Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Solanum seaforthianum
(Brazilian nightshade)

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Datasheet

Solanum seaforthianum (Brazilian nightshade)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Solanum seaforthianum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Brazilian nightshade
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • S. seaforthianum is a very aggressive woody vine with the capacity to invade natural forests, natural grasslands, forest margins, urban bushland, riverbanks, crops, pastures, roadsides, disturbed sites, and was...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Solanum seaforthianum (star potato-vine); flowers.
TitleFlowers
CaptionSolanum seaforthianum (star potato-vine); flowers.
Copyright©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez
Solanum seaforthianum (star potato-vine); flowers.
FlowersSolanum seaforthianum (star potato-vine); flowers.©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez
Solanum seaforthianum (star potato-vine); close-up of flower.
TitleFlower
CaptionSolanum seaforthianum (star potato-vine); close-up of flower.
Copyright©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez
Solanum seaforthianum (star potato-vine); close-up of flower.
FlowerSolanum seaforthianum (star potato-vine); close-up of flower.©Smithsonian Institution/Pedro Acevedo-Rodriguez

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Solanum seaforthianum Andrews

Preferred Common Name

  • Brazilian nightshade

Other Scientific Names

  • Solanum cyrrhosum Dunal
  • Solanum kerrii Bonati
  • Solanum prunifolium Roem. & Schult.
  • Solanum salignum Roem. & Schult.
  • Solanum seaforthianum var. disjunctum O.E. Schulz
  • Solanum venustum Kunth

International Common Names

  • English: Italian jasmine; potato creeper; potato-creeper; St Vincent's lilac; St. Vincent lilac; star potato vine
  • Spanish: guindilla; jazmín de Italia; josefina (Mexico); tomatillo
  • French: liane pomme de terre; liane pomme Édouard; petite liane patate

Local Common Names

  • : nan qing qi
  • Australia: blue potato vine; climbing nightshade; vining solanum
  • Cuba: jazmín de Italia
  • Dominican Republic: jazmín italiano; lila
  • Mexico: guindilla; piocha
  • Netherlands: seaforth's nachtshade
  • Puerto Rico: falsa belladona
  • South Africa: aartappelranker (Afrikaans); climbing nightshade; ijalamu (isiZulu)

EPPO code

  • SOLSE (Solanum seaforthianum)

Summary of Invasiveness

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S. seaforthianum is a very aggressive woody vine with the capacity to invade natural forests, natural grasslands, forest margins, urban bushland, riverbanks, crops, pastures, roadsides, disturbed sites, and waste areas (ISSG, 2008; PIER, 2014, USDA-ARS, 2014). Plants of S. seaforthianum produce hundreds of small seeds which can be easily dispersed by birds, cattle, and by watercourses (Gallagher et al., 2010; Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011; BioNET-EAFRINET, 2014). Once established, S. seaforthianum is able to grow forming dense monocultures that overtop and smother native plant species. S. seaforthianum is included in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012) and is also listed as an invasive plant and/or noxious weed in China, India, Taiwan, Namibia, South Africa, Cuba, Puerto Rico and several islands in the Pacific Ocean including Hawaii, French Polynesia, and New Caledonia.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Solanales
  •                         Family: Solanaceae
  •                             Genus: Solanum
  •                                 Species: Solanum seaforthianum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Solanaceae includes about 102 genera and 2460 species (Stevens, 2012). Members of this family are characterized by solitary or clustered flowers with sepals and petals, five in number and fused; five stamens; and a superior ovary composed of two fused carpels. Flowers are usually conspicuous and are pollinated mainly by insects (Stevens, 2012). Many of the Solanaceae species evolved in the Andean and Amazonian regions of South America in habitats that vary dramatically including rainforests that receive more than 3000 mm of precipitation annually, deserts with virtually no rainfall, and high mountains with regular snowfall and subfreezing temperatures (Bombarely et al., 2011).

The genus Solanum contains almost half of all the species within this family (ca. 1250-1700 species) and many formerly independent genera like Lycopersicon or Cyphomandra are now included in Solanum as subgenera or sections (Weese and Bohs, 2007; Stevens, 2012). The Solanaceae is commonly known as “the nightshade family” due to the poisonous alkaloids present in some species (Weese and Bohs, 2007). S. seaforthianum takes its species epithet from Lord Seaforth (Francis Mackenzie Humberston, 1754-1815), governor of Barbados from 1801 to 1806.

Description

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Woody vines, twining by the petioles. Stems terete, glabrous or sparsely pubescent. Leaves simple or more often pinnatifid or pinnately lobed with up to 4 pairs of leaflets, (2-) 3.5-10(-13) x (1-)2-9(-11) cm, elliptic to broadly triangular in outline, widest in the basal third, membranous, the upper surfaces glabrous or with tiny simple uniseriate trichomes on the veins and margins, the lower surfaces glabrous; base acute, truncate or slightly cordate, occasionally oblique and asymmetric; margins less commonly entire, usually 3-7 lobed, the lobes to 5 x 2 cm, smaller basiscopically; apex acute to acuminate; petioles 1-4 cm long. Inflorescences terminal, later lateral, to 25 or more cm long, with many open, divaricate branches, with up to 100 or more flowers, glabrous; pedicels 0.8-1.4 cm, Flowers all perfect, 5-merous. Buds globose, slightly inflated, the corolla strongly exserted from the calyx tube long before anthesis. Calyx tube approximately 0.5 mm, flattened and open, the lobes < 0.2 mm long, Corolla 1.1-2.5 cm in diameter, violet or pale violet, stellate-rotate, lobed ½ to 2/3 of the way to the base, the lobes 5-9 x 3-4.5 mm, spreading or slightly cupped at anthesis, densely and minutely pubescent on the tips and margins; free portion of filaments markedly unequal, the longest filament 2-3 mm, glabrous; anthers 2-3 x 1-1.5 mm, occasionally one anther slightly larger, ellipsoid, loosely connivent, yellow, poricidal ;ovary glabrous; style 7-10 mm long, stigma capitate, minutely papillose. Fruit a globose berry, 0.8-1.4 cm in diameter, bright shiny red when ripe, glabrous, the pericarp thin; Seeds 4-20 per berry, 4-4.5 x 2.5-3 mm, flattened-reniform, pale yellowish tan, the surfaces minutely pitted (Knapp, 2010).

Plant Type

Top of page Perennial
Seed propagated
Vine / climber
Woody

Distribution

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The native distribution range of S. seaforthianum is uncertain. It has been suggested that it is probably native to dry forests and thorn scrub of islands in the West Indies and coastal northern South America in Colombia and Venezuela (Wagner et al., 1999; Nee, 1999; Knapp, 2010). However, other authors believe that the species has a broader native distribution range and they suggest that S. seaforthianum is probably native to south-eastern USA (i.e., Florida), Mexico, Central America, the West Indies, and Venezuela and Colombia in tropical South America (ISSG, 2008; Gallagher et al., 2010; USDA-ARS, 2014; USDA-NRCS, 2014). Until additional data is presented to clarify the distribution range of the species, this datasheet follows the most conservative distribution and reports S. seaforthianum as native to Trinidad and Tobago, Colombia and Venezuela and as introduced elsewhere (see distribution table for details).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BotswanaPresentIntroducedPROTA (2014)
BurundiPresentIntroducedPauwels (2012)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentIntroducedPauwels (2012)
EthiopiaPresentIntroducedWitt and Luke (2017)
KenyaPresentIntroducedInvasiveWitt and Luke (2017); BioNET-EAFRINET (2014)
MalawiPresentIntroducedPROTA (2014)
MauritiusPresentIntroducedGallagher et al. (2010)
MayottePresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2014)
MozambiquePresentIntroducedPROTA (2014)
NamibiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveBethune et al. (2004)
RéunionPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2014)
RwandaPresentIntroducedPauwels (2012)
South AfricaPresentIntroducedInvasiveNel et al. (2004)Eastern Cape, KwaZulu-Natal, Mpumalanga, Gauteng and Limpopo
TanzaniaPresentIntroducedWitt and Luke (2017)
UgandaPresentIntroducedInvasiveWitt and Luke (2017)
ZambiaPresentIntroducedPROTA (2014)
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedPROTA (2014)

Asia

ChinaPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-YunnanPresentIntroducedInvasiveWeber et al. (2008)
IndiaPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-Andhra PradeshPresentIntroducedInvasiveChandra (2012)
-AssamPresentIntroducedInvasiveChandra (2012)
-Himachal PradeshPresentIntroducedInvasiveChandra (2012)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentIntroducedInvasiveChandra (2012)
-ManipurPresentIntroducedInvasiveChandra (2012)
-MeghalayaPresentIntroducedInvasiveChandra (2012)
-MizoramPresentIntroducedInvasiveChandra (2012)
-NagalandPresentIntroducedInvasiveChandra (2012)
-SikkimPresentIntroducedInvasiveChandra (2012)
-TripuraPresentIntroducedInvasiveChandra (2012)
-UttarakhandPresentIntroducedInvasiveChandra (2012)
-West BengalPresentIntroducedInvasiveChandra (2012)
TaiwanPresentIntroducedInvasiveFlora of Taiwan Editorial Committee (2013)

Europe

ItalyPresentCABI (Undated a)

North America

BarbadosPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)Widespread
BelizePresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasiveOviedo Prieto et al. (2012)
DominicaPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)Widespread
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)
GuadeloupePresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)Widespread
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)
HondurasPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)
MartiniquePresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)Widespread
MexicoPresentIntroducedVillaseñor and Espinosa-Garcia (2004)Veracruz, Chiapas, Oaxaca, Tabasco, Yucatán
MontserratPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)Widespread
Netherlands AntillesPresent, WidespreadIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2014)
PanamaPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated a)
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedInvasiveAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)Naturalized. Also in Vieques Is
Saint LuciaPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)Widespread
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroducedBroome et al. (2007)Widespread
Trinidad and TobagoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasiveAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong (2012)St. Croix, St. Thomas
United StatesPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroducedWunderlin and Hansen (2008)
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasiveWagner et al. (1999)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated)Present based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedInvasiveQueensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries (2011)
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedInvasiveQueensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries (2011)
-South AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasiveQueensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries (2011)
-Western AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasiveQueensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries (2011)
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveFlorence et al. (2013)
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedInvasiveMacKee (1994)
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedInvasivePeekel (1984)
VanuatuPresentIntroducedPIER (2014)

South America

BrazilPresentIntroducedStehmann et al. (2014)Cultivated
ColombiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)
French GuianaPresentFunk et al. (2007)
PeruPresentGentry and Standley (1974)
VenezuelaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2014)

History of Introduction and Spread

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Determining the date of introduction of S. seaforthianum is very difficult, mainly because the native distribution range of this species remains unclear and it has been widely cultivated as an ornamental in many tropical and subtropical regions of the world. For example, in the nineteenth century S. seaforthianum was cultivated in England from material introduced from the West Indies by Lord Seaforth (Francis Mackenzie Humberston, 1754-1815), governor of Barbados from 1801 to 1806 (Howard, 1979). S. seaforthianum was also reported as a “cultivated plant” on St Croix Island in 1879 (Eggers, 1879) and in gardens in Puerto Rico in 1881 (Bello Espinosa, 1881). By the start of the twentieth century, it was listed as cultivated and naturalized in Cuba, Jamaica, Hispaniola, St Thomas, St Croix, Guadeloupe, Dominica, Martinique, St Vincent, and Barbados (Urban, 1905). The paucity of collections and the relatively late dates of specimens of this species in the US National Herbarium from the West Indies, suggest that this species was introduced there rather than native.

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of S. seaforthianum is high. This species is an aggressive invasive vine that has been widely cultivated as an ornamental. In addition, S. seaforthianum plants produce large numbers of seeds which can be easily dispersed by birds, cattle, and watercourses.

Habitat

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S. seaforthianum is an ornamental vine cultivated in both tropical and subtropical climates in elevations ranging from sea levels to 1300 -1500 metres (MacKee, 1994; Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014). Once naturalized, the species can be found growing in natural forests, natural grasslands, forest margins, urban bushland, riverbanks, crops, orchards, pastures, roadsides, disturbed sites, and waste areas in both dry and wet environments (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005; ISSG, 2008; Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011; PIER, 2014, USDA-ARS, 2014).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedManaged grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Natural
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Natural
Scrub / shrublands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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S. seaforthianum is listed as a common weed in groves, hedgerows, and waste areas in many tropical fruit orchards (i.e., lime, avocado, and mango groves) in South Florida (Crane et al., 2008).

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for S. seaforthianum is n = 12 (Sarkar et al., 1980). 

Reproductive Biology

All Solanum species have poricidally dehiscent anthers that make this genus an example of the buzz pollination syndrome. This pollination syndrome can be found in about 200 genera of flowering plants (Buchmann, 1983). Solanum flowers are mainly hermaphroditic, nectar is absent and pollen is the exclusive floral reward. Pollination in these flowers is performed by insects (mainly bees). The species S. seaforthianum is reported by Wagner et al. (1999) as self-compatible. 

Physiology and Phenology

In Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands, S. seaforthianum has been reported flowering almost throughout the year, and fruits have been collected in January, February, and June (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005). 

Environmental Requirements

S. seaforthianum grows best on well drained soils with high organic matter content and pH ranging from 5.6 to 6.5 in sunny areas with temperatures ranging from 20°C to 35°C. It does not tolerate water-logging and frost conditions during extended periods (PROTA, 2014).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Tolerated > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -3
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 10 35

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall2001060mm; lower/upper limits

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • shallow

Notes on Natural Enemies

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In Venezuela, plants of S. seaforthianum have been found naturally infected with eggplant mosaic virus (EMV). Diseased plants showed mottling, vein-banding, and little or no distortion. According to the authors, this was the first report of EMV naturally infecting an indigenous host in the warm tropics (Debrot et al., 1977).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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S. seaforthianum spreads by seeds. Fruits can be dispersed by birds, cattle, and water (Gallagher et al., 2010; Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011; BioNET-EAFRINET, 2014).

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
DisturbanceGrown as a weed Yes Yes Randall, 2012
Escape from confinement or garden escapePlanted as ornamental. Seeds dispersed by birds. Yes Yes Gallagher et al., 2010
HorticulturePlanted as ornamental. Seeds dispersed by birds. Yes Yes Gallagher et al., 2010
Internet salesSeeds and plants sold online Yes Yes
Nursery tradePlanted as ornamental Yes Yes Gallagher et al., 2010
Ornamental purposesPlanted as ornamental Yes Yes Gallagher et al., 2010

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Machinery and equipmentWeed in pastures Yes Yes Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011
Soil, sand and gravelSeeds as a soil-contaminant Yes Yes Gallagher et al., 2010
WaterSeeds Yes Yes Gallagher et al., 2010

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Negative

Environmental Impact

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S. seaforthianum is considered an invasive and noxious weed with the potential to overtop and smother native plant communities. This species out-competes native plant species by crowding or shading them out (ISSG, 2008; Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011; PIER, 2014). S. seaforthianum also reduces biodiversity in natural forests because plants are able to dominate large areas in the understory affecting the germination and establishment of native species. In South Africa for example, it is invading areas with high conservation relevance such as the Kruger National Park (Foxcroft et al., 2003). S. seaforthianum is poisonous and children and poultry have been adversely affected after eating its fruit. Cattle, pigs and sheep have also been affected by this species (Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011; USDA-ARS, 2014).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Host damage
  • Infrastructure damage
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
  • Damages animal/plant products
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Competition - strangling
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Poisoning
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

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S. seaforthianum has been widely commercialized as a garden ornamental plant (USDA-ARS, 2014).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity

General

  • Ornamental

Materials

  • Poisonous to mammals

Ornamental

  • Potted plant
  • Propagation material

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

S. seaforthianum is difficult to eradicate and the best management strategy varies according to the infestation size. Individual plants and small infestations should be pulled up and burned completely along with all fruit. Larger infestations require repeated mowing and/or repeated applications of herbicides. It is important that plants are not allowed to fruit in order to prevent seed dispersal. There are no specific herbicides recommended for the treatment of this species, however, triclopyr, aminopyralid, 2,4-D and picloram have been used for the chemical control of the closely related species Solanum viarum (Waggy, 2009.)

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 2005. Vines and climbing plants of Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 51:483 pp

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Bello Espinosa D, 1881. [English title not available]. (Apuntes para la flora de Puerto Rico. Primera parte.) Anal. Soc. Española de Hist. Nat, 10:231-304

Bethune S, Griffin M, Joubert DF, 2004. National Review of Invasive Alien Species, Namibia. Windhoek, : Ministry of Environment and Tourism

BioNET-EAFRINET, 2014. East African Network for Taxonomy. Online Key and Fact Sheets for Invasive plants. http://keys.lucidcentral.org/keys/v3/eafrinet/weeds/key/weeds/Media/Html/index.htm

Bombarely A, Menda N, Tecle IY, Buels RM, Strickler S, Fischer-York T, Pujar A, Leto J, Gosselin J, Mueller LA, 2011. The Sol Genomics Network (solgenomics.net): growing tomatoes using Perl. Nucleic Acids Research, 39(Suppl. 1):D1149-D1155. http://nar.oxfordjournals.org/

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Buchmann SL, 1983. Buzz pollination in angiosperms. Handbook of experimental pollination biology [ed. by Jones, C.E.\Little, R.J.]. New York, NY, USA: Van Nostrand Reinhold Company, 73-113

Chandra SK, 2012. Invasive Alien Plants of Indian Himalayan Region- Diversity and Implication. American Journal of Plant Sciences, 3:177-184

Crane JH, Balerdi CF, Klassen W, 2008. Section 4: Common weeds found in tropical fruit orchards in South Florida, USA. Major problems affecting agriculture in Miami-Dade agriculture and emerging technological developments. 33-54. http://www.agmarketing.ifas.ufl.edu/dlfiles/DadeAgLandRetentionAppendixVolumeE.pdf

Debrot EA, Lastra R, Uzcategui RCde, 1977. Solanum Seaforthianum, a weed host of eggplant mosaic virus in Venezuela. Plant Disease Reporter, 61(8):628-631

Eggers HFA, 1879. The Flora of St. Croix and the Virgin Islands. Washington, USA: Washington Government Printing Office, 148 pp

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2014. Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Taiwan Editorial Committee, 2013. Digital flora of Taiwan. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=100

Florence J, Chevillotte H, Ollier C, Meyer J-Y, 2013. Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP) (Botanical database of the Nadeaud Herbarium of French Polynesia). http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

Foxcroft LC, Henderson L, Nichols GR, Martin BW, 2003. A revised list of alien plants for the Kruger National Park. Koedoe, 46(2):21-44

Funk V, Hollowell T, Berry P, Kelloff C, Alexander SN, 2007. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 584 pp

Gallagher RV, Hughes L, Leishman MR, Wilson PD, 2010. Predicted impact of exotic vines on an endangered ecological community under future climate change. Biological Invasions [Plant Invasions: Theoretical and Practical Challenges. 10th Conference on Ecology and Management of Alien Plant Invasions, Stellenbosch, South Africa, 23-27 August 2009.], 12(12):4049-4063. http://www.springerlink.com/content/n773j81151663318/fulltext.html

Gentry Jr JL, Standley PC, 1974. Solanaceae. Fieldiana Botany, 24:1-151. [Flora of Guatemala - Part X, Numbers 1 and 2.]

Howard RA, 1979. Early botanical records from the West Indies, particularly Barbados: Ligon (1657) to Lord Seaforth (1806). Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society, 79:65-96

ISSG, 2008. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). http://www.issg.org/database

Knapp S, 2010. Solanum seaforthianum. PBI Solanum Source: A worldwide treatment. http://www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/research/projects/solanaceaesource/

MacKee HS, 1994. Catalogue of introduced and cultivated plants in New Caledonia. (Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie.) Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle, unpaginated

Mbale H, 2010. Checklist of Invasive Plants of the Congo. Discover Life. http://www.discoverlife.org/mp/20q?guide=Invasive_plants_of_Congo

Nee M, 1999. Synopsis of Solanum in the New World. In: Solanaceae IV [ed. by Nee, M. \Lester, R. N. \Jessop, J. P.]. Richmond, Surrey, UK: Kew Royal Botanic Gardens, 285-333

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Distribution References

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Nel J L, Richardson D M, Rouget M, Mgidi T N, Mdzeke N, Maitre D C le, Wilgen B W van, Schonegevel L, Henderson L, Neser S, 2004. A proposed classification of invasive alien plant species in South Africa: towards prioritizing species and areas for management action. South African Journal of Science. 100 (1/2), 53-64.

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff M G, et al, 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 6 (Special Issue No. 1), 22-96.

Pauwels L, 2012. [English title not available]. (Plantes cultivées et/ou exotiques en Afrique Centrale: R.D. Congo-Rwanda-Burindi)., http://users.telenet.be/cr28796/CultAfrC.htm

Peekel PG, 1984. Flora of the Bismarck Archipelago for naturalists., Lae, Papua New Guinea: Office of Forests, Division of Botany. 638 pp.

PIER, 2014. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk., Honolulu, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

PROTA, 2014. PROTA4U web database., [ed. by Grubben GJH, Denton OA]. Wageningen, Netherlands: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. http://www.prota4u.org/search.asp

Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011. Special edition of Environmental Weeds of Australia for Biosecurity Queensland., Australia: The University of Queensland and Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries. http://keyserver.lucidcentral.org/weeds/data/03030800-0b07-490a-8d04-0605030c0f01/media/Html/Index.htm

Stehmann JR, Mentz LA, Agra MF, Vignoli-Silva M, Giacomin L, Rodrigues IMC, 2014. Solanum in list of species of the flora of Brazil. (Solanaceae in Lista de Espécies da Flora do Brasil)., Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/jabot/floradobrasil/FB127323

USDA-ARS, 2014. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Villaseñor J L, Espinosa-Garcia F J, 2004. The alien flowering plants of Mexico. Diversity and Distributions. 10 (2), 113-123. DOI:10.1111/j.1366-9516.2004.00059.x

Wagner WL, Herbst DR, Sohmer SH, 1999. Manual of the flowering plants of Hawaii. Revised edition., Honolulu, Hawai'i, USA: Bishop Museum Press. 1919 pp.

Weber E, Sun ShiGuo, Li Bo, 2008. Invasive alien plants in China: diversity and ecological insights. Biological Invasions. 10 (8), 1411-1429. http://www.springerlink.com/content/c25570xj6u44645h/?p=3d093fec46ab4097b45b287d6033e986&pi=21 DOI:10.1007/s10530-008-9216-3

Witt A, Luke Q, 2017. Guide to the naturalized and invasive plants of Eastern Africa. [ed. by Witt A, Luke Q]. Wallingford, UK: CABI. vi + 601 pp. http://www.cabi.org/cabebooks/ebook/20173158959 DOI:10.1079/9781786392145.0000

Wunderlin RP, Hansen BF, 2008. Atlas of Florida Vascular Plants., Florida, USA: University of South Florida. http://www.plantatlas.usf.edu/

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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24/03/14 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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