Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Solanum torvum
(turkey berry)

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Datasheet

Solanum torvum (turkey berry)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Solanum torvum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • turkey berry
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Flowers and leaves of a mature plant of S. torvum, near Honiara, Solomon Islands, April 1988.
TitleMature plant
CaptionFlowers and leaves of a mature plant of S. torvum, near Honiara, Solomon Islands, April 1988.
CopyrightJohn T. Swarbrick
Flowers and leaves of a mature plant of S. torvum, near Honiara, Solomon Islands, April 1988.
Mature plantFlowers and leaves of a mature plant of S. torvum, near Honiara, Solomon Islands, April 1988.John T. Swarbrick

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Solanum torvum Sw.

Preferred Common Name

  • turkey berry

Other Scientific Names

  • Solanum largiflorum CT White (1917)

International Common Names

  • English: devil's fig; prickly Solanum; terongan; wild tomato
  • Spanish: belangera cimarrona
  • French: belangere batarde

Local Common Names

  • Fiji: katai; kausoni
  • Singapore: shu qie zi; terong pipit

EPPO code

  • SOLTO (Solanum torvum)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

The following summary is from Witt and Luke (2017):

Description

Erect shrub or small tree [0.8–3 (–5) m tall], younger stems green or purplish, densely covered with hairs and sometimes sparsely covered with prickles or thorns (3–7 mm long), old stems brown or greenish-brown with no hairs.

Origin

Belize, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Venezuela and the Caribbean.

Reason for Introduction

Ornament and as a contaminant.

Invades

Forests, forest margins, waterways, plantation crops, roadsides, pastures, disturbed sites and waste areas.

Impacts

Once established, S. torvum can, by sprouting from the roots, form dense thickets capable of overrunning farmlands and pastures, and of displacing native vegetation. Turkey berry can rapidly overtop most herbs, grasses and other shrubs but cannot survive under a closed forest canopy. The vicious spines on the stem and small prickles on the leaves, inhibit the free movement of people, livestock and wildlife. Often consumed in traditional meals there have been reports of poisoning in humans.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Solanales
  •                         Family: Solanaceae
  •                             Genus: Solanum
  •                                 Species: Solanum torvum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page The genus Solanum contains about 1700 species. The generic name is derived from classical Greek and Roman terms, and means comforter a reflection of the medicinal properties of many members of the genus. The species name torvum means harsh, fierce or sharp.

The chromosome number is variously reported as n = 12 or 24 (Symon, 1981), and the plant may be polyploid.

Description

Top of page S. torvum is an erect or spreading prickly shrub, 1 to 3 m tall. It reproduces solely by seed.

The root system consists of a deep and strong, woody taproot with numerous woody laterals.

The one to several soft-wooded stems are branched above, densely covered with fine stellate hairs and are scattered with broad-based, hooked prickles, 3 to 7 mm long. The stems are initially green becoming brown as they mature.

The leaves occur singly along the stems and are broadly ovate and 5-20 cm long, usually with seven broad, blunt lobes. Both surfaces are covered with very fine stellate hairs and have scattered prickles along the main veins. The upper surface is darker than the lower. The leaves have finely hairy petioles, 1 to 5 cm long, and vary considerably in shape and size depending on genetic origin and plant vigour.

The inflorescence is a dense, compact, branched head consisting of 50-100 flowers at the ends of branches. These occur laterally (between two leaves) as the stems elongate. Each flower has five slender finely hairy sepals 2 to 3 mm long, five white to cream star-shaped petals each about 1 cm long, five elongate yellow stamens and a central stigma.

The fruits are globular berries 1-1.5 cm across, at first green and scurfy but ripening to dull yellow and containing few to many flat, woody, often reddish seeds, 1.5 to 2 mm long.

The seedlings have a short, erect, hairy hypocotyl and a pair of bluntly tapering green cotyledons. The juvenile leaves develop singly and are stalked and entire, later becoming lobed (Ivens et al., 1978).

Distribution

Top of page Although S. torvum originated in the West Indies, it has been spread as a useful plant and consequently as a weed throughout the tropics and subtropics.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BurundiPresentIntroducedInvasiveWitt and Luke (2017)
CameroonPresent, LocalizedHeine (1963); EPPO (2020)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1991); EPPO (2020)
Côte d'IvoirePresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1991); Goly and Téhé (1997); EPPO (2020)
Equatorial GuineaPresentHeine (1963)
EthiopiaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedWitt and Luke (2017)Naturalized
GhanaPresent, LocalizedHeine (1963); Holm et al. (1991); EPPO (2020)
GuineaPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1991); EPPO (2020)
LiberiaPresent, LocalizedHeine (1963); Holm et al. (1991); EPPO (2020)
MalawiPresentHolm et al. (1991)
MauritiusPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1991); Anon (1998a); EPPO (2020)
NigeriaPresent, LocalizedHeine (1963); Holm et al. (1991); EPPO (2020)
RwandaPresentIntroducedInvasiveWitt and Luke (2017)
SenegalPresentHeine (1963); Holm et al. (1991)
Sierra LeonePresentHeine (1963)
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedInvasiveWitt and Luke (2017)
ZambiaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedWitt and Luke (2017)Naturalized

Asia

BangladeshPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1991); EPPO (2020)
BruneiPresentPeregrine and Kassim bin Ahmad (1982)
CambodiaPresentHolm et al. (1991)
ChinaPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1991); EPPO (2020)
-GuangxiPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Wang, 1980
-YunnanPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Wang, 1980
IndiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-AssamPresentIsahaque and Chaudhuri (1983)
-KeralaPresentSingh and Gopalakrishnan (1997)
IndonesiaPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1991); EPPO (2020)
-JavaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Backer and (1973)
JapanPresentMatsuzoe et al. (1996)
MalaysiaPresent, LocalizedNarikawa et al. (1988); EPPO (2020)
PhilippinesPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1991); EPPO (2020)
Sri LankaPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1991); EPPO (2020)
ThailandPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1991); EPPO (2020)

Europe

ItalyPresentAnon (1998)

North America

Costa RicaPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1991); EPPO (2020)
CubaPresentAlmaguel et al. (1984)
DominicaPresentFournet and Hammerton (1991)
GrenadaPresentFournet and Hammerton (1991)
GuadeloupePresentFournet (1973)
HondurasPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1991); EPPO (2020)
JamaicaPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1991); EPPO (2020)
MartiniquePresentFournet (1973)
MexicoPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1991); Breedlove (1998); EPPO (2020)
MontserratPresentFournet and Hammerton (1991)
PanamaPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1991); EPPO (2020)
Puerto RicoPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1991); EPPO (2020)
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentFournet and Hammerton (1991)
Saint LuciaPresentFournet and Hammerton (1991)
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentFournet and Hammerton (1991)
United StatesPresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1991); EPPO (2020)
-FloridaPresentWestbrooks and Elpee (1988)
-HawaiiPresentLiquido et al. (1994)
-North CarolinaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: North Carolina Dept of Agriculture and Consumer Se

Oceania

American SamoaPresentWaterhouse (1997)
AustraliaPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1991); EPPO (2020)
-New South WalesPresentHnatiuk (1990)
-Northern TerritoryPresentHnatiuk (1990)
-QueenslandPresentHnatiuk (1990)
FijiPresent, LocalizedParham (1958); Holm et al. (1991); Waterhouse (1997); EPPO (2020)
French PolynesiaPresentWaterhouse (1997)
GuamPresentWaterhouse (1997)
New CaledoniaPresentMacKee (1985); Waterhouse (1997)
NiuePresentWaterhouse (1997)
Papua New GuineaPresent, LocalizedHenty and Pritchard (1975); Holm et al. (1991); EPPO (2020)
SamoaPresentInvasiveWhistler (1983); Waterhouse (1997); Space and Flynn (2002)
Solomon IslandsPresent, WidespreadHancock and Henderson (1988); Waterhouse (1997)
TongaPresentWhistler (1983); Waterhouse (1997)
VanuatuPresent, WidespreadWaterhouse (1997)

Habitat

Top of page S. torvum grows in a wide range of habitats throughout the tropics and subtropics. It grows best in warm moist fertile conditions, but once established it can withstand drought by shedding its leaves. In Papua New Guinea it grows from sea level to about 2000 m (Henty and Pritchard, 1975).

Hosts/Species Affected

Top of page As a perennial species, S. torvum is unable to survive to maturity in annual crops and, as such, is most commonly a weed in perennial crops. In pastures it can be a major nuisance as it is woody, prickly and probably both unpalatable and poisonous. It is also common in uncultivated sites such as roadsides, abandoned farmlands, gardens, forest clearings, and around habitation and farm buildings.

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

Top of page
Plant nameFamilyContext
Ananas comosus (pineapple)BromeliaceaeMain
Cocos nucifera (coconut)ArecaceaeOther
Coffea (coffee)RubiaceaeOther
Manihot esculenta (cassava)EuphorbiaceaeOther
pasturesMain

Biology and Ecology

Top of page Little has been recorded about the biology of S. torvum. Reproduction is solely by seed. Seedlings quickly establish their root systems and become woody, at which stage they are fairly resistant to physical control. Under suitable conditions the plants flower early. Pollination is by insects, and the seeds are dispersed by fruit-eating birds and bats as well as by water and in soil and trash.

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page A number of natural enemies of S. torvum have been reported. These include Hansfordia pulvinata (Singh and Kamal, 1985), Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Almeguel et al., 1984), Leucinodes orbonalis (Isahaque and Chaudhuri, 1985), eggplant anthracnose (Fournet, 1973) and Bactrocera latifrons (Liquido et al., 1994). Many of these, however, also attack useful solanaceous crops such as tomatoes, aubergines and potatoes. Waterhouse and Norris (1987) list a number of polyphagous natural enemies for S. torvum, sugesting that Leptinotarsa undecimlineata may be host-specific.

Impact

Top of page S. torvum is an invasive weed of pastures, roadsides and open native vegetation, and is occasionally found in cassava and other perennial crops in which it is not exposed to cultivation. It has been suggested that the plants are poisonous to stock, but no conclusive evidence is available.

S. torvum is relatively resistant to Meloidogyne spp., and is used as a rootstock for grafting tomatoes in susceptible areas (Shetty and Reddy, 1985). It is also resistant to Pseudomonas solanacearum (Hebert, 1985) and phomopsis fruit rot of aubergine (Datar and Ashtaputre, 1988).

The species is a natural host for many insects and pathogens (see Natural Enemies section).

Uses

Top of page S. torvum is useful as a rootstock for tomatoes in areas sensitive to Meloidogyne spp. (Hebert, 1985; Shetty and Reddy, 1985). Its resistance to a number of pests also makes it useful as a source of resistant gene transfer into useful Solanaceous crops (Jadari et al., 1992).

Uses List

Top of page

Environmental

  • Graft stock

Genetic importance

  • Related to

Human food and beverage

  • Fruits
  • Vegetable

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page The genus Solanum contains several hundred branched prickly shrubs, many of which have become weeds in various tropical and subtropical countries.

Although S. torvum is by far the most widespread of these, many other species can be equally or more important locally, and local floras or expertise may be needed to confirm identification. Some examples include S. incanum in Africa, S. sodomeum in Australia, New Zealand, and the USA, S. carolinense in the USA, S. paniculatum and several others in Brazil, illustrated by Lorenzi, 1982 and S. dubium in the Middle East.

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Cultural Control

Seedlings may be hand pulled when the soil is wet, otherwise the plants need to be dug or grubbed out to remove the upper root from the soil either by hand or mechanical cultivation.

Chemical Control

Seedlings can be controlled in pasture with 2,4-D (Henty and Pritchard, 1975; Chadhokar, 1976). Australian registrations for the control of S. torvum are restricted to 2,4-D + picloram (Hamilton, 1997).

Biological Control

No work has been attempted to establish biological control agents for S. torvum, since it is too closely related to many useful crops and ornamentals.

References

Top of page

Almaguel L, Machado LR, Caceres I, 1984. New food-plants of the mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus. Ciencia e Tecnica en la Agricultura, Proteccion de Plantas, 7(1):99-108

Anon., 1998. Bibiografica Floristica Siciliana. World Wide Web page at http://www.herganet.it/florisicula.ct/Biblio.

Anon., 1998. Maurutius Country Report. Indigenous Plant Genetic Resources. World Wide Web page at http://web.icppgr.fao.org/CR/cr/maur/2.

Backer CA, 1973. Atlas of 220 weeds of sugar-cane fields in Java. In: van Steenis CGGJ, ed. Handbook for the cultivation of sugar-cane and manufacturing of cane sugar in Java. Vol. 7: Atlas (final instalment). Pasuruan, Indonesia: Indonesian Sugar Experiment Station

Breedlove DE, 1998. Floristic list for Mexico. IV. Flora of Chiapas. World Wide Web page at http//www.ibiologia.unam.mx/publicaciones/lfl4

Chadhokar PA, 1976. Control of devil's fig (Solanum torvum Sw.) in tropical pastures. PANS, 22(1):75-78

Datar VV, Ashtaputre JU, 1988. Studies on resistance to Phomopsis fruit rot in eggplant. Indian Phytopathology, 41(4):637-638

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Fournet J, 1973. Anthracnose of eggplant in the Antilles II. Methods of control. Annales de Phytopathologie, 5(1):15-25

Fournet J, Hammerton JL, 1991. Weeds of the Lesser Antilles. Paris, France: Department d'Economie et Sociologie Rurales, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique

Goly PG, TThT H, 1997. Effects of pineapple weeds on Pratylenchus brachyurus in C(te d'Ivoire. Cahiers Agricultures, 6(3):199-202; 17 ref

Hamilton K, 1997. PESKEM - USES - PESTS: The Australian Directory of Registered Pesticides and their Uses. 15th edition. Gatton, Queensland, Australia: University of Queensland

Hancock IR, Henderson CP, 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin No. 7. Honiara, Solomon Islands: Dodo Creek Research Station

Hebert Y, 1985. Comparative resistance of 9 Solanum species to bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum) and to the nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Importance for breeding aubergine (Solanum melongena L.) in a humid tropical zone. Agronomie, 5(1):27-32

Heine H, 1963. 151. Solanaceae. In: Hutchison J, Dalziel JM, Hepper FN, eds. Flora of West Tropical Africa, Volume 2. London, UK: Crown Agents, 325-335

Henty EE, Pritchard GH, 1975. Weeds of New Guinea and their Control. Lp, Papua New Guinea: Department of Forests, Division of Botany, Botany Bulletin No.7

Hnatiuk RJ, 1990. Census of Australian Vascular Plants. Australian Flora and Fauna Series Number 11. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service

Holm LG, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, Plucknett DL, 1991. A Geographic Atlas of World Weeds. Malabar, Florida, USA: Krieger Publishing Company

Isahaque NMM, Chaudhuri RP, 1985. A new alternate host plant of brinjal shoot and fruit borer Leucinodes orbonalis Guen. in Assam. Journal of Research, Assam Agricultural University, 4(1):83-85

Ivens GW, Moody K, Egunjobi JK, 1978. West African Weeds. Ibadan, Nigeria: Oxford University Press, 178-179

Jadari R, Sihachaakr D, Rossisgnol L, Decreux G, Rousselle Bourgeouis F, Rouselle P, 1992. Transfer or resistance to Verticillium dahliae from Solanum torvum Sw. into potato by protoplast electrofusion. Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the EAPR Breeding and Varietal Assessment Section and the EUCARPIA Potato Section, Landerneau, France, 1992. Ploudaniel, France: INRA, 97-98

Liquido NJ, Harris EJ, Dekker LA, 1994. Ecology of Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations: host plants, natural enemies, distribution, and abundance. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 87(1):71-84

Lorenzi H, 1982. Weeds of Brazil, terrestrial and aquatic, parasitic, poisonous and medicinal. (Plantas daninhas de Brasil, terrestres, aquaticas, parasitas, toxicas e medicinais.) Nova Odessa, Brazil: H. Lorenzi, 425 pp

MacKee HS, 1985. Les Plantes Introduites et Cultivees en Nouvelle-Caledonie. Volume hors series, Flore de la Nouvelle-Caledonie et Dependances. Paris, France: Museum Nationelle d'Histoire Naturelle

Matsuzoe N, Aida H, Hanada K, Ali M, Okubo H, Fujieda K, 1996. Fruit quality of tomato plants grafter onto Solanum rootstocks. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science, 65:73-80

Narikawa T, Sakata Y, Komochi S, Melor R, Heng CK, Jumali S, 1988. Collection of solanaceous plants in Malaysia and screening for disease resistance. JARQ, Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly, 22(2):101-106; 3 ref

North Carolina Dept of Agriculture & Consumer Services, 1998. Regulatory Weed Program. State Noxious Weed List. World Wide Web page at http://www.agr.state.nc.us/plantind/PLANT/WEED/noxweed

Parham JW, 1958. The Weeds of Fiji. Bulletin Fiji Department of Agriculture, 35. Suava, Fiji: Government Press

Peregrine WTH, Ahmad Kbin, 1982. Grafting -- a simple technique for overcoming bacterial wilt in tomato. Tropical Pest Management, 28(1):71-76

Shetty KD, Reddy DDR, 1985. Resistance in Solanum species to root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Indian Journal of Nematology, 15:230

Singh AK, Kamal, 1985. Fungi of Gorakhpur XXXVI. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 15(2):121-124

Singh PK, Gopalakrishnan TR, 1997. Grafting for wilt resistance and productivity in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.). Horticultural Journal, 10(2):57-64; 5 ref

Space JC, Flynn T, 2002. Report to the Government of the Cook Islands on invasive plant species of environmental concern. Honolulu, USA: USAL USDA Forest Service, 146 pp

Symon DE, 1981. Solanum in Australia. Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, 4:115-116

Wang ZR, 1990. Farmland Weeds in China. Beijing, China: Agricultural Publishing House

Waterhouse DF, 1997. The major invertebrate pests and weeds of agriculture and plantation forestry in the southern and western Pacific. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research. 93 pp. [ACIAR Monograph No. 44]

Waterhouse DF, Norris KR, 1987. Biological control: Pacific prospects. viii + 454pp

Westbrooks RG, Eplee RE, 1988. Federal noxious weeds in Florida. Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Meeting of the Southern Weed Science Society, 316-321

Whistler WA, 1983. Weed handbook of Western Polynesia. Schriftenreihe der Deutschen Gesellschaft fnr Technische Zusammenarbeit, 157 pp

Witt, A., Luke, Q., 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa, [ed. by Witt, A., Luke, Q.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI.vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 doi:10.1079/9781786392145.0000

Distribution References

Almaguel L, Machado L R, Caceres I, 1984. New food-plants of the mite Polyphagotarsonemus latus. (Nuevas plantas hospedantes del ácaro Polyphagotarsonemus latus.). Ciencia e Técnica en la Agricultura, Protección de Plantas. 7 (1), 99-108.

Anon, 1998. AC PP033. Singapore., http:// www.vhp.nus.sg/PID/plants/pphp/PP0/PP033

Anon, 1998a. Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council's 1997 List of Florida's Most Invasive Species., http://www.fleppc.org/97list

Breedlove DE, 1998. Floristic list for Mexico. IV. Flora of Chiapas., World Wide Web. http//www.ibiologia.unam.mx/publicaciones/lfl4

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO.

Fournet J, 1973. Anthracnose of eggplant in the Antilles. II. Methods of control. (L'anthracnose de l'aubergine aux Antilles. II. Moyens de lutte.). Annales de Phytopathologie. 5 (1), 15-25.

Fournet J, Hammerton J L, 1991. Mauvaises Herbes des Petites Antilles. Paris, France: Département d'Économie et Sociologie Rurales, Institut National de la Recherche Agronomique. 214 pp.

Goly P G, Téhé H, 1997. Effects of pineapple weeds on Pratylenchus brachyurus in Côte d'Ivoire. (Effets des adventices de l'ananas sur Pratylenchus brachyurus en Côte d'Ivoire.). Cahiers Agricultures. 6 (3), 199-202.

Hancock IR, Henderson CP, 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. In: Research Bulletin No. 7, Honiara, Solomon Islands: Dodo Creek Research Station.

Heine H, 1963. Solanaceae. In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, 2 [ed. by Hutchison J, Dalziel JM, Hepper FN]. London, UK: Crown Agents. 325-335.

Henty E E, Pritchard G H, 1975. Weeds of New Guinea and their control. In: Weeds of New Guinea and their control. Lae, Papua New. Guinea: 180 pp.

Hnatiuk R J, 1990. Census of Australian vascular plants. In: Census of Australian vascular plants. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service (AGPS). xvi + 650 pp.

Holm L G, Pancho J V, Herberger J P, Plucknett D L, 1991. A geographic atlas of world weeds. Malabar, Florida, USA: Krieger Publishing Co. 391 pp.

Isahaque N M M, Chaudhuri R P, 1983. A new alternate host plant of brinjal shoot and fruit borer Leucinodes orbonalis Guen. in Assam. Journal of Research, Assam Agricultural University. 4 (1), 83-85.

Liquido N J, Harris E J, Dekker L A, 1994. Ecology of Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations: host plants, natural enemies, distribution, and abundance. Annals of the Entomological Society of America. 87 (1), 71-84. DOI:10.1093/aesa/87.1.71

MacKee HS, 1985. (Les Plantes Introduites et Cultivees en Nouvelle-Caledonie. Volume hors series, Flore de la Nouvelle-Caledonie et Dependances)., Paris, France: Museum Nationelle d'Histoire Naturelle.

Matsuzoe N, Aida H, Hanada K, Ali M, Okubo H, Fujieda K, 1996. Fruit quality of tomato plants grafted on Solanum rootstocks. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science. 65 (1), 73-80. DOI:10.2503/jjshs.65.73

Narikawa T, Sakata Y, Komochi S, Melor R, Heng C K, Jumali S, 1988. Collection of solanaceous plants in Malaysia and screening for disease resistance. JARQ, Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly. 22 (2), 101-106.

Parham JW, 1958. The Weeds of Fiji. In: Bulletin Fiji Department of Agriculture, 35 Suava, Fiji: Government Press.

Peregrine W T H, Kassim bin Ahmad, 1982. Grafting -- a simple technique for overcoming bacterial wilt in tomato. Tropical Pest Management. 28 (1), 71-76.

Singh P K, Gopalakrishnan T R, 1997. Grafting for wilt resistance and productivity in brinjal (Solanum melongena L.). Horticultural Journal. 10 (2), 57-64.

Space JC, Flynn T, 2002. Report to the Government of the Cook Islands on invasive plant species of environmental concern., Honolulu, USA: USAL USDA Forest Service. 146 pp.

Waterhouse D F, 1997. The major invertebrate pests and weeds of agriculture and plantation forestry in the southern and western Pacific. In: The major invertebrate pests and weeds of agriculture and plantation forestry in the southern and western Pacific. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research (ACIAR). vi + 93 pp.

Westbrooks R G, Elpee R E, 1988. Federal noxious weeds in Florida. In: Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Meeting of the Southern Weed Science Society. [Proceedings of the 42nd Annual Meeting of the Southern Weed Science Society.], 316-321.

Whistler W A, 1983. Weed handbook of Western Polynesia. In: Schriftenreihe der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Technische Zusammenarbeit, 149pp.

Witt A, Luke Q, 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa. [ed. by Witt A, Luke Q]. Wallingford, UK: CABI. vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 DOI:10.1079/9781786392145.0000

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

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