Solanum torvum (turkey berry)
- Summary of Invasiveness
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Biology and Ecology
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Uses List
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Solanum torvum Sw.
Preferred Common Name
- turkey berry
Other Scientific Names
- Solanum largiflorum CT White (1917)
International Common Names
- English: devil's fig; prickly Solanum; terongan; wild tomato
- Spanish: belangera cimarrona
- French: belangere batarde
Local Common Names
- Fiji: katai; kausoni
- Singapore: shu qie zi; terong pipit
- SOLTO (Solanum torvum)
Summary of InvasivenessTop of page
The following summary is from Witt and Luke (2017):
Erect shrub or small tree [0.8–3 (–5) m tall], younger stems green or purplish, densely covered with hairs and sometimes sparsely covered with prickles or thorns (3–7 mm long), old stems brown or greenish-brown with no hairs.
Belize, Brazil, Colombia, Costa Rica, Ecuador, French Guiana, Guatemala, Guyana, Honduras, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Venezuela and the Caribbean.
Reason for Introduction
Ornament and as a contaminant.
Forests, forest margins, waterways, plantation crops, roadsides, pastures, disturbed sites and waste areas.
Once established, S. torvum can, by sprouting from the roots, form dense thickets capable of overrunning farmlands and pastures, and of displacing native vegetation. Turkey berry can rapidly overtop most herbs, grasses and other shrubs but cannot survive under a closed forest canopy. The vicious spines on the stem and small prickles on the leaves, inhibit the free movement of people, livestock and wildlife. Often consumed in traditional meals there have been reports of poisoning in humans.
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Solanales
- Family: Solanaceae
- Genus: Solanum
- Species: Solanum torvum
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page The genus Solanum contains about 1700 species. The generic name is derived from classical Greek and Roman terms, and means comforter a reflection of the medicinal properties of many members of the genus. The species name torvum means harsh, fierce or sharp.
The chromosome number is variously reported as n = 12 or 24 (Symon, 1981), and the plant may be polyploid.
DescriptionTop of page S. torvum is an erect or spreading prickly shrub, 1 to 3 m tall. It reproduces solely by seed.
The root system consists of a deep and strong, woody taproot with numerous woody laterals.
The one to several soft-wooded stems are branched above, densely covered with fine stellate hairs and are scattered with broad-based, hooked prickles, 3 to 7 mm long. The stems are initially green becoming brown as they mature.
The leaves occur singly along the stems and are broadly ovate and 5-20 cm long, usually with seven broad, blunt lobes. Both surfaces are covered with very fine stellate hairs and have scattered prickles along the main veins. The upper surface is darker than the lower. The leaves have finely hairy petioles, 1 to 5 cm long, and vary considerably in shape and size depending on genetic origin and plant vigour.
The inflorescence is a dense, compact, branched head consisting of 50-100 flowers at the ends of branches. These occur laterally (between two leaves) as the stems elongate. Each flower has five slender finely hairy sepals 2 to 3 mm long, five white to cream star-shaped petals each about 1 cm long, five elongate yellow stamens and a central stigma.
The fruits are globular berries 1-1.5 cm across, at first green and scurfy but ripening to dull yellow and containing few to many flat, woody, often reddish seeds, 1.5 to 2 mm long.
The seedlings have a short, erect, hairy hypocotyl and a pair of bluntly tapering green cotyledons. The juvenile leaves develop singly and are stalked and entire, later becoming lobed (Ivens et al., 1978).
DistributionTop of page Although S. torvum originated in the West Indies, it has been spread as a useful plant and consequently as a weed throughout the tropics and subtropics.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
HabitatTop of page S. torvum grows in a wide range of habitats throughout the tropics and subtropics. It grows best in warm moist fertile conditions, but once established it can withstand drought by shedding its leaves. In Papua New Guinea it grows from sea level to about 2000 m (Henty and Pritchard, 1975).
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page As a perennial species, S. torvum is unable to survive to maturity in annual crops and, as such, is most commonly a weed in perennial crops. In pastures it can be a major nuisance as it is woody, prickly and probably both unpalatable and poisonous. It is also common in uncultivated sites such as roadsides, abandoned farmlands, gardens, forest clearings, and around habitation and farm buildings.
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
Biology and EcologyTop of page Little has been recorded about the biology of S. torvum. Reproduction is solely by seed. Seedlings quickly establish their root systems and become woody, at which stage they are fairly resistant to physical control. Under suitable conditions the plants flower early. Pollination is by insects, and the seeds are dispersed by fruit-eating birds and bats as well as by water and in soil and trash.
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page A number of natural enemies of S. torvum have been reported. These include Hansfordia pulvinata (Singh and Kamal, 1985), Polyphagotarsonemus latus (Almeguel et al., 1984), Leucinodes orbonalis (Isahaque and Chaudhuri, 1985), eggplant anthracnose (Fournet, 1973) and Bactrocera latifrons (Liquido et al., 1994). Many of these, however, also attack useful solanaceous crops such as tomatoes, aubergines and potatoes. Waterhouse and Norris (1987) list a number of polyphagous natural enemies for S. torvum, sugesting that Leptinotarsa undecimlineata may be host-specific.
ImpactTop of page S. torvum is an invasive weed of pastures, roadsides and open native vegetation, and is occasionally found in cassava and other perennial crops in which it is not exposed to cultivation. It has been suggested that the plants are poisonous to stock, but no conclusive evidence is available.
S. torvum is relatively resistant to Meloidogyne spp., and is used as a rootstock for grafting tomatoes in susceptible areas (Shetty and Reddy, 1985). It is also resistant to Pseudomonas solanacearum (Hebert, 1985) and phomopsis fruit rot of aubergine (Datar and Ashtaputre, 1988).
The species is a natural host for many insects and pathogens (see Natural Enemies section).
UsesTop of page S. torvum is useful as a rootstock for tomatoes in areas sensitive to Meloidogyne spp. (Hebert, 1985; Shetty and Reddy, 1985). Its resistance to a number of pests also makes it useful as a source of resistant gene transfer into useful Solanaceous crops (Jadari et al., 1992).
Uses ListTop of page
- Graft stock
- Related to
Human food and beverage
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page The genus Solanum contains several hundred branched prickly shrubs, many of which have become weeds in various tropical and subtropical countries.
Although S. torvum is by far the most widespread of these, many other species can be equally or more important locally, and local floras or expertise may be needed to confirm identification. Some examples include S. incanum in Africa, S. sodomeum in Australia, New Zealand, and the USA, S. carolinense in the USA, S. paniculatum and several others in Brazil, illustrated by Lorenzi, 1982 and S. dubium in the Middle East.
Prevention and ControlTop of page Cultural Control
Seedlings may be hand pulled when the soil is wet, otherwise the plants need to be dug or grubbed out to remove the upper root from the soil either by hand or mechanical cultivation.
Seedlings can be controlled in pasture with 2,4-D (Henty and Pritchard, 1975; Chadhokar, 1976). Australian registrations for the control of S. torvum are restricted to 2,4-D + picloram (Hamilton, 1997).
No work has been attempted to establish biological control agents for S. torvum, since it is too closely related to many useful crops and ornamentals.
ReferencesTop of page
Anon., 1998. Bibiografica Floristica Siciliana. World Wide Web page at http://www.herganet.it/florisicula.ct/Biblio.
Anon., 1998. Maurutius Country Report. Indigenous Plant Genetic Resources. World Wide Web page at http://web.icppgr.fao.org/CR/cr/maur/2.
Backer CA, 1973. Atlas of 220 weeds of sugar-cane fields in Java. In: van Steenis CGGJ, ed. Handbook for the cultivation of sugar-cane and manufacturing of cane sugar in Java. Vol. 7: Atlas (final instalment). Pasuruan, Indonesia: Indonesian Sugar Experiment Station
Breedlove DE, 1998. Floristic list for Mexico. IV. Flora of Chiapas. World Wide Web page at http//www.ibiologia.unam.mx/publicaciones/lfl4
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
Fournet J, 1973. Anthracnose of eggplant in the Antilles II. Methods of control. Annales de Phytopathologie, 5(1):15-25
Hamilton K, 1997. PESKEM - USES - PESTS: The Australian Directory of Registered Pesticides and their Uses. 15th edition. Gatton, Queensland, Australia: University of Queensland
Hancock IR, Henderson CP, 1988. Flora of the Solomon Islands. Research Bulletin No. 7. Honiara, Solomon Islands: Dodo Creek Research Station
Hebert Y, 1985. Comparative resistance of 9 Solanum species to bacterial wilt (Pseudomonas solanacearum) and to the nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Importance for breeding aubergine (Solanum melongena L.) in a humid tropical zone. Agronomie, 5(1):27-32
Heine H, 1963. 151. Solanaceae. In: Hutchison J, Dalziel JM, Hepper FN, eds. Flora of West Tropical Africa, Volume 2. London, UK: Crown Agents, 325-335
Hnatiuk RJ, 1990. Census of Australian Vascular Plants. Australian Flora and Fauna Series Number 11. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service
Ivens GW, Moody K, Egunjobi JK, 1978. West African Weeds. Ibadan, Nigeria: Oxford University Press, 178-179
Jadari R, Sihachaakr D, Rossisgnol L, Decreux G, Rousselle Bourgeouis F, Rouselle P, 1992. Transfer or resistance to Verticillium dahliae from Solanum torvum Sw. into potato by protoplast electrofusion. Proceedings of the Joint Conference of the EAPR Breeding and Varietal Assessment Section and the EUCARPIA Potato Section, Landerneau, France, 1992. Ploudaniel, France: INRA, 97-98
Liquido NJ, Harris EJ, Dekker LA, 1994. Ecology of Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae) populations: host plants, natural enemies, distribution, and abundance. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 87(1):71-84
Lorenzi H, 1982. Weeds of Brazil, terrestrial and aquatic, parasitic, poisonous and medicinal. (Plantas daninhas de Brasil, terrestres, aquaticas, parasitas, toxicas e medicinais.) Nova Odessa, Brazil: H. Lorenzi, 425 pp
MacKee HS, 1985. Les Plantes Introduites et Cultivees en Nouvelle-Caledonie. Volume hors series, Flore de la Nouvelle-Caledonie et Dependances. Paris, France: Museum Nationelle d'Histoire Naturelle
Matsuzoe N, Aida H, Hanada K, Ali M, Okubo H, Fujieda K, 1996. Fruit quality of tomato plants grafter onto Solanum rootstocks. Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science, 65:73-80
Narikawa T, Sakata Y, Komochi S, Melor R, Heng CK, Jumali S, 1988. Collection of solanaceous plants in Malaysia and screening for disease resistance. JARQ, Japan Agricultural Research Quarterly, 22(2):101-106; 3 ref
North Carolina Dept of Agriculture & Consumer Services, 1998. Regulatory Weed Program. State Noxious Weed List. World Wide Web page at http://www.agr.state.nc.us/plantind/PLANT/WEED/noxweed
Parham JW, 1958. The Weeds of Fiji. Bulletin Fiji Department of Agriculture, 35. Suava, Fiji: Government Press
Shetty KD, Reddy DDR, 1985. Resistance in Solanum species to root-knot nematode Meloidogyne incognita. Indian Journal of Nematology, 15:230
Space JC, Flynn T, 2002. Report to the Government of the Cook Islands on invasive plant species of environmental concern. Honolulu, USA: USAL USDA Forest Service, 146 pp
Symon DE, 1981. Solanum in Australia. Journal of the Adelaide Botanic Gardens, 4:115-116
Wang ZR, 1990. Farmland Weeds in China. Beijing, China: Agricultural Publishing House
Waterhouse DF, 1997. The major invertebrate pests and weeds of agriculture and plantation forestry in the southern and western Pacific. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research. 93 pp. [ACIAR Monograph No. 44]
Witt, A., Luke, Q., 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa, [ed. by Witt, A., Luke, Q.]. Wallingford, UK: CABI.vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 doi:10.1079/9781786392145.0000
Distribution MapsTop of page
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