Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Solanum rostratum
(prickly nightshade)

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Datasheet

Solanum rostratum (prickly nightshade)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Solanum rostratum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • prickly nightshade
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • S. rostratum is a taprooted annual plant known to be a noxious weed in parts of the USA and Canada, and is included in the Global Compendium of Weeds as an ‘agricultural weed’, ‘casual alien’, ‘environmental we...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Solanum rostratum (prickly nightshade or buffalobur); habit. La Junta, Colorado, USA.
TitleHabit
CaptionSolanum rostratum (prickly nightshade or buffalobur); habit. La Junta, Colorado, USA.
Copyright©Howard F. Schwartz/Colorado State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Solanum rostratum (prickly nightshade or buffalobur); habit. La Junta, Colorado, USA.
HabitSolanum rostratum (prickly nightshade or buffalobur); habit. La Junta, Colorado, USA.©Howard F. Schwartz/Colorado State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Solanum rostratum (prickly nightshade or buffalobur); habit. La Junta, Colorado, USA.
TitleHabit
CaptionSolanum rostratum (prickly nightshade or buffalobur); habit. La Junta, Colorado, USA.
Copyright© Howard F. Schwartz/Colorado State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Solanum rostratum (prickly nightshade or buffalobur); habit. La Junta, Colorado, USA.
HabitSolanum rostratum (prickly nightshade or buffalobur); habit. La Junta, Colorado, USA.© Howard F. Schwartz/Colorado State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Solanum rostratum (prickly nightshade or buffalobur); flower. USA.
TitleFlower
CaptionSolanum rostratum (prickly nightshade or buffalobur); flower. USA.
Copyright©Bruce Ackley/The Ohio State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Solanum rostratum (prickly nightshade or buffalobur); flower. USA.
FlowerSolanum rostratum (prickly nightshade or buffalobur); flower. USA.©Bruce Ackley/The Ohio State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Solanum rostratum (prickly nightshade or buffalobur); fruit/seedpod. USA.
TitleFruit
CaptionSolanum rostratum (prickly nightshade or buffalobur); fruit/seedpod. USA.
Copyright©Bruce Ackley/The Ohio State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Solanum rostratum (prickly nightshade or buffalobur); fruit/seedpod. USA.
FruitSolanum rostratum (prickly nightshade or buffalobur); fruit/seedpod. USA.©Bruce Ackley/The Ohio State University/Bugwood.org - CC BY 3.0 US
Solanum rostratum (prickly nightshade); seed, hilum arrowed. Laboratory at CPHST, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.
TitleSeed
CaptionSolanum rostratum (prickly nightshade); seed, hilum arrowed. Laboratory at CPHST, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.
Copyright©D. Walters & C. Southwick/Table Grape Weed Disseminule ID/USDA APHIS ITP/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US
Solanum rostratum (prickly nightshade); seed, hilum arrowed. Laboratory at CPHST, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.
SeedSolanum rostratum (prickly nightshade); seed, hilum arrowed. Laboratory at CPHST, Fort Collins, Colorado, USA.©D. Walters & C. Southwick/Table Grape Weed Disseminule ID/USDA APHIS ITP/Bugwood.org - CC BY-NC 3.0 US

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Solanum rostratum Dunal

Preferred Common Name

  • prickly nightshade

Other Scientific Names

  • Solanum cornutum auct., non Lam.
  • Solanum heterandrum Pursh

International Common Names

  • English: beaked nightshade; beaked sandbur; buffalo berry; buffalo bitter apple; buffalo bur; buffalobur (USA); hedgehog bush; horned nightshade; horse nettle; kansas thistle (USA); pincushion nightshade; sandbur; spiny nightshade
  • Spanish: abrojo (Honduras); durazillo (Honduras); guizazo de bufalo; mala mujer (Honduras)

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Nachtschade, Stachel-; Stachel-Nachtschatten
  • Mexico: acayocahuitle; ayohuistle; churuni; duraznillo; hierba del gato; hierba del sapo; huiztecuatl; ixpa-halkan; mala mujer; quiebra plato; rabo de iguana; vaquerillo
  • Netherlands: nachtschade, stekel
  • South Africa: bitterappel; buffelbitterappel; doringappel; ystervarkbos
  • Sweden: taggborre

EPPO code

  • SOLCU (Solanum cornutum)
  • SOLRS (Solanum rostratum)

Summary of Invasiveness

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S. rostratum is a taprooted annual plant known to be a noxious weed in parts of the USA and Canada, and is included in the Global Compendium of Weeds as an ‘agricultural weed’, ‘casual alien’, ‘environmental weed’, ‘naturalised’, ‘noxious weed’, and ‘weed’ across tropical and temperate regions of the world (Randall, 2012). It is a fast-growing, vigorous weed native to Mexico and the United States and now widely introduced including into Europe, Asia and Oceania. The species invades ecosystems by forming dense colonies, and a single plant can produce hundreds of seeds (Vallejo-Marin, 2014) which are dispersed by both biotic and abiotic vectors, as well as self-propelled by its dehiscent fruit (Whalen, 1979). The species is a declared noxious weed in the U.S. states of Idaho, Hawaii, Oregon, and Washington state (USDA-ARS, 2014), and is listed in the FDA Poisonous Plant Database (FDA, 2014).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Solanales
  •                         Family: Solanaceae
  •                             Genus: Solanum
  •                                 Species: Solanum rostratum

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Solanaceae, the Nightshade family, consists of 90 genera and 3000-4000 species with great variation in habit and distribution on all continents except Antarctica, with the majority of species diversity in Central and South America (PBI Solanum Project, 2014).

Solanum is one of the largest genera of vascular plants with 1000-1500 species, around 1000 of which are speculated to be of American origin (Hunziker, 1979). Taxonomy of the genus and its seven subgenera have undergone many revisions, but the overall genus consists of herbs, shrubs, trees, or herbaceous or woody vines, usually with spines or prickles, glabrous or pubescent with simple or stellate hairs (Acevedo-Rodriguez, 1996). The Solanum genus includes the wild potato, S. tuberosum, the tomato, S. lycopersicum, and the eggplant, S. melongena, with many other members cultivated for medicinal and ornamental uses. While the etymology of the genus’ scientific name is unclear, it may be derived from the Latin word “sol”, meaning "sun," referring to its affinity for sunlight, or from the Latin word “solare”, meaning "to soothe”, the Latin word “solamen”, meaning "a comfort", or the Akkadian word “sululu”, meaning “happy”, in reference to the narcotic effects of some Solanum species after ingestion (Smith, 1971; Wiart, 2006; Quattrocchi, 2012; NZPCN, 2014).

The genus Solanum has been divided into seven subgenera, which are further divided into sections and subsections. The species Solanum rostratum belongs to the prickly Solanum subgenus Leptostemonum and the section Androceras. The Androceras section consists of c. 12 species and is an unusual Solanum section, as it is characterized by mostly north temperate distribution and distinctive zygomorphic, heterantherous, and enantiostylous flowers and prickly calyx tubes that tightly and completely encase the berries (Whalen, 1979; Stern et al., 2010).

In the literature this species has often and incorrectly been called Solanum cornutum, which is distinct from Solanum cornutum Lamarck. The species name rostratum is derived from the Latin word for “beaked”, in reference to the shape of its flowers (Smith, 1971).

Description

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Individual plants reach 1-1.5 m tall, with once- or twice-pinnatifid leaves, and abundant prickles on the stems and leaves. It produces yellow flowers with pentagonal corollas 2-3.5 cm in diameter and weakly bilaterally symmetric (Whalen, 1979). In its native range S. rostratum is pollinated by medium- to large-sized bees including bumblebees (Bowers 1975). Flowers bear two sets of anthers that are unequal in size and may be distinctly coloured (Vallejo-Marín et al.. 2009). The fruit, a berry, is enclosed by a prickly calyx and the seeds are released when the berries dry and split while still attached to the plant. [Taken from Vallejo-Marin, 2014].

Distribution

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S. rostratum is considered native to Mexico, where it exhibits the greatest genetic diversity (Zhao et al., 2013), as well as to the United States particularly the Great Plains region (Whalen, 1979), and it is widely naturalized and invasive in tropical and tropical regions around the world (Randall, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2014). As an introduced species it is not as common in Africa or India, being a relatively recent introduction there (Deb, 1979; Jaeger and Hepper, 1986), as it is in Australia, where it has in some parts been labeled an agricultural and environmental weed (Randall, 2012).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AzerbaijanPresentIntroducedEPPO, 2014
BangladeshPresentIntroducedEPPO, 2014
ChinaPresentIntroduced Invasive Zhao et al., 2013
-BeijingPresentIntroducedZhao et al., 2013
-HebeiPresentIntroducedZhao et al., 2013
-JilinPresentIntroducedZhao et al., 2013
-LiaoningPresentIntroduced1981Zhao et al., 2013
-ShanxiPresentIntroducedZhao et al., 2013
-XinjiangPresentIntroducedZhao et al., 2013
IndiaPresentIntroducedSom Deva, 1976
JapanPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012
KazakhstanPresentIntroducedEPPO, 2014
Korea, Republic ofPresentIntroducedCho and Kim, 1997; Randall, 2012
TaiwanPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012; Taiwan Plant Names, 2014

Africa

LibyaPresentIntroduced Invasive Mahklouf, 2016
South AfricaPresentIntroducedParsons and Cuthbertson, 2001Naturalised

North America

CanadaPresentIntroducedUSDA-NRCS, 2014
MexicoPresentNativeWhalen, 1979; Acevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2014
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-ArkansasWidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012
-ColoradoWidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
-IdahoWidespreadNative Invasive USDA-ARS, 2014
-IowaWidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
-KansasWidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
-MinnesotaWidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
-MissouriWidespreadIntroducedWhalen, 1979; Flora of Missouri, 2014; USDA-ARS, 2014
-MontanaWidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
-NebraskaWidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
-New MexicoWidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
-North DakotaWidespreadNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
-OklahomaPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2014
-OregonWidespreadNative Invasive USDA-ARS, 2014
-South DakotaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2014
-TexasPresentNativeWhalen, 1979; USDA-ARS, 2014
-WashingtonPresentIntroduced Invasive Randall, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2014
-WyomingPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2014

Central America and Caribbean

United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodriguez and Strong, 2012St John

Europe

AustriaPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012
BulgariaPresentIntroducedEPPO, 2014
DenmarkPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012
GermanyPresentIntroducedEPPO, 2014
HungaryPresentIntroduced Invasive Randall, 2012
MoldovaPresentIntroducedEPPO, 2014
Russian FederationRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-Southern RussiaWidespreadEPPO, 2014
SlovakiaPresentIntroducedEPPO, 2014
UKPresentIntroducedVallejo-Marin, 2014England, Wales, Scotland
UkraineRestricted distributionEPPO, 2014

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012
-VictoriaPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012
New ZealandPresentIntroducedRandall, 2012

History of Introduction and Spread

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S. rostratum is an annual weed originating from the Americas (USDA-ARS, 2014). The species may have migrated north across the USA via cattle or horses from northern Mexico and Texas (hence the common name ‘Texas nettle’) (Todd, 1882; DuBois et al., 1896; Tower, 1906), although it may also be native (USDA-ARS, 2014). S. rostratum was reportedly in Colorado by 1877 and Illinois and Tennessee by 1888 (DuBois et al., 1896). It may have then spread by trade routes connecting the Americas to Asia and elsewhere, as suggested by recent research indicating a shared origin of populations in China with U.S. populations (Zhao et al., 2013). The species was introduced to the British Isles sometime in the 1800’s (Vallejo-Marin, 2014).

Although it is native to North-Central America, S. rostratum does not appear to be widespread or weedy in South America; it is not included, for example, in Forzza et al.’s (2010) flora of Brazil or Funk et al.’s (2007) work on the Guianea Shield. The species was also a ‘recent’ introduction to Africa as of 1986 and is lower priority for invasive concern on this continent (Jaeger and Hepper, 1986).

S. rostratum is a recent introduction to Asia. Som Deva (1976) reported it as a new record to India in 1976. In China, it was first recorded in Liaoning province in 1981, but has since spread across a large area in northern China, where there is ongoing dispersal (Zhao et al., 2013). 

Risk of Introduction

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S. rostratum is widespread in North America, Asia, Australia, and parts of Europe (Randall, 2012). It is known to be toxic to livestock and is included in the FDA Poisonous Plant Database (FDA, 2014). The seeds are dispersed by water, wind, humans and mammals (DEPI-AU, 2014; Vallejo-Marin, 2014), as well as self-propelled by its dehiscent calyx (Whalen, 1979). The species has the potential to grow as a weed on roadsides, agricultural fields, and other disturbed sites (Vallejo-Marin, 2014), and is a seed contaminant of grains, fodder, and soil (Wiersema and Leon, 1999; EPPO, 2001; DEPI-AU, 2014; PBI Solanum Project, 2014). However, it can be well controlled with herbicides. In North America it is generally confined to the wheatbelt and is a strong competitor for cotton crops (DEPI-AU, 2014), and the species’ high competitiveness is often associated more with crop plants in agricultural settings than with native flora. In Victoria, Australia, S. rostratum is not yet known to invade natural ecosystems, although its “spiny nature and toxic fruit may have minor impact on non-threatened fauna” (DEPI-AU, 2014). Considering the toxicity, traits, known invasiveness and widespread distribution, the risk of introduction for this species is high especially in areas near agricultural settings. 

Habitat

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S. rostratum assumes a tight, congested habitat, preferring to colonize sunny, open places, such as disturbed areas, roadsides, abandoned agricultural fields, and dry streambeds (Whalen, 1979). As an agricultural weed it is also found in managed cultivated settings. 

Chinese populations usually grown in open, disturbed habitats such as roadsides, fallow fields and along train tracks (Zhao et al., 2013).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome count for S. rostratum is n=12, 2n=24 (Vallejo-Marin, 2014).

Reproductive Biology

S. rostratum is pollinated by as many as 11 different genera of bees, including smaller mining bees and five Bombus species (Bowers, 1975; Symon, 1979).

Physiology and Phenology

S. rostratum takes less than a year to become productive; in North America the species germinates in autumn, grows in winter and flowers in late spring and summer (CSU, 2014), The species can reportedly reach reproductive maturity within 4-6 weeks of germination (Vallejo-Marin, 2014). It reproduces by seeds, which its dehiscent fruits propel upon drying and bursting (Whalen, 1979). Each plant can produce 40-80 berries (PBI Solanum Project, 2014), and individual plants have been recorded to produce over 78,000 seeds (Lin and Tan, 2007). 

Associations

Both S. rostratum and S. elaeagnifolium are ancestral host plants of the Colorado potato beetle, Leptinotarsadecemlineata. This parasite is considered to have adapted to the potato plant, S. tuberosum, as its’ new host when the American settlers introduced it (Casagrande, 1985).

Environmental Requirements

The species demonstrates resistance to both drought and waterlogging, but prefers dry, exposed soil with plenty of sun (Parsons and Cuthbertson, 2001; CSU, 2014; DEPI-AU, 2014).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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S. rostratum reproduces by seeds, which are numerous and dispersed by both biotic and abiotic vectors. The species has the ability to self-propel its seeds by its dehiscent berries (Whalen, 1979; CSU, 2014). Seeds are also dispersed by water, as the fruit can float (DEPI-AU, 2014), and by the wind, as this species is a common tumbleweed (Whalen, 1979; CSU, 2014). Its prickly fruit easily attach to wool, clothes, and manmade items by which humans may aid in its dispersal. It is also likely that dispersal is facilitated by accidental transport in contaminated grain or forage as it often grows on the margins of crop fields (Zhao et al., 2013). The species is also known to have escaped cultivation (Randall, 2012).

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative
Human health Negative

Economic Impact

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Negative economic impact is likely in areas where tourism is important, as dense, thorny colonies formed by the plant would deter people from passing the area. Similarly, livestock may avoid grazing areas in pastures where this species occurs. Regarding human and animal health, if ingested the plant is poisonous.

As S. rostratum is a weed of agriculture, the species negatively impacts crop production, not only by competing for resources and space, but also by contaminating seeds and products such as wool (DEPI-AU, 2014). 

Environmental Impact

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S. rostratum poses a negative impact to the environment, as it forms dense colonies and, once established, is difficult to eradicate. 

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts human health
  • Negatively impacts animal health
  • Negatively impacts tourism
  • Negatively impacts trade/international relations
Impact mechanisms
  • Poisoning
  • Produces spines, thorns or burrs
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant

Uses

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S. rostratum is a noxious weed, but has reportedly been used in folkloric medicine to treat coughs (Duke, 2014).

Detection and Inspection

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Identification is difficult, often resulting in agricultural seed contamination (Wiersema and Leon, 1999; DEPI-AU, 2014).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

S. rostratum can be physically uprooted from the ground, although the thorny species forms dense colonies, making this difficult. Thick gloves should be worn as protection against the spines.

Effective herbicides include Dicamba, Triclopyr and 2,4-D, and Glyphosate in a 2% solution can be applied as a spot treatment. Herbicides should be applied between late bud and early flower (CSU, 2014).

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 1996. Flora of St. John, U.S. Virgin Islands. Memoirs of the New York Botanical Garden, 78:1-581.

Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Bowers KAW, 1975. The pollination ecology of Solanum rostratum (Solanaceae). American Journal of Botany, 62(6):633-638.

Casagrande RA, 1985. The "Iowa" potato beetle, its discovery and spread to potatoes. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America, 31(2):27-29.

Cho YH; Kim W, 1997. A new naturalized plant in Korea. Korean Journal of Plants Taxonomy, 27:277.

CSU, 2010. Common Weeds - Buffalo bur., USA: Colorado State University. http://www.colostate.edu/Depts/CoopExt/4DMG/Weed/weeds.htm

Deb DB, 1979. Solanaceae in India. In: The Biology and taxonomy of the Solanaceae [ed. by Hawkes, J. G. \Lester, R. N. \Skelding, A. D.]. London, UK: Academic Press, 87-112.

DEPI-AU, 2014. A-Z of Weeds: Buffalobur., Australia: Department of Environment and Primary Industries (DEPI), State Government of Victoria. http://www.depi.vic.gov.au/agriculture-and-food/pests-diseases-and-weeds/weeds/a-z-of-weeds/buffalo-burr

DuBois CG; Hicks GH; Davis CA, 1896. Concerning Solanum. The Asa Gray Bulletin, 4:56-57.

Duke J, 2015. Dr. Duke's Phytochemical and Ethnobotanical Databases online resource. Beltsville, USA: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. http://www.ars-grin.gov/duke/

EPPO, 2001. Pest Risk Analysis: Solanum rostratum. https://www.eppo.int/QUARANTINE/Pest_Risk_Analysis/PRA_documents.htm

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

FDA, 2014. Poisonous Plant Database, US Food and Drug Administration. Silver Spring, MD, USA: United States Health and Human Services. http://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/plantox/index.cfm

Flora of Missouri, 2014. Flora of Missouri, eFloras website. St. Louis, MO and Cambridge, MA, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=11

Forzza RC; Leitman PM; Costa AF; Carvalho Jr AA, et al. , 2014. List of species of the Flora of Brazil (Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br

Funk V; Hollowell T; Berry P; Kelloff C; Alexander SN, 2007. Checklist of the plants of the Guiana Shield (Venezuela: Amazonas, Bolivar, Delta Amacuro; Guyana, Surinam, French Guiana). Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, 584 pp.

Hunziker AT, 1979. South American Solanaceae: a synoptic survey. In: The Biology and taxonomy of the Solanaceae [ed. by Hawkes, J. G. \Lester, R. N. \Skelding, A. D.]. London, UK: Published for the Linnean Society of London by Academic Press, 49-85.

Jaeger P-ML; Hepper FN, 1986. A review of the genus Solanum in Africa. In: D'Arcy WG, ed. Solanaceae: Biology and Systematics. New York, USA: Columbia University Press, 41-55.

Lin Y; Tan DY, 2007. The potential and exotic invasive plant: Solanum rostratum. Acta Phytotaxonomiea Sinica, 45:675-685.

Mahklouf MH, 2016. Flora of Solanum rostratum Dunal. (Family-Solanaceae) in Libya: a new record. International Journal of Modern Botany, 6(1):1-5. http://article.sapub.org/10.5923.j.ijmb.20160601.01.html

NZPCN, 2014. New Zealand's Flora - Solanum tuberosum profile., New Zealand: New Zealand Plant Conservation Network (NZPCN). http://www.nzpcn.org.nz/flora_details.aspx?ID=2778

Parsons WT; Cuthbertson EG, 2001. Noxious weeds of Australia. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press, 698 pp.

PBI Solanum Project, 2014. Solanaceae Source website., USA: Planetary Biodiversity Inventories (PBI), National Science Foundation. http://www.solanaceaesource.org/

Quattrocchi U, 2012. CRC world dictionary of medicinal and poisonous plants: common names, scientific names, eponyms, synonyms, and etymology [ed. by Quattrocchi, U.]. London, UK: CRC Press Inc., 3960 pp.

Randall RP, 2012. A Global Compendium of Weeds. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture and Food Western Australia, 1124 pp. http://www.cabi.org/isc/FullTextPDF/2013/20133109119.pdf

Smith AW, 1971. A Gardener's Dictionary of Plant Names: A Handbook on the Origin and Meaning of Some Plant Names, revised and enlarged by William T. Stearn. London, UK: Cassell and Co., 391 pp.

Som Deva, 1976. Solanum rostratum Dunal - a New Record for India. Indian Forester, 102(2):138-139.

Stern SR; Weese T; Bohs LA, 2010. Phylogenetic relationships in Solanum section Androceras (Solanaceae). Systematic Botany, 35(4):885-893. http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1600/036364410X539934

Symon DE, 1979. Sex forms in Solanum and the role of pollen collecting insects. In: Solanaceae III: Taxonomy, Chemistry, Evolution [ed. by Hawkes, J. G. \Lester, R. N. \Nee, M. \Estrada-R, N.]. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, 385-397.

Taiwan Plant Names, 2014. Taiwan Plant Names, eFloras website. St. Louis, MO and Cambridge, MA, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/florataxon.aspx?flora_id=101

Todd JE, 1882. On the Flowers of Solanum Rostratum and Cassia Chamaecrista. The American Naturalist, 16(4):281-287.

Tower WL, 1906. An Investigation of Evolution in Chrysomelid Beetles of the Genus Leptinotarsa. Washington D.C., USA: Carnegie Institution of Washington, 320 pp. https://archive.org/details/investigationofe01towe

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Catalogue of Seed Plants of the West Indieshttp://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm
FDA Poisonous Plant Databasehttp://www.accessdata.fda.gov/scripts/plantox/
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
National Science Foundation Solanaceae Sourcehttp://solanaceaesource.org/

Contributors

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24/08/2014 Original text by:

Marianne Jennifer Datiles, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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