Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Sorghum bicolor
(sorghum)

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Datasheet

Sorghum bicolor (sorghum)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Sorghum bicolor
  • Preferred Common Name
  • sorghum
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Uses List
  • Beverage base
  • Cereal
  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Forage
  • Miscellaneous fuels

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Sorghum seed heads in field crop trial at CIAT.
TitleSeed heads
CaptionSorghum seed heads in field crop trial at CIAT.
CopyrightDavid J. Greathead
Sorghum seed heads in field crop trial at CIAT.
Seed headsSorghum seed heads in field crop trial at CIAT.David J. Greathead
Sorghum seed heads in field crop trial at CIAT.
TitleSeed heads
CaptionSorghum seed heads in field crop trial at CIAT.
CopyrightDavid J. Greathead
Sorghum seed heads in field crop trial at CIAT.
Seed headsSorghum seed heads in field crop trial at CIAT.David J. Greathead
Sorghum field crop trial at CIAT.
TitleField crop
CaptionSorghum field crop trial at CIAT.
CopyrightDavid J. Greathead
Sorghum field crop trial at CIAT.
Field cropSorghum field crop trial at CIAT.David J. Greathead
S. bicolor habit of infructescences with spikelets of the 5 basic sorghum cultivar groups: 1, Bicolor; 2, Caudatum; 3, Durra; 4, Guinea; 5, Kafir.

Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
TitleLine drawing
CaptionS. bicolor habit of infructescences with spikelets of the 5 basic sorghum cultivar groups: 1, Bicolor; 2, Caudatum; 3, Durra; 4, Guinea; 5, Kafir. Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
CopyrightPROSEA Foundation
S. bicolor habit of infructescences with spikelets of the 5 basic sorghum cultivar groups: 1, Bicolor; 2, Caudatum; 3, Durra; 4, Guinea; 5, Kafir.

Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia.
Line drawingS. bicolor habit of infructescences with spikelets of the 5 basic sorghum cultivar groups: 1, Bicolor; 2, Caudatum; 3, Durra; 4, Guinea; 5, Kafir. Reproduced from the series 'Plant Resources of South-East Asia', by kind permission of the PROSEA Foundation, Bogor, Indonesia. PROSEA Foundation

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench

Preferred Common Name

  • sorghum

Other Scientific Names

  • Andropogon cernuus Roxb.
  • Andropogon sorghum (L.) Brot. (1804)
  • Andropogon sorghum Brot.
  • Holcus bicolor L. (1771)
  • Setaria vulgare
  • Sorghum cernuum (Ard.) Host
  • Sorghum vulgare Pers. (1805)

International Common Names

  • English: common sorghum; grain sorghum; great millet; Guinea corn; shattercane; sorghum (common)
  • Spanish: caña silvestre; sorgo; sorgo común
  • French: grand millet; sorgho; sorgho commun

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: milho-de-vassoura; painco
  • Germany: Mohrenhirse; Sorghum- Hirse; Sorghumhirse
  • Indonesia: cantel; jagung cantel
  • Italy: miglio
  • Laos: khauz fangz
  • Malaysia: jagung
  • Netherlands: sorghum
  • Philippines: batad; bukakau
  • Sweden: durra
  • Thailand: khao-panghangchang; mutkhodom; samutkhodom
  • Vietnam: cor mia hai maafu; mieesn

EPPO code

  • SORVU (Sorghum vulgare)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Sorghum
  •                                 Species: Sorghum bicolor

List of Pests

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Major host of:

Acanthoplus discoidalis (armoured bush cricket); Acidovorax avenae subsp. avenae (bacterial leaf blight); Adoretus compressus (rose beetle); Ageratum conyzoides (billy goat weed); Agrotis ipsilon (black cutworm); Agrotis malefida (pale-sided cutworm); Agrypnus variabilis (sugarcane wireworm); Alphitobius laevigatus (black fungus beetle); Alternanthera sessilis (sessile joyweed); Amaranthus hybridus (smooth pigweed); Amaranthus retroflexus (redroot pigweed); Amaranthus spinosus (spiny amaranth); Ambrosia artemisiifolia (common ragweed); Amsacta albistriga (hairy caterpillar); Araecerus fasciculatus (cocoa weevil); Argemone mexicana (Mexican poppy); Argemone ochroleuca (pale Mexican pricklypoppy); Asclepias syriaca (common milkweed); Ascochyta sorghi (rough leaf spot of sorghum); Athelia rolfsii (sclerotium rot); Atherigona atripalpis; Atherigona orientalis (pepper fruit fly); Atherigona soccata (sorghum stem fly); Atta (leaf-cutter ant); Balansia oryzae-sativae (udbatta disease); Balclutha rosea; Bipolaris sorghicola (target leaf spot of sorghum); Blastobasis graminea (sugarcane borer moth); Blissus leucopterus (chinch bug); Brevennia rehi (rice mealybug); Burkholderia andropogonis (bacterial leaf stripe of sorghum and corn); Busseola fusca (African maize stalk borer); Cadra cautella (dried currant moth); Carpophilus (dried-fruit beetles); Carpophilus mutilatus (flower beetle); Celosia argentea (celosia); Cenchrus echinatus (southern sandbur); Cercospora sorghi (Cercosporiosis); Chenopodium album (fat hen); Chenopodium murale (nettleleaf goosefoot); Chilo auricilius (gold-fringed rice borer); Chilo partellus (spotted stem borer); Chilo sacchariphagus (spotted borer); Chilo spp.; Chilo suppressalis (striped rice stem borer); Chinavia pallidoconspersa; Chloris virgata (feather finger grass); Choanephora cucurbitarum (Choanephora fruit rot); Chrysodeixis includens (soybean looper); Cirsium arvense (creeping thistle); Cirsium vulgare (spear thistle); Clavibacter michiganensis subsp. nebraskensis (Goss's bacterial wilt & leaf blight); Claviceps africana (ergot); Claviceps purpurea (ergot); Claviceps sorghi (sorghum ergot); Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (rice leaf folder); Cochliobolus lunatus (head mould of grasses, rice and sorghum); Cochliobolus sativus (root and foot rot); Cofana spectra (white leafhopper); Colletotrichum graminicola (red stalk rot of cereals); Colletotrichum sublineolum (sorghum anthracnose); Commelina benghalensis (wandering jew); Commelina diffusa (spreading dayflower); Conogethes punctiferalis (castor capsule borer); Corcyra cephalonica (rice meal moth); Criconemella (ring nematode); Cryptolestes ferrugineus (rusty grain beetle); Cryptolestes pusillus (flat grain beetle); Cyperus esculentus (yellow nutsedge); Datura stramonium (jimsonweed); Desmostachya bipinnata (halfa grass); Diabolocatantops axillaris (devil grasshopper); Diatraea grandiosella (southwestern corn borer); Diatraea lineolata (neotropical corn stalk borer); Dickeya zeae (bacterial stalk rot of maize); Digitaria ciliaris (southern crabgrass); Digitaria sanguinalis (large crabgrass); Drymaria cordata (tropical chickweed); Echinochloa crus-galli (barnyard grass); Elasmopalpus lignosellus (lesser corn stalk borer); Eleusine indica (goose grass); Enterobacter dissolvens (stalk rot.); Euphorbia hirta (garden spurge); Eurygaster integriceps (sunn pest); Galinsoga parviflora (gallant soldier); Gibberella fujikuroi (bakanae disease of rice); Gibberella zeae (headblight of maize); Gloeocercospora sorghi (zonate leaf spot); Gonocephalum (false wireworm); Gonocephalum macleayi (southern false wireworm); Helicotylenchus dihystera (common spiral nematode); Helicoverpa armigera (cotton bollworm); Helicoverpa fletcheri; Helicoverpa zea (American cotton bollworm); Heliotropium europaeum (common heliotrope); Hibiscus trionum (Venice mallow); Hieroglyphus banian (rice grasshopper); Holotrichia serrata (white grub); Hoplolaimus seinhorsti (lance nematode); Ipomoea triloba (three-lobe morning glory); Liposcelis bostrychophila (book louse); Liposcelis entomophila (grain psocid); Liposcelis paeta (grain psocid); Locusta migratoria (migratory locust); Longidorus (longidorids); Loxostege sticticalis (beet webworm); Macrophomina phaseolina (charcoal rot of bean/tobacco); Maize dwarf mosaic virus (dwarf mosaic of maize); Maize streak virus (streak disease of maize); Maize stripe virus (stripe disease of maize); Marasmia trapezalis (maize webworm); Melanaphis sacchari (yellow sugarcane aphid); Mimosa pudica (sensitive plant); Mocis latipes (grass looper); Mus musculus domesticus (mouse); Mycosphaerella holci (glume blight); Mythimna separata (paddy armyworm); Nicandra physalodes (apple of Peru); Nola sorghiella (sorghum webworm); Nomadacris septemfasciata (red locust); Oebalus pugnax (rice stinkbug); Oryzaephilus surinamensis (saw toothed grain beetle); Ostrinia furnacalis (Asian corn borer); Ostrinia nubilalis (European maize borer); Oxya chinensis (rice grasshopper); Pachnoda interrupta (chafer beetle); Paratrichodorus minor (stubby root nematode); Paratrichodorus porosus; Parthenium hysterophorus (parthenium weed); Patanga succincta (bombay locust); Pectobacterium carotovorum subsp. carotovorum (bacterial root rot of sweet potato); Pennisetum polystachion (mission grass); Peregrinus maidis (corn planthopper); Perichares philetes subsp. dolores; Periconia circinata (milo disease of Sorghum spp.); Peronosclerospora sorghi (sorghum downy mildew); Phaenacantha saccharicida (sugarcane red bug); Phyllophaga (white grubs); Phyllophaga helleri; Podontia quattuordecimpunctata; Pratylenchus zeae (root lesion nematode); Pseudomonas syringae pv. lapsa (stalk rot); Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae (bacterial canker or blast (stone and pome fruits)); Puccinia purpurea (rust (of grasses, sorghum)); Pythium ultimum (black-leg of seedlings); Quelea quelea (weaver bird); Ramulispora sorghi (sooty stripe of sorghum); Rhopalosiphum maidis (green corn aphid); Rhytidolomia ligata (conchuela); Rhyzopertha dominica (lesser grain borer); Riptortus dentipes (pod-sucking bug); Rottboellia cochinchinensis (itch grass); Rotylenchulus parvus (reniform nematode); Saccharum spontaneum (wild sugarcane); Schistocerca gregaria (desert locust); Schizaphis graminum (spring green aphid); Sclerophthora macrospora (downy mildew); Senna obtusifolia (sicklepod); Septoria pertusa (leaf stripe of sorghum); Sesamia calamistis (African pink stem borer); Sesamia cretica (greater sugarcane borer); Sesamia inferens (purple stem borer); Setaria verticillata (bristly foxtail); Setaria viridis (green foxtail); Setosphaeria turcica (maize leaf blight); Sida acuta (sida); Sipha flava (yellow sugarcane aphid); Sitobion miscanthi (indian grain aphid); Sitophilus oryzae (lesser grain weevil); Sitophilus zeamais (greater grain weevil); Sitotroga cerealella (grain moth); Solanum elaeagnifolium (silverleaf nightshade); Solanum nigrum (black nightshade); Solenopsis geminata (tropical fire ant); Sorghum halepense (Johnson grass); Sphacelotheca reiliana (head smut of maize); Spodoptera albula (Costa Rican armyworm); Spodoptera exempta (black armyworm); Spodoptera frugiperda (fall armyworm); Spodoptera littoralis (cotton leafworm); Spodoptera litura (taro caterpillar); Sporisorium cruentum (loose kernel smut); Sporisorium sorghi (sorghum smut); Stenachroia elongella (sorghum webworm); Stenodiplosis sorghicola (sorghum midge); Stenotus rubrovittatus (sorghum plantbug); Striga angustifolia (witchweed); Striga asiatica (witch weed); Striga densiflora (witchweed); Striga hermonthica (witchweed); Synedrella nodiflora (synedrella); Tagetes minuta (stinking Roger); Tenebroides mauritanicus (cadelle); Tetraneura nigriabdominalis (rice root aphid); Thanatephorus cucumeris (many names, depending on host); Thaumatotibia leucotreta (false codling moth); Trianthema portulacastrum (horse purslane); Tribolium castaneum (red flour beetle); Tribolium confusum (confused flour beetle); Tribulus terrestris (puncture vine); Trichodorus (stubby root nematodes); Tridax procumbens (coat buttons); Trogoderma granarium (khapra beetle); Tylenchorhynchus acutus (stylet-stunt nematode); Typhaea stercorea (hairy fungus beetle); Urochloa panicoides (liverseed grass); Xanthium strumarium (common cocklebur); Xanthomonas vasicola pv. holcicola (streaky spot of sorghum and Sudan grass); Xiphinema americanum (dagger nematode); Xiphinema rivesi (dagger nematode)

Minor host of:

Abutilon theophrasti (velvet leaf); Acanthospermum hispidum (bristly starbur); Acarus siro (flour mite); Adoretus versutus (rose beetle); Aleurodicus dispersus (whitefly); Alternaria alternata (alternaria leaf spot); Amrasca biguttula biguttula (Indian cotton jassid); Amsacta moorei (tiger moth); Aphelenchoides arachidis (groundnut testa nematode); Aphis spiraecola (Spirea aphid); Aspergillus flavus (Aspergillus ear rot); Aspergillus niger (black mould of onion); Astylus atromaculatus (astylus beetle); Atherigona naqvii (shootfly); Atherigona oryzae (rice shoot fly); Avena fatua (wild oat); Barley yellow dwarf viruses (barley yellow dwarf); Brachycaudus helichrysi (leaf-curling plum aphid); Chilo infuscatellus (yellow top borer of sugarcane); Chnootriba similis (maize ladybird); Cicadulina mbila (maize leafhopper); Cochliobolus heterostrophus (southern leaf spot); Cryptoblabes gnidiella (citrus pyralid); Curvularia (black kernel); Cyperus rotundus (purple nutsedge); Dactyloctenium aegyptium (crowfoot grass); Diabrotica balteata (banded cucumber beetle); Diabrotica speciosa (cucurbit beetle); Diaprepes abbreviatus (citrus weevil); Diatraea saccharalis (sugarcane stalk borer); Dickeya chrysanthemi (bacterial wilt of chrysanthemum and other ornamentals); Dimorphopterus; Ditylenchus africanus (peanut pod nematode); Eldana saccharina (African sugarcane borer); Emex australis (Doublegee); Emilia sonchifolia (red tasselflower); Ephestia kuehniella (Mediterranean flour moth); Fimbristylis littoralis (lesser fimbristylis); Gibberella thapsina; Glomerella tucumanensis (red rot of sugarcane); Haematonectria haematococca (dry rot of potato); Helianthus ciliaris (Texas blueweed); Helicotylenchus pseudorobustus (spiral nematode); Heliothis virescens (tobacco budworm); Herbaspirillum rubrisubalbicans (mottled stripe of sugarcane); Heterodera zeae (corn cyst nematode); Heteronychus licas (black sugarcane beetle); Hoplolaimus indicus (lance nematode); Hoplolaimus pararobustus (lance nematode); Hyalopterus pruni (mealy plum aphid); Lasiodiplodia theobromae (diplodia pod rot of cocoa); Leptoglossus zonatus; Ludwigia hyssopifolia (water primrose); Maize chlorotic dwarf virus; Maize mosaic virus (corn mosaic virus); Maize yellow mosaic virus; Marasmia exigua (rice leaf roller); Marasmia patnalis (rice leafroller); Melanitis leda ismene (rice butterfly); Melanotus communis (common wireworm); Meloidogyne acronea (African cotton root nematode); Meloidogyne graminicola (rice root knot nematode); Metamasius hemipterus (West Indian cane weevil); Metopolophium festucae (fescue aphid); Momordica charantia (bitter gourd); Mythimna loreyi (maize caterpillar); Naranga diffusa (rice green semilooper); Nezara viridula (green stink bug); Oedaleus senegalensis (Senegalese grasshopper); Pantoea agglomerans (bacterial grapevine blight); Pantoea ananatis (fruitlet rot of pineapple); Pelopidas mathias (rice skipper); Penicillium digitatum (green mould); Perkinsiella vastatrix (sugarcane leafhopper); Peronosclerospora philippinensis (Philippine downy mildew); Petrobia latens (brown wheat mite); Platynota stultana (omnivorous leaf roller); Polygonum aviculare (prostrate knotweed); Polymyxa graminis (vector of streak mosaic: wheat); Pratylenchus brachyurus (root-lesion nematode); Pratylenchus goodeyi (banana lesion nematode); Pratylenchus loosi (root lesion nematode); Pratylenchus penetrans (nematode, northern root lesion); Pratylenchus thornei; Prostephanus truncatus (larger grain borer); Pseudomonas fuscovaginae (sheath brown rot); Pseudomonas viridiflava (bacterial leaf blight of tomato (USA)); Pyrilla perpusilla (sugarcane planthopper); Pythium arrhenomanes (cereals root rot); Pythium myriotylum (brown rot of groundnut); Rhamphicarpa fistulosa; Rhopalosiphum rufiabdominalis (rice root aphid); Rice black-streaked dwarf virus; Richardia brasiliensis (white-eye (Australia)); Saccharicoccus sacchari (grey sugarcane mealybug); Sarocladium oryzae (rice sheath rot); Sarocladium strictum (acremonium wilt); Scutellonema brachyurus; Scutellonema bradys (yam nematode); Sesamia nonagrioides (Mediterranean corn stalk borer); Setaria parviflora (knotroot foxtail); Sipha maydis; Sitophilus granarius (grain weevil); Solenopsis invicta (red imported fire ant); Sonchus arvensis (perennial sowthistle); Sonchus oleraceus (common sowthistle); Striga aspera (witchweed); Sugarcane mosaic virus (mosaic of abaca); Sugarcane yellow leaf virus; Tetranychus cinnabarinus (carmine spider mite); Tithonia diversifolia (Tithonia); Trichoconiella padwickii (stackburn disease); Trichoplusia ni (cabbage looper)

Wild host of:

Peronosclerospora spontanea (spontaneum downy mildew); Puccinia miscanthi; Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vasculorum (sugarcane gumming disease)

Associated with (not a host):

Allograpta exotica; Aprostocetus diplosidis; Aspergillus fumigatus; Bacillus subtilis; Coleomegilla maculata (beetle, Spotted ladybird); Eucelatoria armigera; Eupelmus australiensis; Euphorocera claripennis; Metagonistylum minense (amazon fly); Pseudomonas fluorescens (pink eye: potato)

Host of (source - data mining):

Acrosternum gramineum; Alcidodes collaris; Amsacta moloneyi; Ancistrotermes latinotus; Anoplocnemis curvipes (giant coreid bug); Aphis nerii (sweet pepper aphid); Atherigona approximata; Atherigona pulla; Atherigona punctata; Atta opaciceps; Caliothrips indicus (groundnut thrips); Calocoris angustatus (cholam, bug); Calolampra elegans; Campylomma angustior; Campylomma subflava; Cathartus quadricollis (square-necked grain beetle); Chaetocnema indica; Chilo orichalcociliellus (coastal stalk borer); Chiloloba acuta; Cicadulina storeyi; Cladosporium macrocarpum; Claviceps sorghicola; Cochliobolus bicolor; Cochliobolus hawaiiensis (leaf spot: maize); Cochliobolus spicifer (spring dead spot of grasses); Creontiades pallidus (bud and boll shedder, bug); Diatraea indigenella; Dolycoris indicus; Emericella nidulans; Empoasca kerri; Eoreuma loftini; Euproctis subnotata; Eurystylus bellevoyei; Eurystylus marginatus; Fusarium chlamydosporum (wilt: cotton); Fusarium oxysporum (basal rot); Fusarium pallidoroseum (fungal gummosis (of Leucaena)); Gibberella intricans (damping-off of safflower); Gibberella sacchari (pineapple eye rot); Heliothis peltigera; Heterotermes convexinotatus; Hieroglyphus daganensis; Hypena scabra (green cloverworm); Hysteroneura setariae (rusty plum aphid); Johnsongrass mosaic virus; Macrotermes michaelseni; Myllocerus undecimpustulatus; Myrothecium roridum (blight: eggplant); Mythimna adultera; Neolimnus aegyptiacus; Oebalus poecilus; Oligonychus indicus (sugarcane leaf, mite); Oligonychus pratensis (spider mite); Palorus subdepressus (depressed flour beetle); Passalora fusimaculans; Penicillium oxalicum (root rot: Sorghum spp.); Pennisetum pedicellatum (deenanath grass); Phyllophaga crinita (white, grub); Pseudomonas marginalis (kansas lettuce disease); Pseudomonas syringae (bacterial blast); Pterohelaeus alternatus; Pterohelaeus darlingensis (false, wireworm); Ramulispora sorghicola (leaf spot: Sorghum spp.); Rhinyptia infuscata; Rhizopus stolonifer (bulb rot); Rotylenchulus reniformis (reniform nematode); Sesamia penniseti; Setosphaeria rostrata (leaf spot of grasses); Sphacelia sorghi (ergot of sorghum); Spilarctia obliqua (common hairy caterpillar); Spilostethus pandurus; Stachybotrys atra; Tetranychus urticae (two-spotted spider mite); Tolyposporium ehrenbergii (long: Sorghum spp. smut); Ulomoides dermestoides; Veneza phyllopus (bug, leaffooted); Wheat streak mosaic virus (wheat streak)

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Forage

Fuels

  • Miscellaneous fuels

Human food and beverage

  • Beverage base
  • Cereal
  • Flour/starch
  • Spices and culinary herbs
  • Sugar

Materials

  • Dye/tanning
  • Fibre

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore