Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide


Spalgis epeus



Spalgis epeus


  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Spalgis epeus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Spalgis epeus (Westwood)

Other Scientific Names

  • Spalgis epius Westwood

International Common Names

  • English: apefly

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Lycaenidae
  •                             Genus: Spalgis
  •                                 Species: Spalgis epeus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes


BangladeshPresentJalil and Kabir, 1971, publ. 1972
IndiaPresentChacko and Bhat, 1976
-Andhra PradeshPresentPushpaveni et al., 1973, publ. 1974
-KarnatakaPresentMani et al., 1987
-KeralaPresentRahiman and Vijayalakshmi, 1998
-Tamil NaduPresentChacko and Bhat, 1976
IndonesiaPresentGreathead pers.comm
Sri LankaPresentGreathead and Greathead, 1992; Mayadunnage et al., 2009

Natural enemy of

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SpeciesStages attackedCountries where known to occurReferences
Ceroplastes pseudoceriferusAdults/Nymphs
Chloropulvinaria polygonataAdults/Nymphs
Ferrisia virgataAdults/Nymphs
Kilifia acuminataAdults/Nymphs
Maconellicoccus hirsutusAdults/Nymphs
Planococcus citri
Planococcus lilacinusAdults/Nymphs
Rastrococcus iceryoidesAdults/Eggs/Nymphs
Rastrococcus invadensAdults/Nymphs
Rastrococcus spinosusAdults/Nymphs


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Ali M; 1978, recd. 1980. A report on the wax scales, Ceroplastes pseudoceriferus Green and Chloropulvinaria polygonata (Ckll.) (Homoptera: Coccidae) on mango and their natural enemies. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology, 6(1):69-70.

Chacko MJ; Bhat PK, 1976. Record of Ferrisia virgata and its natural enemy, Spalgis epius, on coffee in India. Journal of Coffee Research, 6(2):56-57.

Dinesh AS; Venkatesha MG; Sompalyam Ramakrishna, 2010. Development, life history characteristics and behaviour of mealybug predator, Spalgis epius (Westwood) (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) on Planococcus citri (Risso) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). Journal of Pest Science, 83(3):339-345.

Gowda DKS; Manjunath D; Pradip Kumar; Datta RK, 1996. Spalgis epius Westwood (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) - a potential predator of mulberry mealy bug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus. Insect Environment, 2(3):87-88.

Greathead DJ; Greathead AH, 1992. Biological control of insect pests by insect parasitoids and predators: the BIOCAT database. Biocontrol News and Information, 13(4):61N-68N.

Jalil AFMA; Kabir AKMF, 1971. Some studies on Pseudococcus virgatus Ckll. infesting mesta and kenaf in East Pakistan. Agriculture Pakistan, 22(2):237-240

Kalshoven LGE; Laan PA van der (Reviser and translator), 1981. Pests of crops in Indonesia (revised). Jakarta, Indonesia: Ichtiar Baru, 701 pp.

Kumar PKV; Vasudev V; Seetharama HG; Irulandi S; Sreedharan K, 2006. Biology and biometry of the Lycaenid predator Spalgis epius. Journal of Coffee Research, 34(1/2):72-104.

Kumar PKV; Vasudev V; Seetharama HG; Irulandi S; Sreedharan K, 2007. Influence of abiotic factors on mealy bug population and activity of Spalgis epius on coffee. Journal of Coffee Research, 35(1/2):61-76.

Kumar PKV; Vasudev V; Seetharama HG; Irulandi S; Sreedharan K, 2008. Attendant ants and activity of Spalgis epius. Journal of Coffee Research, 36(1/2):38-45.

Kumar PKV; Vasudev V; Seetharama HG; Irulandi S; Sreedharan K, 2008. Predatory potential of the lycaenid Spalgis epius. Journal of Coffee Research, 36(1/2):25-29.

Mani M, 1995. Studies on the natural enemies of oriental mealybug, Planococcus lilacinus (Ckll.) (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae) in India. Journal of Entomological Research, 19(1):61-70

Mani M; Krishnamoorthy A, 1990. Outbreak of mealybugs and record for their natural enemies on pomegranate. Journal of Biological Control, 4(1):61-62

Mani M; Krishnamoorthy A, 1996. Biological suppression of oriental mealybug, Planococcus lilacinus (Ckll.) on ber. Pest Management in Horticultural Ecosystems, 2(1):49-50.

Mani M; Krishnamoorthy A, 1998. Biological control studies on the mango green shield scale Chloropulvinaria polygonata (Ckll.) (Homoptera, Coccidae) in India. Entomon, 23(2):105-110.

Mani M; Thontadarya TS; Singh SP, 1987. Record of natural enemies on the grape mealybug, Maconellicoccus hirsutus (Green). Current Science, India, 56(12):624-625.

Mayadunnage S; Wijayagunasekara HNP; Hemachandra KS; Nugaliyadda L, 2009. Predatory insects of pest insects in vegetable eco system of mid country region of Sri Lanka. Tropical Agricultural Research, 20:34-41.

Pushpaveni G; Rao PRM; Rao PA; 1973, publ. 1974. A new record of Spalgis epius Westwood as a predator of Maconellicoccus hirsutus Gr. on mesta (Hibiscus sabdariffa L.). Indian Journal of Entomology, 35(1):71.

Rahiman PA; Vijayalakshmi CK, 1998. Spalgius epius Westwood (Lepidoptera: Lycaenidae) - a potential predator of coffee mealy bugs. Journal of Entomological Research, 22(2):191-192; 3 ref.

Rao PRM; Kanakaraju A; Apparao RV; Azam KM, 1984. Predators on mealy bug of mesta. Quarterly Newsletter, FAO Asia and Pacific Plant Protection Commission, 27(4):12.

Reddy KB; Bhat PK; Naidu R, 1997. Suppression of mealybugs and green scale infesting coffee with natural enemies in Karnataka. Pest Management and Economic Zoology, 5(2):119-121; 7 ref.

Venkatesha MG; Shashikumar L; Devi SSG, 2004. .

Distribution Maps

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