Spergula arvensis (corn spurry)
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Biology and Ecology
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Uses List
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Spergula arvensis L. (1753)
Preferred Common Name
- corn spurry
Other Scientific Names
- Spergula linicola Boreau.
- Spergula maxima Weihe.
- Spergula sativa Boenn.
- Spergula vulgaris Boenn.
International Common Names
- English: spurry (New Zealand)
- Spanish: esparcilla; espergula de los campos; mardoquera (Colombia); mosquera; pasto pinito (Chile); pel de boc; spergula abrojillo (Argentina)
- French: petite spergoute; spargoute des champs; spourier
- Portuguese: esparguta
Local Common Names
- Brazil: gorga
- Chile: linacilla
- Colombia: agujillas; anisillo; mardo quea; miona
- Denmark: almendelig
- East Africa: spurrey
- Ecuador: alfarillo
- Finland: peltohatikka
- Germany: Acker-Spark; Sporgel
- India: bandhamia; mun-muna; pittpapra
- Italy: renaiola
- Japan: noharatsumekusa
- Netherlands: spurrie
- Norway: linbendel; spergel
- Philippines: devil's gut
- South Africa: sporrie
- Sweden: akerspargel
- Taiwan: da-gwa-tsau
- SPRAR (Spergula arvensis)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Caryophyllales
- Family: Caryophyllaceae
- Genus: Spergula
- Species: Spergula arvensis
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page Spergula arvensis is the universally accepted name for this common and widespread annual weed. Two genetically distinct morphs have been described in the UK, S. arvensis var. arvensis and S. arvensis var. sativum (New, 1961, 1978). Chromosome number is 2n = 18 (Stace, 1997).
DescriptionTop of page S. arvensis is an erect, ascending or spreading annual herb; stems 15 to 60 cm tall, profusely branched below, slender, conspicuously jointed and somewhat sticky, not hairy or only sparsely hairy; taproot and secondary roots finely branched; leaves appearing as whorls at each joint of the stem, threadlike, bright green, 1.5 to 4 cm long, rounded on the upper surface, and grooved lengthwise on the lower surface, with minute yellowish-brown stipules; flowers in terminal clusters, small, perfect, more or less flat topped, often spreading, with the central flower opening first (cyme); sepals five, nearly separate, green and white, glandular; petals five, white; stamens 10 (occasionally five) ; pistil one, with five styles, five-valved; fruit round, a one-celled capsule splitting into five sections containing many seeds; seeds thick, lens-shaped, dull black, the surface roughened by minute rounded, protruding bodies, rarely smooth, about 1.5 mm in diameter, with a conspicuous, narrow, light coloured wing on the margin (from Holm et al., 1977).
The two varieties may be distinguished on the basis of seed morphology: seeds of var. arvensis have an extremely narrow wing (sometimes this is absent) and are covered by clavate papillae; seeds of var. sativum have no papillae and a wider wing (Stace, 1997). Hanf (1983) describes ssp. sativum as larger and more robust than S. arvensis.
DistributionTop of page S. arvensis is most widely distributed as a weed in temperate regions, but does enter the tropics where it competes with crops at higher elevations. It is found on all continents, occurring as a weed as far north as northern Finland and Alaska, USA, and as far south as Tasmania, Australia. As a ruderal species it may be found north of the Arctic circle. In Kenya, the species is most troublesome above 2500 m, in the Philippines it is found above 2000 m and in Jamaica above 1800 m.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Ethiopia||Present||Holm et al. (1991)|
|Kenya||Present, Widespread||Holm et al. (1991)|
|Lesotho||Present||Wells et al. (1986)|
|South Africa||Present||Wells et al. (1986); Holm et al. (1991)|
|Tanzania||Present, Widespread||Holm et al. (1991)|
|Uganda||Present||Holm et al. (1991)|
|Indonesia||Present, Widespread||Holm et al. (1991)|
|Israel||Present||Holm et al. (1991)|
|Japan||Present, Widespread||Numata and Yoshizawa (1975); Holm et al. (1991)|
|-Hokkaido||Present||Numata and Yoshizawa (1975)|
|-Honshu||Present||Numata and Yoshizawa (1975)|
|-Kyushu||Present||Numata and Yoshizawa (1975)|
|-Ryukyu Islands||Present||Numata and Yoshizawa (1975)|
|-Shikoku||Present||Numata and Yoshizawa (1975)|
|North Korea||Present||Holm et al. (1991)|
|Pakistan||Present||Holm et al. (1991)|
|Philippines||Present, Widespread||Holm et al. (1991)|
|South Korea||Present||Holm et al. (1991)|
|Taiwan||Present||Holm et al. (1991)|
|Albania||Present||Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|Andorra||Present||Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|Austria||Present||Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|Belarus||Present||Ratter and Akeroyd (1993); CABI (Undated)|
|Belgium||Present||Holm et al. (1991); Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|Bosnia and Herzegovina||Present||Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|Bulgaria||Present||Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|Croatia||Present||Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|Czechia||Present||Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|Czechoslovakia||Present||Hilbig and Volf (1984); Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|Federal Republic of Yugoslavia||Present||Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|Denmark||Present||Holm et al. (1991); Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|Estonia||Present||Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|Finland||Present, Widespread||Holm et al. (1991); Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|France||Present||Holm et al. (1991); Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|-Corsica||Present||Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|Germany||Present, Widespread||Holm et al. (1991); Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|Gibraltar||Present||Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|Greece||Present||Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|Hungary||Present||Holm et al. (1991); Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|Iceland||Present||Holm et al. (1991); Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|Ireland||Present, Widespread||Holm et al. (1991); Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|Italy||Present||Bianco (1977); Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|Latvia||Present||Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|Liechtenstein||Present||Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|Lithuania||Present||Ratter and Akeroyd (1993); Monstvilaitė et al. (1996)|
|Luxembourg||Present||Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|Malta||Present||Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|Moldova||Present||Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|Monaco||Present||Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|Netherlands||Present||Ratter and Akeroyd (1993); Theunissen et al. (1995)|
|North Macedonia||Present||Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|Norway||Present, Widespread||Holm et al. (1991); Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|Poland||Present||Holm et al. (1991); Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|Portugal||Present||Holm et al. (1991); Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|-Azores||Present||Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|-Madeira||Present||Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|Romania||Present||Ciorlăuș (1983); Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|Russia||Present||Holm et al. (1991)|
|San Marino||Present||Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|Serbia and Montenegro||Present||Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|Slovakia||Present||Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|Slovenia||Present||Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|Spain||Present||Holm et al. (1991); Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|-Canary Islands||Present||Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|Sweden||Present, Widespread||Holm et al. (1991); Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|Switzerland||Present||Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|Ukraine||Present||Gamor (1988); Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|United Kingdom||Present, Widespread||Holm et al. (1991); Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|-Channel Islands||Present||Ratter and Akeroyd (1993)|
|Canada||Present||Holm et al. (1991)|
|Jamaica||Present||Holm et al. (1991)|
|U.S. Virgin Islands||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery (1987)|
|United States||Present||Holm et al. (1991)|
|-Alabama||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery (1987)|
|-Alaska||Present||Holm et al. (1991)|
|-Arizona||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery (1987)|
|-Arkansas||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery (1987)|
|-California||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery (1987)|
|-Colorado||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery (1987)|
|-Connecticut||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery (1987)|
|-Delaware||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery (1987)|
|-Florida||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery (1987)|
|-Georgia||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery (1987)|
|-Hawaii||Present||Holm et al. (1991)|
|-Idaho||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery (1987)|
|-Illinois||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery (1987)|
|-Iowa||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery (1987)|
|-Kansas||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery (1987)|
|-Louisiana||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery (1987)|
|-Maine||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery (1987)|
|-Maryland||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery (1987)|
|-Massachusetts||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery (1987)|
|-Michigan||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery (1987)|
|-Minnesota||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery (1987)|
|-Mississippi||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery (1987)|
|-Missouri||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery (1987)|
|-Nebraska||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery (1987)|
|-New Hampshire||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery (1987)|
|-New Jersey||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery (1987)|
|-New Mexico||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery (1987)|
|-New York||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery (1987)|
|-North Carolina||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery (1987)|
|-South Dakota||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery (1987)|
|-Texas||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery (1987)|
|-Vermont||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery (1987)|
|-Virginia||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery (1987)|
|-Washington||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery (1987)|
|-Wisconsin||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery (1987)|
|Australia||Present, Widespread||Holm et al. (1991)|
|-New South Wales||Present||Lazarides et al. (1997)|
|-Queensland||Present||Lazarides et al. (1997)|
|-South Australia||Present||Lazarides et al. (1997)|
|-Tasmania||Present||Lorenzi and Jeffery (1987); Holm et al. (1991)|
|-Victoria||Present||Lazarides et al. (1997)|
|New Zealand||Present, Widespread||Holm et al. (1991)|
|Argentina||Present||Holm et al. (1991)|
|Bolivia||Present||Otazú et al. (1985)|
|Brazil||Present, Widespread||Holm et al. (1991)|
|-Mato Grosso do Sul||Present||Lorenzi (1982)|
|-Minas Gerais||Present||Lorenzi (1982)|
|-Rio Grande do Sul||Present||Lorenzi (1982)|
|-Santa Catarina||Present||Lorenzi (1982)|
|-Sao Paulo||Present||Lorenzi (1982)|
|Chile||Present, Widespread||Holm et al. (1991)|
|Colombia||Present, Widespread||Holm et al. (1991)|
|Ecuador||Present||Holm et al. (1991)|
HabitatTop of page S. arvensis grows in open, disturbed habitats and on arable land. It is never a member of closed plant communities, but may sometimes be found in grasslands or clover swards in the first year following cultivation, when gaps in the canopy are encountered (Holm et al., 1977). It favours acid soils (pH 4.6 to 5) and Ervio et al. (1994) reported that in Finland it was most common in soils where the extractable calcium concentration was below 1000 mg/litre of soil. S. arvensis prefers light, sandy soils (Hallgren, 1996), but can grow well on heavy soils. In the UK, it can be found on peaty soils, but in Sweden it does not favour soils with a high organic matter content (Holm et al. 1977). Towards the tropical regions the plant requires high altitudes to be competitive with crop plants.
Habitat ListTop of page
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page S. arvensis has been reported as a weed of 25 crops in 33 countries (Holm et al., 1977). It is not associated with any particular crop or set of crops, but has been reported as a weed of cereals in almost all parts of the world, and grows with equal vigour in wheat, oats, root crops and flax (Linum usitatissimum).
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Allium cepa (onion)||Liliaceae||Other|
|Allium sativum (garlic)||Liliaceae||Other|
|Asparagus officinalis (asparagus)||Liliaceae||Other|
|Avena sativa (oats)||Poaceae||Main|
|Beta vulgaris (beetroot)||Chenopodiaceae||Main|
|Brassica napus var. napus (rape)||Brassicaceae||Other|
|Brassica rapa subsp. chinensis (Chinese cabbage)||Brassicaceae||Other|
|Cucumis sativus (cucumber)||Cucurbitaceae||Other|
|Fragaria ananassa (strawberry)||Rosaceae||Other|
|Hordeum vulgare (barley)||Poaceae||Main|
|Linum usitatissimum (flax)||Main|
|Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)||Solanaceae||Other|
|Pisum sativum (pea)||Fabaceae||Main|
|Raphanus sativus (radish)||Brassicaceae||Other|
|Secale cereale (rye)||Poaceae||Main|
|Solanum tuberosum (potato)||Solanaceae||Main|
|Triticum aestivum (wheat)||Poaceae||Main|
|Vicia faba (faba bean)||Fabaceae||Other|
|Zea mays (maize)||Poaceae||Main|
Biology and EcologyTop of page In temperate regions, S. arvensis behaves as a summer annual. In the UK most seeds germinate in mid or late April and may be expected to flower after 8 weeks, and produce mature seeds in 10 weeks. Flowering and seeding continues until the plant dies (Holm et al., 1977). In Canada mature plants flower between July and August, shedding seed from July onward. In California, USA germination follows the first heavy rains in autumn and continues until the habitat dries up in spring (Wagner, 1984). S. arvensis may produce very large numbers of seed in a short time, a large, extensively branched individual producing as many as 7500 seeds. Seed production has been shown to decrease as moisture stress increases (Trivedi and Tripathi, 1982). Champness and Morris (1948) reported a density of 4 million seeds per hectare in a grassland site in the UK.
Germination behaviour and dormancy patterns are complex and variable between populations and seed morphs (Wagner, 1988). Two distinct seed morphs are produced, one smooth, the other papillate. Individual plants produce only one type of seed (New, 1961). The papillate seeds exhibit greater germination at 21°C, the smooth seeds at 13°C (Holm et al., 1977). Muslemanie (1994) reported that S. arvensis had no primary dormancy and could therefore germinate immediately following dispersal. However, when studying germination characteristics in individuals from a range of populations, Wagner (1988) found that freshly produced seeds from grassland and ruderal populations were dormant at the time of dispersal, whilst those from cultivated land were not. Bouwmeester and Karssen (1993) illustrated clear seasonal patterns of dormancy in three successive years; dormancy was broken in spring by rising temperatures and re-induced in autumn as temperatures fell. In incubation tests dormancy patterns were clearly influenced by a range of environmental variables; irradiation with red light, addition of N, and desiccation prior to germination tests all strongly promoted germination. Håkansson (1982) showed that germination was favoured by temperature fluctuations between 7 and 17°C or 17 and 27°C.
Most seedlings of S. arvensis emerge from seeds at, or near to the soil surface. Seeds are able to survive burial in the soil for short periods. Conn and Deck (1995) reported less than 1% survival after 9.7 years. Burial depth has a significant effect on seed survival, with viability remaining higher at 15 than at 2 cm (Conn, 1990).
Seed dispersal occurs through a number of mechanisms. Viable seeds have been found in the droppings of horses, sheep, pigs, cattle and a number of bird species. Short-distance dispersal is by water and mud on animals, by the feet of humans and by agricultural machines. The seeds may also be distributed in commercial grain seed (Holm et al., 1977).
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page Little research has been conducted to establish the natural enemies of S. arvensis. A study by Veerman (1974) mentions a large spider mite, Schizonobia sycophanta, which feeds on S. arvensis.
ImpactTop of page S. arvensis is one of the three most serious weeds of cereals in Kenya, and of wheat and barley in Finland, where, in an extensive survey, it was found to a have a higher average density per field than any other weed species. It is a principal weed in Alaska (cereals and pastures), Germany (flax), New Zealand (maize, peas, vegetables and wheat), Norway (vegetables, barley, oats and wheat), the Philippines (vegetables), Colombia (corn and oats), Sweden (barley, oats, potatoes and wheat), Ireland (peas) and Tanzania (wheat). It is also common in Australia, the UK, India, Portugal, France, Japan and Brazil (Holm et al., 1977). In field studies in the USA, interference from populations of S. arvensis reduced shoot weights of English pea (Pisum sativum) and kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) by 93% and 72%, respectively (Harrison and Peterson, 1997). These authors believe that an allelopathic effect is involved, as did Tsuzuki and Araki (1984) who noted that Brassica rapa [B. campestris var. rapa], tomatoes and radishes were 'remarkably inhibited' by S. arvensis. They showed that extracts from the leaves and stems inhibited seedling emergence and growth.
S. arvensis has been reported as an alternative host of a number of crop pathogens. Pseudomonas solanacearum [Ralstonia solanacearum] was found associated with the rhizosphere and root tissues of S. arvensis in potato crops (Kishore et al., 1993). The weed has been shown to be susceptible to two beet yellowing viruses, beet yellows closterovirus (BYV) and beet mild yellowing luteovirus (BMYV) (Stevens et al., 1994). In Bolivia, it has been reported as a host of false root nematode of potatoes (Nacobbus aberrans) (Otazu et al., 1985), in India of white rust of crucifers (Albugo candida) (Srivastava et al., 1986) and in Poland of Meloidogyne hapla (Dolna, 1984).
UsesTop of page S. arvensis was used as a food source for man during the 3rd to 5th centuries AD. in northern Europe. In more recent times it has been used for making bread during times of shortage in the same area. Its ability to germinate late in the season, grow quickly and mature into autumn has, in some instances, made it a valuable fodder crop. It is generally palatable to stock, but is particularly favoured by cattle and sheep (Holm et al., 1977). Theunissen and den Ouden (1980) intercropped S. arvensis with Brussels sprouts, and showed that in addition to providing shelter and having a beneficial effect on soil structure, it significantly reduced the density of a number of pests, including Mamestra brassicae and Evergestis forficalis.
Uses ListTop of page
Animal feed, fodder, forage
- Shade and shelter
Human food and beverage
- Emergency (famine) food
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page S. arvensis may be confused with Spergularia rubra (sand spurry). This species, however, has pink petals and a leafy cyme. In the Middle East, the closely related S. fallax is very similar, but has broadly winged seeds and leaves not grooved below
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
Seed of S. arvensis is not able to emerge from great depths and hence regular cultivation will bury a proportion of seeds to depths from which they are unable to establish. However, whilst cultivation decreases the number of seeds at or near to the soil surface, burial in the soil profile increases the longevity of seeds which will eventually be returned to the soil surface by successive cultivations.
In field trials in Poland, mineral fertilization (addition of N and Ca) of spring barley eliminated S. arvensis (Borowiec et al., 1985). Yadav et al. (1995) successfully controlled this weed by employing integrated weed management strategies which combined pre-emergence spraying of isoproturon with an increase in N fertilization and application of the stale seed bed technique.
Chemical control of S. arvensis has been reported in a number of crops using a range of pre- and post-emergence herbicides. Trials conducted in Russia by Lyzenko et al. (1992) showed that a mixture of chlorsulfuron + 2,4-D effectively controlled a number of 2,4-D resistant weeds including S. arvensis in spring wheat. Chlorsulfuron was similarly effective in barley in Canada (Ivany, 1987). In the south-west Cape, South Africa, 89% suppression of S. arvensis was achieved in wheat and barley using triasulfuron, 96% control was attained with a tank mixture of triasulfuron + bromoxynil (van Biljon et al., 1988). In India, post-emergence applications of terbutryn and isoproturon were effective in wheat (Tiwari et al., 1987). Post-emergence application of phenmedipham in sugar beet (Beta vulgaris) ensured 100% control of S. arvensis (Costa et al., 1984), while pendimethalin significantly reduced populations in Indian potato crops (Husain and Ghosh, 1985). The weed was eradicated from root crops including sweet potatoes, cassava, yam and potatoes in the Philippines following pre-emergence application of ametryne (Robles, 1979). Herbicide recommendations are given by Mamarot and Rodriguez (1997) for control of S. arvensis in a wide range of crops, for example, for the use of linuron in potato, soyabean and sunflower; phenmedipham and metamitron in sugarbeet; metazachlor in rape; metribuzin, metsulfuron and metobromuron in potato; metsulfuron, terbutryne and tribenuron in cereals; oxadiazon in soyabean and sunflower and pendimethalin in sunflower and maize.
ReferencesTop of page
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Borowiec S; Kuszelewski L; Kutyna I; LeSnik T; lukaszuk T, 1985. The effect of long-term fertilizer use on soil properties and weed infestation of rye, spring barley, Sinapis alba and potato crops. Part II. The effect of different fertilizer treatments on weed infestation of individual crops. Zeszyty Naukowe Akademii Rolniczej w Szczecinie, Rolnictwo, No.37:71-86.
Champness S; Morris K, 1948. The population of buried viable seeds in relation to contrasting pasture and soil types. Journal of Ecology, 36:149-173.
Costa RAS; Brauner GL; Silveira Junior P, 1984. Chemical weed control in sugarbeet crops (Beta vulgaris L.). Anais da 2. Reuniao Tecnica Anual da Beterraba Acucareira. Pelotas, Brazil: UEPp de Pelotas, 135-138.
Hallgren E, 1996. Occurrence of broad-leaved weeds on different soils in different crops in Sweden. Swedish Journal of Agricultural Research, 26(3):115-123.
Hskannson S, 1982. Germination of weed seeds in arable soil at different temperatures and times of year. Rapport, Institutionen for Vaxtodling, Sveriges Lantbruksuniversitet, No. 100.
Husain MF; Ghosh AK, 1985. Pendimethalin formulations for weed control in potato. Abstracts of papers, Annual Conference of the Indian Society of Weed Science, 19.
Kishore V; Sunaina V; Shekhawat GS, 1994. Estimation of infection by Pseudomonas solanacearum in weed and non host plants. Potato: present and future. Proceedings of the National Symposium held at Modipuram during 1-3 March, 1993 [edited by Shekhawat, G. S.; Khurana, S. M. P.; Pandey, S. K.; Chandla, V. K.] Shimla, India; Indian Potato Association, 216-218
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Lyzenko VI; Raskin MS; Spiridonov YuYa; Zaitseva TS; Kutuzova NB; Samus' MV, 1992. Productivity and grain quality of spring wheat treated with a mixture of chlorsulfuron and 2,4-D. Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya, No. 3:138-142.
Mamarot J; Rodriguez A, 1997. Sensibilité des Mauvaises Herbes aux Herbicides. 4th edition. Paris, France: Association de Coordination Technique Agricole.
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Bianco V V, 1977. Influence of the previous crop and of nitrogen fertilization on the weed infestation of a spinach crop. (Influenza della precessione colturale e della concimazione azotata sulle infestanti di una coltura di spinacio.). In: Atti: Stato Attuale della Lotta alle Malerbe nelle Colture Arboree, Ortofloricole e Cerealicole, Bologna, 1977. Bologna, Italy: Societa Italiana per lo Studio della Lotta alle Malerbe (S.I.L.M.). 161-167.
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