Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Podosphaera xanthii
(powdery mildew of cucurbits)

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Datasheet

Podosphaera xanthii (powdery mildew of cucurbits)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 20 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Podosphaera xanthii
  • Preferred Common Name
  • powdery mildew of cucurbits
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Leotiomycetes

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TitlePowdery mildew on squash leaves
Caption
CopyrightCrop & Food Research
Powdery mildew on squash leavesCrop & Food Research

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Podosphaera xanthii (Castagne) U. Braun & Shishkoff

Preferred Common Name

  • powdery mildew of cucurbits

Other Scientific Names

  • Erysiphe fuliginea auct. p.p.
  • Erysiphe fuscata Berk. & M.A. Curtis
  • Erysiphe xanthii Castagne
  • Oidium citrulli J.M. Yen & Chin C. Wang
  • Oidium erysiphoides auct. p.p.
  • Podosphaera phaseoli (Z.Y. Zhao) U. Braun & S. Takam.
  • Spaerotheca fuscata (Berk. & M.A. Curtis) Serbinov
  • Sphaerotheca calendulae (Malbr. & Roum.) Malbr.
  • Sphaerotheca castagnei auct. p.p.
  • Sphaerotheca cucurbitae (Jacz.) Z.Y. Zhao
  • Sphaerotheca fuliginea auct. p.p.
  • Sphaerotheca humuli var. fuliginea auct. p.p.
  • Sphaerotheca indica Patw.
  • Sphaerotheca microcarpa Haszl.
  • Sphaerotheca phaseoli (Z.Y. Zhao) U. Braun
  • Sphaerotheca verbenae Savul. & Negru
  • Sphaerotheca xanthii (Castagne) L. Junell

International Common Names

  • English: powdery mildew; powdery mildew of bean
  • Spanish: oidio blanco; oidio de la judia; oidio de las cucurbitaceas
  • French: oïdium blanc; oidium des cucurbitacees; oidium du haricot
  • Chinese: Pai-fun-Ping

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Mehltau: Gurke; Mehltau: Kuerbisgewaechse

EPPO code

  • SPHRFU (Sphaerotheca fuliginea)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Leotiomycetes
  •                     Order: Erysiphales
  •                         Family: Erysiphaceae
  •                             Genus: Podosphaera
  •                                 Species: Podosphaera xanthii

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EgyptPresentCABI (Undated b)
EthiopiaPresentAmano (1986)
LibyaPresentCABI (Undated b)
SomaliaPresentCABI (Undated b)
South AfricaPresentAmano (1986)
SudanPresentCABI (Undated b)
TunisiaPresentCABI (Undated b)

Asia

ArmeniaPresentAmano (1986)
AzerbaijanPresentAmano (1986)
BangladeshPresentAmano (1986)
ChinaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-JilinPresentCABI (Undated)
-ShandongPresentYu Jing et al. (2014)
GeorgiaPresentAmano (1986)
IndiaPresentGreathead and Greathead (1992)
-Andhra PradeshPresentCABI (Undated b)
-ChhattisgarhPresentYadav et al. (2011)
-Himachal PradeshPresentCABI (Undated b)
-Madhya PradeshPresentCABI (Undated b)
-ManipurPresentCABI (Undated b)
-OdishaPresentNayak and Babu (2017)
-PunjabPresentCABI (Undated b)
-Tamil NaduPresentCABI (Undated b)
-Uttar PradeshPresentCABI (Undated b)
IranPresentCABI (Undated b)
IraqPresentCABI (Undated b)
IsraelPresentCABI (Undated b)
JapanPresentCABI (Undated b)
-HonshuPresentCABI (Undated b)
KazakhstanPresentAmano (1986)
KyrgyzstanPresentAmano (1986)
LebanonPresentAmano (1986)
OmanPresentAmano (1986)
PakistanPresentAmano (1986); Irum Mukhtar et al. (2013)
Saudi ArabiaPresentCABI (Undated b)
SingaporePresentLim (1988)
South KoreaPresentCho et al. (2013); Cho et al. (2013a); Joa et al. (2013); Lee (2013); Cho et al. (2015);
TaiwanPresentTsay et al. (2011); Liu and Kirschner (2015); Shen YuanMin et al. (2015)
TurkeyPresentKavak (2011); Braun (1995)
TurkmenistanPresentAmano (1986)
UzbekistanPresentAmano (1986)
VietnamPresentTam et al. (2015)

Europe

AustriaPresentKřístková et al. (2009)
BulgariaPresentCABI (Undated b)
CzechiaPresentKřístková et al. (2009)
CzechoslovakiaPresentCABI (Undated b)
Union of Soviet Socialist RepublicsPresentCABI (Undated b)
DenmarkPresentCABI (Undated b)
EstoniaPresentBraun (1995)
FinlandPresentBraun (1995)
FrancePresentCABI (Undated b)
GermanyPresentCABI (Undated b)
GreecePresentCABI (Undated b)
HungaryPresentBraun (1995)
IrelandPresentBraun (1995)
ItalyPresentGaribaldi et al. (2012)
LithuaniaPresentBraun (1995)
NetherlandsPresentCABI (Undated b)
NorwayPresentCABI (Undated b)
PolandPresentCABI (Undated b)
RomaniaPresentCABI (Undated b)
Serbia and MontenegroPresentCABI (Undated b)
SlovakiaPresentPaulech (1995)
SloveniaPresentKřístková et al. (2009)
SpainPresentCABI (Undated b)
SwedenPresentBraun (1995)
SwitzerlandPresentCABI (Undated b)
UkrainePresentBraun (1995)
United KingdomPresentBraun (1995)

North America

CanadaPresentCABI (Undated b)
-British ColumbiaPresentCABI (Undated b)
CubaPresentAmano (1986)
MexicoPresentCABI (Undated b)
Puerto RicoPresentCABI (Undated b)
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated b)
-ArizonaPresentMatheron and Porchas (2007)
-CaliforniaPresentMercier et al. (2014)
-ConnecticutPresentFerrandino and Smith (2007)
-FloridaPresentKousik et al. (2011)
-GeorgiaPresentCABI (Undated b)
-IllinoisPresentMcGrath and Shishkoff (2003)
-IndianaPresentCABI (Undated b)
-KentuckyPresentMcGrath and Shishkoff (2003)
-LouisianaPresentSingh et al. (2009)
-MarylandPresentShishkoff and McGrath (2003)
-MichiganPresentCABI (Undated b)
-New JerseyPresentShishkoff and McGrath (2003)
-New YorkPresentCABI (Undated b)
-North CarolinaPresentCABI (Undated b)
-OklahomaPresentShishkoff and McGrath (2003)
-TennesseePresentCABI (Undated b)
-VirginiaPresentMcGrath and Shishkoff (2003)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated b)
-New South WalesPresentCABI (Undated b)
-QueenslandPresentCABI (Undated b)
New ZealandPresentAmano (1986)
SamoaPresentGerlach (1988)

South America

ArgentinaPresentCABI (Undated b)
BoliviaPresentAmano (1986)
BrazilPresentCABI (Undated b)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentDorneles et al. (2018)
-Sao PauloPresentKobori et al. (2004)
UruguayPresentAmano (1986)
VenezuelaPresentCABI (Undated b)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / mould growth on lesion
Stems / mycelium present
Whole plant / early senescence

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Acremonium alternatum Pathogen
Ampelomyces quisqualis Hyperparasite
Calcarisporium arbuscula Antagonist
Lecanicillium lecanii Mycoparasite
Stephanoascus flocculosus Hyperparasite
Stephanoascus rugulosus Hyperparasite
Tilletiopsis albescens Antagonist
Tilletiopsis minor Antagonist
Tilletiopsis pallescens Antagonist
Tilletiopsis washingtonensis Antagonist

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Amano K, 1986. Host range and geographical distribution of the powdery mildew fungi. Tokyo, Japan; Japan Scientific Societies Press, 741 pp.

Blumer S, 1933. Die Erysiphaceen Mitteleuropas mit besonderer Berucksichtigung der Schweiz. Beitrage zur Kryptogamenflora der Schweiz, 7:1-483.

Blumer S, 1967. Echte Mehltaupilze (Erysiphaceae) Ein Bestimmungsbuch für die in Europa Vorkommenden Arten. Jena, Germany: Gustav Fischer Verlag.

Boesewinkel HJ, 1979. Erysiphaceae of New Zealand. Sydowia, 32:13-56

Braun U, 1987. A monograph of the Erysiphales (powdery mildews). Beihefte zur Nova Hedwigia, 89:700 pp.

Braun U, 1995. The Powdery Mildews (Erysiphales) of Europe. Jena, Germany: Gustav Fischer Verlag, 337 pp.

Braun U, Cook RTA, Inman AJ, Shin HD, 2002. The taxonomy of the powdery mildew fungi. The powdery mildews: a comprehensive treatise, 13-55; many ref.

Braun U, Shishkoff N, Takamatsu S, 2001. Phylogeny of Podosphaera sect. Sphaerotheca subsect. Magnicellulatae (Sphaerotheca fuliginea auct. s.lat.) inferred from rDNA ITS sequences - a taxonomic interpretation. Schlechtendalia, No.7:45-52; 25 ref.

Braun U, Takamatsu S, 2000. Phylogeny of Erysiphe, Microsphaera, Uncinula (Erysipheae) and Cystotheca, Podosphaera, Sphaerotheca (Cystotheceae) inferred from rDNA ITS sequences - some taxonomic consequences. Schlechtendalia, No.4:1-33; 11 ref.

Butt DJ, 1978. Epidemiology of powdery mildews. In: Spencer DM, ed. The Powdery Mildews. London, UK: Academic Press, 51-77.

Cheah LH, Cox JK, 1995. Screening of plant extracts for control of powdery mildew in squash. Proceedings of the Forty Eighth New Zealand Plant Protection Conference, Angus Inn, Hastings, New Zealand, August 8-10, 1995., 340-342; 14 ref.

Cheah LH, Page BBC, 1997. Screening natural products for the control of powdery mildew in squash. In: Proceedings of the 11th Australasian Plant Pathology Conference. Australia: Australasian Plant Pathology Society, 257.

Cheah LH, Page BBC, Cox JK, 1996. Epidemiology of powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca fuliginea) of squash. Proceedings of the Forty Ninth New Zealand Plant Protection Conference, Quality Hotel Rutherford, Nelson, New Zealand, 13-15 August, 1996., 147-151; 13 ref.

Cho SE, Hong SH, Kim BS, Kim JY, Shin HD, 2015. First report of powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii on Luffa cylindrica in Korea. Plant Disease, 99(12):1861. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Cho SE, Park JH, Hong SH, Kim BS, Shin HD, 2014. First report of powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii on Verbena brasiliensis in Korea. Plant Disease, 98(8):1159. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Cho SE, Park JH, Hong SH, Shin HD, 2013. First report of powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii on the invasive weed, Bidens pilosa, in Korea. Plant Disease, 97(9):1254. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Cho SE, Park JH, Kim BS, Han KS, Shin HD, 2015. First report of powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii on Torenia fournieri in Korea. Plant Disease, 99(12):1863-1864. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Cho SE, Park JH, Lee SK, Shin CH, Shin HD, 2013. First report of powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii on Hibiscus mutabilis in Korea. Plant Disease, 97(8):1118. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Cho SE, Park MJ, Han KS, Zhao TT, Shin HD, 2016. First report of powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii on Coreopsis verticillata in Korea. Plant Disease, 100(8):1785-1786. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Choi IY, Cheong SS, Joa JH, Cho SE, Shin HD, 2015. First report of powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii on Sechium edule in Korea. Plant Disease, 99(1):162. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Cohen R, Leibovich G, Shtienberg D, Paris HS, 1993. Variability in the reaction of squash (Cucurbita pepo) to inoculation with Sphaerotheca fuliginea and methodology of breeding for resistance. Plant Pathology, 42(4):510-516

Cohen Y, 1992. Genes and mechanism of resistance against fungal pathogens in breeding lines of musk melon. In: Eucarpia Meeting 'Cucurbitaceae 92', Skierniewice, Poland, July, 1992. Poznan, Poland: Institute of Plant Genetics, 139-141.

Cook RTA, Inman AJ, Billings C, 1997. Identification and classification of powdery mildew anamorphs using light and scanning electron microscopy and host range data. Mycological Research, 101(8):975-1002; 25 ref.

Daayf F, Schmitt A, Belanger RR, 1995. The effects of plant extracts of Reynoutria sachalinensis on powdery mildew development and leaf physiology of long English cucumber. Plant Disease, 79(6):577-580

Dixon GR, 1981. Vegetable Crop Diseases. London, UK: Macmillan Press, 404 pp.

Dixon GR, 1981. Vegetable Crop Diseases. London, UK: Macmillan Press, 404 pp.

Dorneles, K. R., Dallagnol, L. J., Brunetto, A. E., Pazdiora, P. C., 2018. First report of powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii on Lagenaria siceraria in Brazil., 102(4), 823-824. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis doi: 10.1094/PDIS-07-17-1109-PDN

Ferrandino FJ, Smith VL, 2007. The effect of milk-based foliar sprays on yield components of field pumpkins with powdery mildew. Crop Protection, 26(4):657-663. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02612194

Floris E, Alvarez JM, 1996. Nature of resistance of seven melon lines to Sphaerotheca fuliginea. Plant Pathology, 45(1):155-160; 18 ref.

Garibaldi A, Gilardi G, Poli A, Gullino ML, 2012. First report of powdery mildew of Impatiens New Guinea, caused by Podosphaera sp., in Italy. Journal of Plant Pathology, 94(4, Supplement):S4.103. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/

Gerlach WWP, 1988. Plant diseases of Western Samoa. Apia, Western Samoa: Samoan German Crop Protection Project, 215 pp.

Greathead DJ, Greathead AH, 1992. Biological control of insect pests by insect parasitoids and predators: the BIOCAT database. Biocontrol News and Information, 13(4):61N-68N.

Haberle R, Schlosser E, 1993. Protective and curative effects of Telmion on Sphaerotheca fuliginea on cucumber. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, 58(3b):1461-1467

Hammett KRW, 1977. Taxonomy of Erysiphaceae in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Botany, 15(4):687-711

Hijwegen T, 1989. Effect of culture filtrates of seventeen fungicolous fungi on sporulation of cucumber powdery mildew. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 95(Supplement 1):95-98

Hirata K, 1966. Host Range and Geographical Distribution of Powdery Mildews. Japan: Niigata University.

Hirata T, Cunnington JH, Paksiri U, Limkaisang S, Shishkoff N, Grigaliunaite B, Sato Y, Takamatsu S, 2000. Evolutionary analysis of subsection Magnicellulatae of Podosphaera section Sphaerotheca (Erysiphales) based on the rDNA internal transcribed spacer sequences with special reference to host plants. Canadian Journal of Botany, 78(12):1521-1530; 35 ref.

Homma Y, Arimoto Y, Misato T, 1981. Effect of sodium bicarbonate on each growth stage of cucumber powdery mildew fungus (Sphaerotheca fuliginea) in its life cycle. Journal of Pesticide Science, 6(2):201-209

Husain SI, Akram M, 1995. Effect of temperature and relative humidity on conidial germination and germ tube elongation of Sphaerotheca fuliginea (Schlect ex Fr.) Poll. on sunflower. Zeitschrift fu^umlaut~r Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 102(5):509-513; 26 ref.

Irum Mukhtar, Ibatsam Khokhar, Sobia Mushtaq, 2013. New record of Podosphaera xanthii on Ageratum conyzoides L. in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research, 19(4):475-479. http://www.wssp.org.pk/vol-19-4-2013/10.%20PJWSR-33-2013-19-4-475-479.pdf

Jarvis WR, Shaw LA, Traquair JA, 1989. Factors affecting antagonism of cucumber powdery mildew by Stephanoascus flocculosus and S. rugulosus. Mycological Research, 92(2):162-165

Jarvis WR, Slingsby K, 1977. The control of powdery mildew of greenhouse cucumber by water sprays and Ampelomyces quisqualis. Plant Disease Reporter, 61(9):728-730

Joa JH, Chung BN, Han KS, Cho SE, Shin HD, 2013. First report of powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii on papaya in Korea. Plant Disease, 97(11):1514. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Junell L, 1966. A revision of Sphaerotheca fuliginea ([Schlecht.] Fr.) Poll. s.lat. Svensk Botanisk Tidskrift, 60:365-392.

Kavak H, 2011. Two new records of powdery mildews with their effectiveness on three ornamentals in Turkey. African Journal of Agricultural Research, 6(5):1076-1079. http://www.academicjournals.org/ajar/fulltext/2011/4%20Mar/Kavak.htm

Knudsen IMB, Skou JP, 1993. The effectivity of Tilletiopsis albescens in biocontrol of powdery mildew. Annals of Applied Biology, 123(1):173-185

Kobori RF, Suzuki O, Wierzbicki R, Vecchia PTdella, Camargo LEA, 2004. Occurrence of Podosphaera xanthii race 2 on Cucumis melo in Brazil. Plant Disease, 88(10):1161. http://www.apsnet.org

Kousik CS, Donahoo RS, Webster CG, Turechek WW, Adkins ST, Roberts PD, 2011. Outbreak of cucurbit powdery mildew on watermelon fruit caused by Podosphaera xanthii in southwest Florida. Plant Disease, 95(12):1586-1587. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

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Lebeda A, 1984. Screening of wild Cucumis species for resistance to cucumber powdery mildew (Erysiphe cichoracearum and Sphaerotheca fuliginea). Scientia Horticulturae, 24(3/4):241-249

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Lee HB, 2013. First report of powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii (syn. P. fusca) on cocklebur in Korea. Plant Disease, 97(6):842. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Lee HB, Kim CJ, Mun HY, 2013. First report of powdery mildew on Spanish needles (Bidens bipinnata) caused by Podosphaera xanthii in Korea. Plant Disease, 97(10):1385-1386. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Lim G, 1988. Plant diseases in Singapore. Singapore Journal of Primary Industries, 16(2, Supplement):12-29

Liu ShY, Men XY, Li Y, 2015. First report of powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii on Solanum melongena (eggplant) in China. Plant Disease, 99(12):1856. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Liu WA, Kirschner R, 2015. First report of powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii on wild bitter gourd in Taiwan. Plant Disease, 99(5):726. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Malathrakis NE, 1985. The fungus Acremonium alternatum Linc:Fr., a hyperparasite of the cucurbits powdery mildew pathogen Sphaerotheca fuliginea. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 92(5):509-515

Marco S, Ziv O, Cohen R, 1994. Suppression of powdery mildew in squash by applications of whitewash, clay and antitranspirant materials. Phytoparasitica, 22(1):19-29

Matheron ME, Porchas M, 2007. Comparative performance and preservation of chemical management tools for powdery mildew on muskmelon. Acta Horticulturae [Proceedings of the Third International Symposium on Cucurbits, Townsville, Australia, 11-17 September 2005.], No.731:357-361. http://www.actahort.org

McGrath MT, Shishkoff N, 2003. First report of the cucurbit powdery mildew fungus (Podosphaera xanthii) resistant to strobilurin fungicides in the United States. Plant Disease, 87(8):1007.

Menzies J, Bowen P, Ehret D, Glass ADM, 1992. Foliar applications of potassium silicate reduce severity of powdery mildew on cucumber, muskmelon, and zucchini squash. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 117(6):902-905

Mercier J, Muscara MJ, Davis AR, 2014. First report of Podosphaera xanthii race 1W causing powdery mildew of watermelon in California. Plant Disease, 98(1):158. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Nayak, A. K., Babu, B. K., 2017. First report of powdery mildew on Lagenaria siceraria caused by Podosphaera xanthii in India., 99(1), 289. http://www.sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3851/2493

O'Brien RG, 1994. Fungicide resistance in populations of cucurbit powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca fuliginea). New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 22(2):145-149

O'Brien RG, Vawdrey LL, Glass RJ, 1988. Fungicide resistance in cucurbit powdery mildew (Sphaerotheca fuliginea) and its effect on field control. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 28(3):417-423

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Saenz GS, Taylor JW, 1999. Phylogeny of the Erysiphales (powdery mildews) inferred from internal transcribed spacer ribosomal DNA sequences. Canadian Journal of Botany, 77(1):150-168; 50 ref.

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Shen YuanMin, Huang TungChin, Liu HsingLung, Chao ChiaHung, 2015. First report of the powdery mildew Podosphaera xanthii on Gynura bicolor. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 10(1):27. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13314-015-0177-y/fulltext.html

Shishkoff N, McGrath MT, 2003. Baseline sensitivity of cucurbit powdery mildew (Podosphaera xanthii) to the fungicide azoxystrobin in the United States. Resistant Pest Management Newsletter, 12(2):72-73.

Singh R, Ferrin DM, Aime MC, 2009. First report of powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii on Sechium edule in the United States. Plant Disease, 93(12):1348. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Sitterly WR, 1978. Powdery mildews of cucurbits. In: Spencer DM, ed. The Powdery Mildews. London, UK: Academic Press, 359-377.

Sundheim L, 1982. Control of cucumber powdery mildew by the hyperparasite Ampelomyces quisqualis and fungicides. Plant Pathology, 31(3):209-214

Takamatsu S, Hirata T, Sato Y, 2000. A parasitic transition from trees to herbs occurred at least twice in tribe Cystotheceae (Erysiphaceae): evidence from nuclear ribosomal DNA. Mycological Research, 104(11):1304-1311; 29 ref.

Tam LTT, Dung PN, Liem NV, Sato Y, 2015. First report of Podosphaera xanthii causing powdery mildew on red chilli pepper in Vietnam. New Disease Reports, 32:23. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=032023

Tang SR, Liu SY, Bai QR, Li Y, 2016. First report of powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii on Kalanchoe blossfeldiana in China. Plant Disease, 100(2):520-521. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

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