture, 29:199-200.

Gray FA; Kolp BJ; Mohamed MA, 1990. A disease survey of crops grown in the Bay Region of Somalia, East Africa. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 38(1):39-47; 22 ref.

Grisenko GV; Dudka EL, 1979. The survival of chlamydospores of Sorosporium reilianum (Kuehn) McAlp. in the field. Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya, 13(1):37-42

Grisenko GV; Kulik TA, 1978. Is long preservation of fungicide-treated seeds possible? Zashchita Rastenii, No.12:41-42

Gwary DM; Ali O; Gwary SD, 2007. Management of sorghum smuts and anthracnose using cultivar selection and seed dressing fungicides in Maiduguri, Nigeria. International Journal of Agriculture and Biology, 9(2):324-328. http://www.fspublishers.org/

Halisky PM, 1962. Prevalence and pathogenicity of Sphacelotheca reiliana causing head smut of field corn in California. Phytopathology, 52:199-202.

Halisky PM, 1963. Head smut of sorghum, sudangrass, and corn, caused by Sphacelotheca reiliana (Kuhn) Clint. Hilgardia, 34:287-304.

He ZiDian; Chen Jie; Gao ZengGui; Zhuang JingHua; Gao YuFeng, 2007. Study on genetic diversity of Sphacelotheca reiliana. Journal of Maize Sciences, 15(4):133-136.

Herrera JA; Vallejo AB, 1986. Distribution of races of head smut (Sporisorium reilianum) in the northeast and southwest areas of Mexico. Sorghum Newsletter, 29:86

Jacks H; Graham GJ, 1955. Seed disinfection XI Control of head smut (Sorosporium reilianum (Kuhn) McAlpine) of maize. N.Z. J. Sci. Technol. Sect. A, 37:141-145.

Jalali S; Behdad E, 2003. Investigation on distribution and infection of Sporisorium species attacking sorghum in Ardestan region and comparison of some fungicides for its control. Pajouhesh-va-Sazandegi. In Agronomy & Horticulture, No.59:38-42.

Karatygin IV, 1977. Structure of the sorus and taxonomic position of Sorosporium reilianum (Kuehn) McAlp. Novosti Sistematiki Nizshikh Rastenii, 14:80-84

Kizmush L(Kizmus L), 1985. Pathological studies of maize in Martonvásár. Informatsionnyi Byulleten' po Kukuruze, No. 4:19-27.

Korbas M, 2006. Common smuts of maize and other diseases - harmfulness and possibilities of their control. (Gownie kukurydzy i inne choroby - szkodliwosc i mozliwosci zwalczania.) Progress in Plant Protection, 46(1):354-357. http://www.ior.poznan.pl/wydaw/Wyd-PO.htm

Kozhevnikova LM, 1975. Infection of maize by blister and loose smuts under condition of continuous sowing and the measures decreasing damage by the disease. Sb. Nauch. Rabot. NII S. Kh. Tsentr.-Chernozem. Polosy, 9(1):167-175

Kruger W, 1962. Sphacelotheca reiliana in maize.I Infection and control studies. South Afr. J. Agric. Sci., 5:43-56.

Langdon RFN; Fullerton RA, 1978. The genus Sphacelotheca (Ustilaginales): criteria for its delimination and the consequences thereof. Mycotaxon, 6(3):421-456

Lnbberstedt T; Xia XC; Tan G; Liu X; Melchinger AE, 1999. QTL mapping of resistance to Sporisorium reiliana in maize. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 99(3/4):593-598; 36 ref.

Lu XW; Brewbaker JL, 1999. Molecular mapping of QTLs conferring resistance to Sphacelotheca reiliana (Knhn) Clint. Maize Genetics Cooperation Newsletter, No. 73:36.

Lynch KV; Edgington LV; Busch LV, 1980. Head smut, a new disease of corn in Ontario. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 2(3):176-178

Manninger I, 1978. Evaluation of the damage caused by maize diseases in resistance breeding and cultivar testing. Novenytermeles, 27(1):7-10

Matyac CA, 1985. Histological development of Sphacelotheca reiliana on Zea mays. Phytopathology, 75(8):924-929

Matyac CA; Kommedahl T, 1985. Factors affecting the development of head smut caused by Sphacelotheca reiliana on corn. Phytopathology, 75(5):577-581

Matyac CA; Kommedahl T, 1985. Occurrence of chlorotic spots on corn seedlings infected with Sphacelotheca reiliana and their use in evaluation of head smut resistance. Plant Disease, 69(3):251-254

Matyac CA; Kommedahl T, 1986. Survival of teliospores of Sphacelotheca reiliana in soil. Phytopathology, 76(5):487-490

Mazhara VN, 1978. How to prevent smut of maize. Zashchita Rastenii, No.9:48-49

McGee DC, 1988. Maize diseases. A reference source for seed technologists. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA; APS Press, 149 pp.

Miller FR, 1984. Registration of RTx432 sorghum. Crop Science, 24(2):392.

Naibo B; Lorgeou J, 1994. Head smut: tolerant varieties. Cultivar (Paris), No. 355:51-53

Pacheco AC; Dittrich RC, 1999. Reacao de hibridos comerciais de milho ao carvao do topo [Resistance of commercial maize hybrids to head smut]. Agropecuaria Catarinense, 12:44-45.

Pelmus V; Pelmus A, 1988. Aspects of prevention and control of Sorosporium holci-sorghi f. zeae by chemical seed treatment. Probleme de Protectia Plantelor, 16(4):253-258

Pencic V; Smiljakovic H, 1971. Diseases and pests of maize during 1970-1971 in Yugoslavia. Agronomski Glasnik, 33:675-682.

Pereverzev DS; Khromenko AS; Chuchmii IP, 1990. Hungarian forms of maize for breeding for yield and resistance to Ostrinia nubilalis. Selektsiya i Semenovodstvo (Moskva), No. 2:26-28.

Pradhanang PM; Ghimire SR, 1996. Fungicide management of maize head smut (Sphacelotheca reiliana) by seed treatment. Tropical Agriculture, 73(4):325-328; 5 ref.

Pruett CJH; Colque A E, 1984. Fungal spore feeding Coleoptera in sugarcane smut caused by Ustilago scitaminea Syd. and head smut caused by Sphacelotheca reiliana (Kuhn) Clinton in Sudan grass Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stampf in the Bolivian orient. Entomology Newsletter, No. 16:14-17

Rao VP; Tesfamichael Abraha; Obilana AB; Preston SR, 2002. Sorghum diseases in Eritrea - a survey report. International Sorghum and Millets Newsletter, 43:57-60; 2 ref.

Rao VP; Tesfamichael Abraha; Obilana AB; Preston SR; Abraha T, 2002. Sorghum diseases in Eritrea -- a survey report. International Sorghum and Millets Newsletter, 43:57-60.

Saf'yanov SP; Bystrova ZF; Silpv AI, 1980. Head smut of sorghum. Zashchita Rastenii, No.8:43-44

Schneider A; Royer F; Charnay MP; Raveton M, 1998. Lutte contre le Charbon des inflorescences. Du traitement de la semence a la protection de la plante: analyse des mecanismes. [Control of maize head smut. From seed treatment to plant protection: a full analysis]. Phytoma, No. 507, 24-27.

Silpv AI, 1987. Harmfulness of sorghum smuts. Ecological aspects of harmfulness of cereal crops diseases Leningrad, USSR; All-Union Research Institute of Plant Protection, 70-75

Silpv AI; Chumakov p, 1979. Smut of sorghum in the Volga region: its distribution, harmfulness and varietal resistance. Mikologiya i Fitopatologiya, 13(5):414-418

Silva-Castillo JC; Zapata-Colorado MA, 1997. Prevencion y control del carbon de la espiga del maiz o canaa flecha. [Prevention and control of maize smut]. Noticampo, No. 003, 14-15.

Simpson WR, 1966. Head smut of corn in Idaho. Pl. Dis. Reptr., 50:215-217.

Simpson WR; Fenwick; HS, 1971. Suppression of corn head smut with carboxin seed treatments. Plant Dis. Rep., 55:501-503.

Song ZH; Zhu YG; Xu X; Zhao PF; Li SL; Lin GY, 1987. Studies on the factors related to the effectiveness and phytotoxicities of the seed-dressing fungicides, Bayleton and Baytan for controlling the head smut on corn. Acta Phytophylactica Sinica, 14(1):57-63

Stienstra WC; Kommedahl T; Stromberg EL; Matyac CA; Windels CE; Morgan F, 1985. Suppression of corn head smut with seed and soil treatments. Plant Disease, 69(4):301-302

Stromberg EL, 1981. Head smut of maize, a new disease in Minnesota. Phytopathology, 71:906.

Stromberg EL; Kommedahl T; Stienstra W; Windels CE; Matyac C, 1982. Evaluation of maize hybrids and inbreds for resistance to Sphacelotheca reiliana. Phytopathology, 72(7):943.

Stromberg EL; Stienstra WC; Kommedahl T; Matyac CA; Windels CE; Geadelmann JL, 1984. Smut expression and resistance of corn to Sphacelotheca reiliana in Minnesota. Plant Disease, 68(10):880-884

Sun JY, 1990. Some elite maize germplasm resources in China. Crop Genetic Resources, No.2:18-19

Susidko PI; Grisenko GV, 1979. Development and use of the initial material for breeding disease- and pest-resistant maize. Proceedings of the tenth meeting of the maize and sorghum section of Eucarpia. European Association for Research on Plant Breeding Varna Bulgaria, 178-181

Tusa C; Craiciu D; Doncila A; Vonica I; Buhnea Z; Olangiu M(et al), 1981. Possibilities of integrated control of Sorosporium holci-sorghi on maize. Probleme de Protectia Plantelor, 9(4):327-340

UK CAB International, 1987. Sphacelotheca reiliana. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, October (Edition 6). Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 69.

USDA, 1970. Selected Weeds of the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 366. Washington DC, USA: United States Department of Agriculture, 324-325.

Vergnet C; Eble E, 1989. Comparative microscopic study of stages of germination of Sphacelotheca reiliana (Kuhn) Clinton on an artificial medium and on maize seedlings. Cryptogamie, Mycologie, 10(1):1-8

Wang GM, 1987. Genetic study of resistance to head smut in sorghum. Shanxi Agricultural Science, No. 11:9-11

Wang JH; Wang QM, 1989. Study on the relation between DIMBOA and resistance to Sphacelotheca reiliana in maize. Acta Phytophylactica Sinica, 10(3):187-191

Wang LM; Yin XQ; Sun ZD, 1996. Resistance of sorghum ternary lines to head smut in Heilongjiang, China. Crop Genetic Resources, No. 3, 39-40.

Whythe IV; Gevers HO, 1988. Diallel analysis of resistance of eight maize inbred lines to Sphacelotheca reiliana. Phytopathology, 78(1):65-68

Wilson JM; Frederiksen RA, 1970. Histopathology of the interaction of Sorghum bicolor - Sphacelotheca reiliana. Phytopathology, 60:828-832.

Winter, 1884. in Robenhorst, Kryptogamen Flora, 2, 1, 1.

Wright PJ; Fullerton RA; Koolaard JP, 2006. Fungicide control of head smut (Sporisorium reilianum) of sweetcorn (Zea mays). New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 34(1):23-26.

Xu GY; Mei ZB; Wang HC; Hou GD, 1982. Relationship between the incidence of head smut and sowing date of maize. Shanxi Agricultural Science, No. 10:15-16

Yao GY; Wang SL, 1984. An experiment on the inoculation method for Sphacelotheca reiliana in sorghum. Shanxi Agricultural Science, No.10:9-10

Yao JY; Wang SL, 1984. Single variety cultivation is the main cause for the prevalence of sorghum head smut. Shanxi Agricultural Science, No.9:27-28

Yurku AI; Kisnichan VI; Straistar' EM, 1997. Methods of producing conditions of infection for head smut and stalk rots of maize. Kukuruza i Sorgo, No. 4:4-8; 20 ref.

Yurku AI; Prisakar' AS; Yurku-Streistar' EM; Lebedyuk GV; Moleshnik VA; Dubitskaya LL, 2001. Methods of evaluating maize for resistance to loose smut. Kukuruza i Sorgo, No. 1:13-17.

Zeng DeFang; Mei Xiang; Wu JuanJuan, 2010. Study and preparation of an environmentally friendly corn seed coating agent. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 50(2):210-214. http://www.plantprotection.pl

Zhang WeiWei; Wang Xi; Yu MingYan, 2009. Study on effects of EM coating on controlling maize head smut at seedling. Journal of Maize Sciences, 17(3):83-86.

Zhao GM; Zhang PY; Jiang XM, 1996. The relationship between the activity of peroxidase and resistance of corn inbred lines to head smut. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica, 26:37-39.

Distribution References

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

FAO, 1986. Plant Protection Bulletin, 1986., 34 (2) 73-76.

Fed'ko I A, Morshchatskiĭ A A, Tereshchenko B A, 1986. Resistance of maize to smuts. Sel'skokhozyaĭstvennaya Biologiya. 100-103.

Franzmann B A, 1992. Diseases. Sorghum Newsletter. 29-31.

Frederiksen R A, Berry R W, Foster J H, 1976. Head smut of maize in Texas. Plant Disease Reporter. 60 (7), 610-611.

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