Solanum nigrum (black nightshade)
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Habitat List
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Biology and Ecology
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Uses List
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Solanum nigrum L.
Preferred Common Name
- black nightshade
Other Scientific Names
- Solanum retroflexum Dunal
International Common Names
- English: blackberry nightshade
- Spanish: hierba mora; solane negro; tomatito de moro; tomatitos
- French: creve-chien; morelle noire
- Arabic: anab-el-deeb; kharmah; uyyoub
- Portuguese: erva moira
Local Common Names
- Argentina: yerba mora
- Australia: blackberry nightshade
- Bangladesh: gurki
- Brazil: erva moura
- Cameroon: black nightshade
- Chile: hierba mora; llague
- Colombia: hierba mora
- Denmark: sort natskygge
- East Africa: black nightshade; egwangira; managu; mnavu; ol'momoit; osuga; rinagu
- Egypt: enab el-deib
- El Salvador: yerba mora
- Finland: mustakoiso
- Germany: Schwarzer Nachtschatten
- Honduras: hierba mora
- India: makhoi; nunununia
- Indonesia: anti; leuda; leuntja; leuntja pait; ranti
- Iran: taj rizi
- Iraq: inaib el-theeb
- Italy: ballerina; erba morella; morella minore; solano nero
- Jamaica: black nightshade; branched calalu; guma
- Japan: inuhozuki
- Malaysia: baung-laung-nyo; terong meranti
- Mauritius: brede martin
- Mexico: hierba mora; trompillo
- Morocco: morelle noir
- Netherlands: nachtschade; zwarte nachtschade
- New Zealand: black nightshade
- Norway: sort sotvider
- Pakistan: kanper makoo
- Panama: pintamora
- Peru: yerba mora
- Philippines: kamakamatisan; kunti; malasili
- South Africa: black nightshade; common nightshade; galbessie; hound's berry; inkberry; inkbossie; ixabaxaba; musaka; nagskaal; nagskaduuse; nagtegaalbossie; nastagal; nastergal; petty morel; seshoa-bohloko; stubbleberry; umsobo; umsobosobo
- Sweden: svart nattskatta
- Taiwan: lung-kwei
- Thailand: toem tok; ya-tomtok
- Trinidad and Tobago: agouma
- Tunisia: morelle noir
- Turkey: kopek uzumii
- USA: black nightshade
- USA/Hawaii: black nightshade
- Venezuela: hierba mora; yocoyoco
- Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro): pomocnica
- Zimbabwe: ixabaxaba; musaka; mutsungutsugu
- SOLNI (Solanum nigrum)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Dicotyledonae
- Order: Solanales
- Family: Solanaceae
- Genus: Solanum
- Species: Solanum nigrum
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
Solanum nigrum L. (Family Solanaceae; English name: Black night shade) is one of the largest and most variable species groups of the genus. Though this species group is often referred to as Solanum nigrum complex, the section is composed of a large number of morpho-genetically distinct taxa, which show their greatest diversity and concentration in the New World tropics, particularly in South America (Jagatheeswari et al., 2013).
DescriptionTop of page
S. nigrum is a very variable ephemeral, annual or sometimes biennial herb, 0.2–1.0 m tall, reproducing only by seed. It has a strong white taproot, with many lateral roots being produced in moist and fertile surface soils.
Stems vary from prostrate to ascending or erect, and from herbaceous in ephemeral plants to rather woody or even shrubby in those that survive long enough to be biennial. Stems are round or angular, smooth or sparsely hairy, and green to purplish.
Leaves are alternate, ovate and are carried on short stalks, 2–8 cm long, and vary between plants from smooth-edged to shallowly lobed. They are opaque, matt and dark green both above and below, and either smooth or finely hairy.
The small, white, star-shaped flowers are carried in umbels on slender stalks developing directly from the stems between the leaves. Each cluster usually carries from 5–10 flowers, which open sequentially over several days. The flowers are 5-8 mm across, and have prominent yellow centres.
Fruits are globular, dark green, matt berries 5–13 mm across, matt black when ripe, which contain many flattened, finely pitted, yellow to dark brown woody seeds approximately 1.5 mm long.
Seedlings of S. nigrum agg. all exhibit epigeal germination. The hypocotyl is commonly slender, about 1 cm long, green or purplish and distinctly hairy. The spreading cotyledons are slender, about 5 mm long, and taper towards the tips. The epicotyl is slender, smooth to finely hairy, and carries small, ovate, juvenile leaves that gradually assume the adult shape and size.
DistributionTop of page
Species are distributed from temperate to tropical regions, and from sea level to altitudes over 3500 metres. S. nigrum agg. appears to be distributed throughout the world, and one or more members of the complex probably occur in every nation from Finland in the northern hemisphere to New Zealand in the southern hemisphere. Solanum nigrum itself is a predominantly Eurasian species, which does not occur naturally in South America (Jagatheeswari et al., 2013).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Botswana||Present||Wells et al. (1986)|
|Eswatini||Present||Wells et al. (1986)|
|Ethiopia||Present||CABI (Undated a)|
|Ghana||Present||CABI (Undated a)|
|Lesotho||Present||Wells et al. (1986)|
|Namibia||Present||Wells et al. (1986)|
|Nigeria||Present||CABI (Undated a)|
|Senegal||Present||CABI (Undated a)|
|South Africa||Present||Wells et al. (1986); CABI (Undated)|
|Uganda||Present||CABI (Undated a)|
|Afghanistan||Present||CABI (Undated a)|
|Bangladesh||Present||CABI (Undated a)|
|Cambodia||Present||CABI (Undated a)|
|China||Present||CABI (Undated a)|
|India||Present||CABI (Undated a)|
|Iran||Present||Gharabadiyan et al. (2012)|
|Iraq||Present||HASSAWY et al. (1968); CABI (Undated)|
|Japan||Present||CABI (Undated a)|
|Jordan||Present||CABI (Undated a)|
|Lebanon||Present||Holm et al. (1997); CABI (Undated)|
|-Sabah||Present||Holm et al. (1997)|
|Myanmar||Present||CABI (Undated a)|
|Philippines||Present||CABI (Undated a)|
|Saudi Arabia||Present||Chaudhary and Zawawi (1983)|
|South Korea||Present||CABI (Undated a)|
|Thailand||Present||CABI (Undated a)|
|Bulgaria||Present||Holm et al. (1997)|
|Cyprus||Present||Holm et al. (1997)|
|Czechia||Present||CABI (Undated a)|
|Denmark||Present||CABI (Undated a)|
|Federal Republic of Yugoslavia||Present||CABI (Undated);|
|Hungary||Present||Reisinger (1996); CABI (Undated);|
|Iceland||Present||CABI (Undated a)|
|Ireland||Present||Holm et al. (1997)|
|Netherlands||Present||CABI (Undated a)|
|Norway||Present||CABI (Undated a)|
|Poland||Present||CABI (Undated a)|
|Russia||Present||CABI (Undated a)|
|Sweden||Present||CABI (Undated a)|
|Switzerland||Present||Vogel and Gutzwiller (1993)|
|United Kingdom||Present||CABI (Undated);|
|Costa Rica||Present||CABI (Undated);|
|Cuba||Present||CABI (Undated a)|
|El Salvador||Present||CABI (Undated a)|
|Panama||Present||CABI (Undated a)|
|Trinidad and Tobago||Present||CABI (Undated);|
|United States||Present||USDA (1970); CABI (Undated);|
|-Hawaii||Present||Holm et al. (1997); CABI (Undated)|
|-New South Wales||Present||Hnatiuk (1990); CABI (Undated)|
|-Northern Territory||Present||Hnatiuk (1990)|
|-Queensland||Present||Hnatiuk (1990); CABI (Undated);|
|-Western Australia||Present||Hnatiuk (1990); CABI (Undated)|
|New Caledonia||Present||CABI (Undated)||Original citation: Mackee (1985)|
|New Zealand||Present||Roy et al. (1998); CABI (Undated);|
|Brazil||Present||Aranha et al. (1982); CABI (Undated);|
HabitatTop of page
Members of the S. nigrum complex are largely confined to disturbed situations such as cultivated land, roadsides, wasteland, uncompetitive pastures, and exposed river beds and banks. They occur in such places throughout the temperate zones and in subtropical and tropical countries from sea level to 3000 m. In cold and cooler temperate areas they usually grow as summer annuals, but in subtropical and tropical areas either during the moister seasons or throughout the year.
S. nigrum agg. thrive under disturbed moist warm fertile conditions with full or partial sunlight, becoming less competitive where soils are drier, cooler and less fertile or where there is heavy shade from taller crops. It is best adapted to fertile soils, especially those high in nitrogen and phosphorus.
Habitat ListTop of page
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Allium cepa (onion)||Liliaceae||Main|
|Ananas comosus (pineapple)||Bromeliaceae||Main|
|Arachis hypogaea (groundnut)||Fabaceae||Main|
|Beta vulgaris (beetroot)||Chenopodiaceae||Main|
|Camellia sinensis (tea)||Theaceae||Main|
|Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)||Solanaceae||Main|
|Chamomilla recutita (common chamomile)||Asteraceae||Main|
|Cicer arietinum (chickpea)||Fabaceae||Main|
|Glycine max (soyabean)||Fabaceae||Main|
|Helianthus annuus (sunflower)||Asteraceae||Main|
|Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato)||Convolvulaceae||Main|
|Musa textilis (manila hemp)||Musaceae||Main|
|Phaseolus lunatus (lima bean)||Fabaceae||Main|
|Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean)||Fabaceae||Main|
|Pisum sativum (pea)||Fabaceae||Main|
|Ricinus communis (castor bean)||Euphorbiaceae||Main|
|Saccharum officinarum (sugarcane)||Poaceae||Main|
|Sesamum indicum (sesame)||Pedaliaceae||Main|
|Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)||Solanaceae||Main|
|Solanum tuberosum (potato)||Solanaceae||Main|
|Sorghum bicolor (sorghum)||Poaceae||Main|
|Triticum aestivum (wheat)||Poaceae||Main|
|Vitis vinifera (grapevine)||Vitaceae||Main|
|Zea mays (maize)||Poaceae||Main|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
Despite the almost global range of S. nigrum agg., little has been written on the biology of this group of weeds. It is likely that scientific literature may only apply to the genotype of the taxon under discussion, due to the considerable genetic variation of the compex, its wide climatic range and apparent phenotypic plasticity.
As many as 178,000 seeds may be produced per year. Seeds germinate best at alternating temperatures of 20-30°C, and there is little initial dormancy (99% of seeds germinate in the spring after collection and stratification). Seeds stored indoors at room temperature retained 27% germination after 2 years, but only 2% and 0% after 8 and 9 years, respectively (Andersen, 1968). In Israel, Givelberg et al. (1984) found a very similar situation, but showed that light improved germination and seed longevity in storage was 2-3 years.
As may be expected, S. nigrum agg. seeds from Europe germinate best in the spring (May–June), cease germination in the autumn (September–October), and remain dormant over the winter (November-March) (Roberts and Lockett, 1978). The same seasonality was observed in local genotypes in New Zealand by Popay et al. (1995). Roberts and Lockett (1978) showed that there was a strict requirement for diurnal temperature fluctuations in their genotype, a view supported by Kazinczi and Hunyadi (1990) who also showed differential germination between seeds from fruits of various colours.
Seeds of the S. nigrum complex appear to be presented for distribution by birds, and Barnea et al. (1990) showed that whereas germination of S. nigrum was unaffected by bird ingestion, that of S. luteum was significantly improved. Seeds in pig manure were killed by heating to 75°C for 3 minutes (Bloemhard et al., 1991).
Sattin et al. (1992) have shown that S. nigrum is a C3 plant.
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page No natural enemies have been recorded for S. nigrum, although it has been shown to be a host for many nematode and virus pests, and the thrip pest Frankliniella occidentalis (Lacasa et al., 1996).
ImpactTop of page
S. nigrum is a serious competitor with the seedling stages of many horticultural and agricultural crops for water, light and nutrients, especially with widely spaced and low-growing horticultural crops such as tomatoes (Burgert et al., 1973, McGiffen et al., 1992) and peppers (Torner et al., 1993), and in nurseries (Gilchrist, 1988).
Seeds of S. nigrum agg. can contaminate similarly-sized crop seeds, for example, those of phlox (Phlox spp.) (Koppenhol, 1986). The purplish juice of the fruits can stain beans during harvest (Burgert et al., 1973).
S. nigrum is an alternate host of the fungus Cercospora albo-marginalis, nematodes (species of Meloidogyne, Rotylenchus reniformis and an unnamed sugarbeet nematode) and of many viral diseases including cucumber mosaic cucumovirus, tobacco mosaic tobamovirus, tomato spotted wilt tospovirus, aster yellows, atropa belladonna mosaic rhabdovirus, beet curly top hybrigeminivirus, cucumber green mottle mosaic tobamovirus, alfalfa mosaic alfamovirus, mosaic, potato A potyvirus, potato leafroll luteovirus, potato T trichovirus, raspberry ringspot nepovirus, tobacco leaf curl bigeminivirus, tobacco ringspot nepovirus, tobacco streak ilarvirus, tobacco yellow dwarf monogeminivirus and potato X potexvirus (Holm et al., 1991).
S. nigrum agg. is a particularly serious weed in mechanically harvested peas, since the (poisonous) green berries which are also harvested are inseparable from the green peas.
The green fruits, and to a lesser extent, the plant itself are toxic to cattle, horses and pigs, as well as humans (Vogel and Gutzwiller, 1993).
S. nigrum has been shown to be highly allelopathic to a number of test plants in bioassays (Souto et al., 1990).
UsesTop of page
Genotypes of the S. nigrum complex with large fruits are sometimes cultivated, the fruit being used in pies, and young shoots are also sometimes eaten as pot herbs (Edmonds and Chweya, 1997; Mabberley, 1997). The taxon is very variable, and edible cultivars could undoubtedly be selected and improved by standard plant breeding methods.
In most parts of the world, particularly in Europe and North America, these species are considered to be troublesome weeds of agriculture, but in many developing countries they constitute a minor food crop, with the shoots and berries not only being used as vegetables and fruits, but also for various medicinal and local uses (Jagatheeswari et al., 2013).
Uses ListTop of page
- Host of pest
- Gene source for disease resistance
Human food and beverage
- Poisonous to mammals
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
S. nigrum is one of a group of similar species (S. nigrum agg.), all of which occur as weeds in similar situations and which sometimes occur together. They are numerous in different parts of the world:
- S. americanum, which has translucent, paler green leaves, glossy immature and mature fruits and is a very widespread weed
- S. luteum, which has yellow berries and occurs in the Middle East
- S. retroflexum, a common weed that is very similar in appearance to S. nigrum, but has shallowly to deeply lobed leaves, paler below than above, and occurs widely as a weed
- S. sarrachoides, which occurs worldwide and can be distinguished by having the greenish fruit enclosed in an enlarged persistent calyx and fine hairs on the stems and leaves
- S. triflorum, another similar weed to S. nigrum, but the flowers are in groups of 1-3 and the mature fruits are marbled white and green (Symon, 1981).
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
Plants should be hand pulled or mechanically controlled before flowering, and for some crops grown in rows this has been shown to be quite effective (Dastghieb et al., 1995).
S. nigrum is susceptible to a wide range of herbicides, including:
- acetochlor (preplanting; Lorenzi, 1986)
- aciflourfen (post-emergence; Lorenzi, 1986)
- ametryn (pre- and post-emergence; Lorenzi, 1986)
- atrazine (pre-emergence; Lorenzi, 1986)
- bromacil (post-emergence; Lorenzi, 1986)
- chlorimuron (pre- and post-emergence; Lorenzi, 1986)
- cycloate (pre-plant; Burgert et al., 1973)
- cyanazine (pre-emergence; Lorenzi, 1986; Dastghieb et al., 1995)
- dicamba (post-emergence; Lorenzi, 1986)
- diuron (presowing; Ivens, 1968)
- 2,4-D (seedlings only; Ivens, 1968)
- EPTC (pre-plant; Burgert et al., 1973)
-ethofumesate (post-emergence; Bouverat-Bernier and Gallotte, 1989)
- imazaquin (seedlings; Lorenzi, 1986)
- ioxynil (seedlings; Lorenzi, 1986)
- lactofen (seedlings; Lorenzi, 1986)
- linuron (pre-emergence; Lorenzi, 1986)
- MCPA (seedlings only; Ivens, 1968)
- metobromuron (pre-emergence; Laureti, 1988)
- metribuzin (pre-emergence; Dastghieb et al., 1995)
- paraquat (post-emergence; Ivens, 1968)
- prometryne (post-emergence; Bouverat-Bernier and Gallotte, 1989)
- simazine (pre-sowing; Ivens, 1968; nurseries; Gilchrist, 1988)
- terbacil (seedlings; Lorenzi, 1986)
- terbuthylazine (pre-emergence; Dastghieb et al., 1995)
- trifluralin (pre-sowing; Bouverat-Bernier and Gallotte, 1989)
Hamilton (1997) lists 25 herbicides registered for use against S. nigrum in Australia.
The bacterial-based herbicide pyrithiobac sodium has also been shown to be effective against S. nigrum at the 2-3 leaf stage in cotton by Vargas et al. (1996).
Resistance to regularly-applied herbicides has developed in Solanum nigrum agg. in many locations worldwide, including:
-in China to atrazine (Zhu et al., 1986)
- in Malaysia to paraquat (Itoh et al., 1992)
- in Spain to triazines (Prado et al., 1993)
- in Denmark to atrazine (Andreason and Jensen, 1994)
- in South-East Asia to paraquat (Itoh and Ito, 1994)
- in Poland to triazine herbicides (Ciarka and Gawronski, 1996)
ReferencesTop of page
Afolayan, A. J., Bvenura, C., 2016. Proximate and phytate accumulation in Solanum nigrum L. cultivated on fertilizer-amended soils., Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis, 47(11):1398-1416 http://www.tandfonline.com/loi/lcss20
Andersen R, 1968. Germination and Establishment of Weeds for Experimental Purposes. Illinois, USA: Weed Science Society of America.
Anon., 1992. Important crops of the world and their weeds, 2nd ed. Leverkusen, Germany: Bayer.
Aranha C, Bacchi O, Filho H de FL, 1982. Plantas Invasoras de Culturas. Vol. 2. Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil: Instituto Campineiro de Ensino Agricola.
Backer CA, 1973. Atlas of 220 weeds of sugar-cane fields in Java. In: van Steenis CGGJ, ed. Handbook for the cultivation of sugar-cane and manufacturing of cane sugar in Java. Vol. 7: Atlas (final instalment). Pasuruan, Indonesia: Indonesian Sugar Experiment Station.
Burgert KL, Burnside OC, Fenster CR, 1973. Black nightshade leaves its mark. Quarterly Serving Farm, Ranch & Home, University of Nebraska, 20(3):8-10.
Dastghieb F, Plew JN, Hill GD, Popay AJ, 1995. Chemical weed control in chickpeas. Proceedings of the 48th New Zealand Plant Protection Conference. Rotorua, New Zealand Plant Protection Society, 186-188.
Edmonds JM, Chweya JA, 1997. Black nightshades: Solanum nigrum L. and related species. Black nightshades: ^italic~Solanum nigrum^roman~ L. and related species., 113 pp.; [^italic~Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops No. 15^roman~]; 9 pp. of ref.
Fortuin, F. T. J. M., Omta, S. W. P., 1980. Growth analysis and shade experiment with Solanum nigrum L., the black nightshade, a leaf and fruit vegetable in West Java., Netherlands Journal of Agricultural Science, 28(4):199-210
Gharabadiyan F, Jamali S, Yazdi AA, Hadizadeh MH, Eskandari A, 2012. Weed hosts of root-knot nematodes in tomato fields. Journal of Plant Protection Research, 52(2):230-234. http://versita.metapress.com/link.asp?target=contribution&id=428087616X360N23
Hamilton K, 1997. PESKEM - USES - PESTS: The Australian Directory of Registered Pesticides and their Uses. 15th edition. Gatton, Queensland, Australia: University of Queensland.
Hassawy GS, Tammimi SA, Al-Lizzi H, 1968. Weeds in Iraq. Baghdad, Iraq: College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad.
Hnatiuk RJ, 1990. Census of Australian Vascular Plants. Australian Flora and Fauna Series Number 11. Canberra, Australia: Australian Government Publishing Service.
Holm LG, Doll J, Holm E, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, 1997. World Weeds: Natural Histories and Distribution. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Ivens GW, 1968. East African Weeds and their Control. Nairobi, Kenya: Oxford University Press.
Jagatheeswari, D., Bharathi, T., Ali, H. S. J., 2013. Black night shade (Solanum nigrum L.) - an updated overview., International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Archives, 4(2):288-295 http://www.ijpba.info/ijpba/index.php/ijpba/article/view/1038/720
Lacasa A, Contreras J, Sanchez JA, Lorca M, Garcia F, 1996. Ecology and natural enemies of Frankliniella occidentalis (Pergande, 1895) in south-east Spain. In: Jenser G, Adam L, eds. Proceedings of the Fifth International Symposium on Thysanoptera. Folia Entomologica Hungarica, 62 (Suppl.):67-74.
Lorenzi H, 1986. Manual de Identifacacao e Controle de Plantas Daninhas. 2nd edition. Nova Odessa, Sao Paulo, Brazil: H Lorenzi.
Mabberley DJ, 1997. The Plant Book: A Portable Dictionary of the Vascular Plants. 2nd edition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
MacKee HS, 1985. Les Plantes Introduites et Cultivees en Nouvelle-Caledonie. Volume hors series, Flore de la Nouvelle-Caledonie et Dependances. Paris, France: Museum Nationelle d'Histoire Naturelle.
Reisinger P, 1996. Weed flora and weed elimination in field-grown pepper. Novenyvedelem, 32:307-308.
Sattin M, Ragazzi F, Peressotti A, 1992. Effect of shading on growth and photosynthesis in two weeds: Amaranthus cruentus and Solanum nigrum. Proceedings, second congress of the European Society for Agronomy, Warwick University, UK, 23-28 August 1992 [edited by Scaife, A.] Wellesbourne, UK; European Society of Agronomy, 204-205
Symon DE, 1981. A revision of the genus Solanum in Australia. J. Adelaide Bot. Gard., 4:1-367.
Torner C, Gonzalez-Andujar JL, 1993. 'Area of influence' of 'black nightshade' (Solanum nigrum L.) in transplanted peppers (Capsicum annuum L.). Proceedings of the 1993 Congress of the Spanish Weed Science Society, Lugo, Spain, 1-3 December 1993 Madrid, Spain; Sociedad Espanola de Malherbologia (Spanish Weed Science Society), 295-298
USDA, 1970. Selected Weeds of the United States. Agriculture Handbook No. 366. Washington DC, USA: United States Department of Agriculture, 324-325.
Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp.
Wells MJ, Balsinhas AA, Joffe H, Engelbrecht VM, Harding G, Stirton CH, 1986. A catalogue of problem plants in South Africa. Memoirs of the botanical survey of South Africa No 53. Pretoria, South Africa: Botanical Research Institute.
Aranha C, Bacchi O, Filho H de FL, 1982. (Plantas Invasoras de Culturas)., 2 Campinas, Sao Paulo, Brazil: Instituto Campineiro de Ensino Agricola.
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Chaudhary S A, Zawawi M A, 1983. A manual of weeds of central and eastern Saudi Arabia. In: A manual of weeds of central and eastern Saudi Arabia. Riyadh, Saudi Arabia: Ministry of Agriculture and Water. 326pp.
Gharabadiyan F, Jamali S, Yazdi A A, Hadizadeh M H, Eskandari A, 2012. Weed hosts of root-knot nematodes in tomato fields. Journal of Plant Protection Research. 52 (2), 230-234. http://versita.metapress.com/link.asp?target=contribution&id=428087616X360N23 DOI:10.2478/v10045-012-0036-1
USDA, 1970. Selected Weeds of the United States. In: Agriculture Handbook No. 366, Washington DC, USA: United States Department of Agriculture. 324-325.
Wells M J, Balsinhas A A, Joffe H, Engelbrecht V M, Harding G, Stirton C H, 1986. A catalogue of problem plants in southern Africa incorporating the national weed list of South Africa. Memoirs, Botanical Survey of South Africa. v + 658pp.
Distribution MapsTop of page
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