Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Sminthurus viridis
(lucerne flea)

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Datasheet

Sminthurus viridis (lucerne flea)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Sminthurus viridis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • lucerne flea
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Sminthurus viridis (lucerne flea); adult on plant stem.
TitleAdult
CaptionSminthurus viridis (lucerne flea); adult on plant stem.
Copyright©Gilles San Martin/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.0
Sminthurus viridis (lucerne flea); adult on plant stem.
AdultSminthurus viridis (lucerne flea); adult on plant stem.©Gilles San Martin/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 2.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Sminthurus viridis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Preferred Common Name

  • lucerne flea

Other Scientific Names

  • Arrhopalites adelaidica Womersley, 1933
  • Podura viridis (Linnaeus, 1758)
  • Smynthurus viridis

International Common Names

  • English: clover springtail; lucerne earth flea; South Australian lucerne flea
  • Spanish: colembolo (Argentina); pulguilla de la alfalfa
  • French: collembole sminthure vert

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: springhale
  • Germany: Floh, Luzern-; Kugelspringer-Art
  • Israel: hakfatznav hayarok
  • Japan: ki-maru-tobimusi

EPPO code

  • SMINVI (Sminthurus viridis)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Collembola
  •                         Family: Sminthuridae
  •                             Genus: Sminthurus
  •                                 Species: Sminthurus viridis

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentHandschin (1926)
EgyptPresentLAWRENCE (1966); Harakly and Assem (1978)
LibyaPresentGisin (1957); Gentry (1965)
MoroccoPresentLAWRENCE (1966)
South AfricaPresentLAWRENCE (1966); Walters (1968); Annecke and Moran (1982)
TunisiaPresentHANNOTHIAUX (1964); Salmon (1964); CABI (Undated)

Asia

ChinaPresentTsutiyama (1953); Yang et al. (1992)
IndiaPresentSalmon (1964)
-MaharashtraPresentVaidya et al. (1991)
IranPresentFarahbakhsh (1961); Gentry (1965)
IraqPresentBrown (1926); Gentry (1965)
IsraelPresentAVIDOV and HARPAZ (1969)
JapanPresentUchida (1965)
North KoreaPresentYosii and Lee (1963)
PakistanPresentASHRAF (1965)

Europe

AlbaniaPresentStach (1956)
AustriaPresentStach (1956)
BelgiumPresentMarlier (1942)
BulgariaPresentMaclagan (1932)
CzechoslovakiaPresentNosek (1962)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentStach (1956)
DenmarkPresentPetersen (1965); Steenberg et al. (1996)
FinlandPresentVAPPULA (1965)
FrancePresentLAWRENCE (1966); DIVOUX and BROUSSE (1967)
GermanyPresentHandschin (1929)
GreecePresentHandschin (1942)
HungaryPresentStach (1956)
IcelandPresentBödvarsson (1957)
IrelandPresentLAWRENCE (1966); Curry and Cunningham (1978)
ItalyPresentDELLA BEFFA (1961)
-SardiniaPresentParona (1888)
LatviaPresentSalmon (1964)
LithuaniaPresentStach (1956)
MaltaPresentStach (1967)
NetherlandsPresentBuitendijk (1930); HILLE RIS LAMBERS (1932)
NorwayPresentLie-Pettersen (1906)
PolandPresentStach (1956)
PortugalPresentda Gama (1961); Salmon (1964)
RomaniaPresentIonescu (1920)
RussiaPresentUchida (1965)
-Russia (Europe)PresentBei-Bienko (1964)
SpainPresentGimeno and Perdiguer (1995)
SwedenPresentLAWRENCE (1966)
SwitzerlandPresentGisin (1948)
UkrainePresentStach (1956)
United KingdomPresentLAWRENCE (1966); Alvarez et al. (2000)
-Northern IrelandPresentMowat and Shakeel (1988); Mowat and Shakeel (1989)

North America

CanadaPresentSalmon (1964)
United StatesPresentSalmon (1964)
-AlaskaPresentSalmon (1964)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresentWALLACE and MAHON (1971)
-South AustraliaPresentWALLACE and MAHON (1971)
-TasmaniaPresentIreson and Webb (1995); Ireson and Webb (1996)
-VictoriaPresentWALLACE and MAHON (1971)
-Western AustraliaPresentWALLACE and MAHON (1971); CABI (Undated)
New ZealandPresentDumbleton (1938); Pearson and Goldson (1980)

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Growth Stages

Top of page Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / frass visible
Whole plant / external feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bdellodes lapidaria Predator Adults Australia; South Africa; Tasmania
Heterorhabditis heliothidis Parasite
Metarhizium anisopliae Pathogen
Neomolgus capillatus Predator Adults Australia; South Africa; Western Australia; Tasmania
Steinernema feltiae Parasite

References

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Addison PJ; Firth AC; Cliffe A, 1992. The effects of diflubenzuron on lucerne flea.In: Popay AJ, ed. Proceedings of the Forty Fifth New Zealand Plant Protection Conference, Wellington, New Zealand, 11-13 August, 1992. Rotorua, New Zealand; New Zealand Plant Protection Society, 197-200

Alvarez T; Frampton GK; Goulson D, 2000. The role of hedgerows in the recolonisation of arable fields by epigeal Collembola. In: Pedobiologia, 44(3/4) [ed. by Gaju, M.\Molero, R.\Bach, C.]. 516-526.

Annecke DP; Moran VC, 1982. Insects and mites of cultivated plants in South Africa. Durban, South Africa: Butterworths.

Ashraf M, 1965. Occurrence of Sminthurus viridis Linn. in West Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Science, 17(5-6):216.

Avidov Z; Harpaz I, 1969. Plant pests of Israel. Jerusalem, Israel: Israel Universities Press.

Bei-Bienko GY, 1964. Keys to the insects of the European parts of the USSR. Jerusalem, Israel: Israel Program for Scientific Translations Ltd., 1(84):98.

Blpser-Diekmann M, 1982. Survey on pests and diseases of faba beans (Vicia faba) in Egypt, Morocco and Tunisia. Fabis Newsletter, No. 4:44-45

Brown JM, 1926. On some Collembola from Mesopotamia. Journal of the Linnean Society of London (Zoology), 36(242):201-218.

Buitendijk AM, 1930. Naamlijst van Nederlansche Collembola. Zoologische Mededelingen, 13:53-75.

Bödvarsson H, 1957. Apterygota &c. In: Fridriksson A, Tuxen SL, eds. Zoology of Iceland, Eighth edition, 3(37):1-86.

Christiansen K; Bellinger P, 1992. The Collembola of North America north of the Rio Grande. A taxonomic analysis. Part 4. Families Neelidae and Sminthuridae.

Cooper BM, 1994. Screening a range of white clover and two red clover lines for relative tolerance to clover flea. Proceedings of the Forty Seventh New Zealand Plant Protection Conference, Waitangi Hotel, New Zealand, 9-11 August, 1994 [edited by Popay, A. J.] Rotorua, New Zealand; New Zealand Plant Protection Society, 287-288

Curry JP; Cunningham C, 1978. A comparison of the epigeal arthropod fauna of old pasture and new leys of various floral types. Scientific Proceedings of the Royal Dublin Society, A, 6:305-316

da Gama MM, 1961. New contribution to the study of Collembola of continental Portugal. Memorias e Estudos do Museo Zoologico da Universidade de Coimbra, 269:1-39.

Davidson J, 1933. The distribution of Sminthurus viridis L. (Collembola) in South Australia, based on rainfall, evaporation and temperature. Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science, 11:59-66.

Davidson J, 1933. The environmental factors affecting the development of the eggs of Sminthurus viridis L. (Collembola). Australian Journal of Experimental Biology and Medical Science, 11:9-23.

Davidson J, 1934. The 'Lucerne Flea' Sminthurus viridis L. (Collembola) in Australia. Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Melbourne, 79:1-66.

Davies WM, 1928. On the economic status and bionomics of Sminthurus viridis, Lubb. (Collembola). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 18:291-296.

Della Beffa G, 1961. Insects Harmful to Agriculture and Modern Methods and Means of Control. 3rd edition. Gli insetti dannosi allnagricoltura ed i moderni metodi e mezzi di lotta. Milan, Italy: V. Hoepli.

Divoux R; Brousse P, 1967. The enemies of peas for canning in the north of France. Phytoma, 19(187):35-40.

Dumbleton LJ, 1938. The lucerne flea (Smynthurus viridis) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Science and Technology, 20(4):197A-211A.

Dürkop H, 1934. Does Sminthurus viridis eat the eggs of the beet fly? Anziger für SchSdlingskunde, 10(8):95-97.

Edwards CA; Heath GW, 1964. The Principles of Agricultural Entomology. London, UK: Chapman & Hall Ltd.

Farahbakhsh G, 1961. A Checklist of Economically Important Insects and other Enemies of Plants and Agricultural Products in Iran. Tehran, Iran: Department of Plant Protection, Ministry of Agriculture.

Fjellberg A, 1980. Identification keys to Norwegian Collembola. Identification keys to Norwegian Collembola. As, Norway: Norwegian Entomological Society, 152 pp.

Froggatt WW, 1907. Australian Insects. Sydney, Australia: William Brooks & Co. Ltd.

Gentry JW, 1965. Crop Insects of northeast Africa-southwest Asia. Agriculture Handbook No. 273. USA: Agricultural Research Service, United States Department of Agriculture.

Gimeno F; Perdiguer A, 1995. Comparison of groups of chemical insecticides against pests which affect the production of forage lucerne. Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 21(1):29-41.

Gisin H, 1948. Ecological studies of the epigeous Collembola. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 21(4):485-515.

Gisin H, 1957. On the European fauna of Collembola. I. Revue Suisse de Zoologie, 64(25):475-496.

Grassé PP, 1929. The Insects of Lucerne. Prog. Agric. Vitic., 91(10/14):235-236, 335-340.

Greenslade P; Ireson JE, 1986. Collembola of the southern Australian culture steppe and urban environments: a review of their pest status and key to identification. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society, 25(4):273-291

Grimm M; Michael P; Hyder M; Doyle P, 1995. Effects of pasture pest damage and grazing management on efficiency of animal production. Plant Protection Quarterly, 10(2):62-64

Handschin E, 1926. Collembola of Algeria. Neue BeitrSge zur Systematischen Insektenkunde, 3:117-126.

Handschin E, 1929. Primitive Insects Apterygota (Protura, Collembola, Diplura and Thysanura). Tierwelt Deutschlands und der Angrenzenden Meersteile, 16:1-150.

Handschin E, 1942. Collembola of Palestine, including a contribution to the revision of the genus Cyphoderus. Revue Suisse de Zoologie, 49(22):401-450.

Hannothiaux M, 1964. On the presence of sminthurids injurious to lucerne in Tunisia. Bulletin de l'Ecole.natn.sup. Agric. Tunis., 5:39-41.

Harakly FA; Assem MAH, 1978. Ecological studies on the truely pests of leguminous plants in Egypt. I. Biting and chewing pests. Proceedings of the Fourth Conference of Pest Control, September 30 - October 3, 1978. (Part I). Cairo, Egypt: Academy of Scientific Research and Technology and National Research Centre, 233-236.

Hille Ris Lambers D, 1932. Data on the biology and control of the beet fly. II. Mededelinger Instituut voor Suikerbietenteelt, 2(4):163-214.

Holdaway FG, 1927. The bionomics of Smynthurus viridis, Linn., or the South Australian Lucerne Flea. Commonwealth Australia, Council of Science and Industrial Research, Pamphlet No. 4:1-23.

Houston WWK, 1994. Zoological Catalogue of Australia. Volume 22 Protura, Collembola, Diplura. Melbourne, Australia: CSIRO.

Ionescu CN, 1920. Analele Academiei Romane, 38: 30.

Ireson JE, 1982. A re-examination of the distribution of the pasture snout mite, Bdellodes lapidaria (Kramer) (Acari: Bdellidae) and the lucerne flea, Sminthurus viridis (L.) (Collembola: Sminthuridae) in Tasmania. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society, 21(4):251-255

Ireson JE, 1993. Activity and pest status of surface-active Collembola in Tasmanian field crops and pastures. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society, 32(2):155-167

Ireson JE; Miller LA, 1983. Susceptibility of the collembolan Sminthurus viridis to the insect parasitic nematodes Neoaplectana bibionis and Heterorhabditis heliothidis. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 34(3):342-343

Ireson JE; Paterson SC, 1991. Progress on the biological control of Lucerne flea (Sminthurus viridis (L.) with the spiny snout mite (Neomolgus capillatus (Kramer)) in Tasmania. In: Proceedings of the National Workshop on the Redlegged Earth Mite. Perth, Australia: Department of Agriculture, 98-103.

Ireson JE; Webb WR, 1995. Effectiveness of Neomolgus capillatus (Kramer) (Acarina: Bdellidae) as a predator of Sminthurus viridis (L.) (Collembola: Sminthuridae) in northwestern Tasmania. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society, 34(3):237-240; 11 ref.

Ireson JE; Webb WR, 1996. Redistribution and establishment of Neomolgus capillatus (Kramer) (Acarina: Bdellidae) for the biological control of Sminthurus viridis (L.) (Collembola: Sminthuridae) in Tasmania. Australian Journal of Entomology, 35(3):243-246; 10 ref.

Lawrence PN, 1966. A redescription of Sminthurus viridis (Collembola, Insecta)[based on Swedish material and including a new record from Egypt] with notes on related species. Revue d'Ecologie et de Biologie du Sol, 3(3):511-521.

Lea AM, 1920. Lucerne flea. Journal of the Department of Agriculture South Australia, 23(6):502.

Lie-Pettersen OJ, 1906. To the knowledge of the Apterygoten fauna of northern Norway. Tromso Museums Aarshafter, 27(1904):51-76.

Linnaeus C, 1758. Systema Naturae per regna tria naturae, secundum classes, ordines, genera, species, cum characteribus, differentiis, synonymis, locis. Editio decima, reformata. Holmiae: Laurentii Salvii Tom.

Linnaniemi WM, 1912. The Apterygoten fauna of Finland. II. Spezieller Teil. Acta Societatis Fennicae, 40:1-359.

Lubbock J, 1873. Monograph of the Collembola and Thysanura. London, UK: Ray Society.

MacLagan DS, 1932. An ecological study of the "lucerne flea" (Smynthurus viridis, Linn.). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 23(1-2):101-145, 151-190.

MacQuillan MJ, 1975. Evaluation of chlorpyrifos and fenchlorphos for control of major insect pests of pastures in Australia. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, 15(75):550-555

Marlier GJ, 1942. Notes on the Collembola, 1. The Collembola fauna of Belgium. Bulletin du Musée Royal d'Histoire Naturelle de Belgique, 18(8):1-11.

Mayne R; Van den Bruel W, 1933. Report and research on the beetroot fly (Pegomyia hyoscyami Panz.). Bulletin de l'Institut Agronomique et des Stations de Recherches de Gembloux, 2(2-3):177-214, 273-309.

Michael P, 1995. Biological control of redlegged earth mite and lucerne flea by the predators Anystis wallacei and Neomulgus capillatus. Plant Protection Quarterly, 10(2):55-57

Michpl PJ; Ramsey D; Boyd CJ, 1984. A case of agricultural practice versus pest management. In: Bailey P, Swincer O, eds. Proceedings of the Fourth Australian Applied Entomological Research Conference, Adelaide 24-28 September 1984. Pest control: recent advances and future prospects. Adelaide, Australia; South Australian Government Printer, 48-55.

Michpl PJ; Woods WM; Richards KT; Sandow JD, 1982. Lupins and insects. Journal of Agriculture, Western Australia, 23(3):83-85

Mitchell GJ, 1992. Trifolium subterraneum L. var. yanninicum (Katz. et Morley) Zohary & Heller (subterranean clover) cv. Gosse. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 32(4):545-546; 6 ref.

Mowat DJ; Shakeel MA, 1988. The effect of some invertebrate species on the growth of white clover (Trifolium repens L.) in the laboratory. Grass and Forage Science, 43(4):405-409.

Mowat DJ; Shakeel MA, 1989. The effect of some invertebrate species on persistence of white clover in ryegrass swards. Grass and Forage Science, 44(2):117-124.

Nayrolles P, 1995. A standardised description of European Sminthuridae (Collembola, Symphypleona). 3. Description of seven species of Sminthurus, including four new to science. Bijdragen tot de Dierkunde, 64:215-237.

Nosek J, 1962. The Apterygotes from Czechoslovakian soils. IV. Collembola: Sminthuridae. Zoologické Listy, 11(25):335-354.

Oram RN, 1980. Register of Australian herbage plant cultivars. B. Legumes 19. Sainfoin. a. Onobrychis viciifolia Scop. cv. Othello (Reg. No. B-19a-1). Journal of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science, 46(4):260-262

Oram RN, 1980. Register of Australian herbage plant cultivars. B. Legumes 9. Annual medics. c. Medicago rugosa (gama medic) cv. Sapo (Reg. No. B-9c-3). Journal of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science, 46(4):256-257

Oram RN, 1980. Register of Australian herbage plant cultivars. B. Legumes 9. Annual medics. f. Medicago scutellata (L.) Mill. (snail medic) cv. Sair (Reg. No. B-9f-2). Journal of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science, 46(4):258-259

Oram RN, 1980. Register of Australian herbage plant cultivars. B. Legumes 9. Annual medics. f. Medicago scutellata (L.) Mill. (snail medic) cv. Sava (Reg. No. B-9f-3). Journal of the Australian Institute of Agricultural Science, 46(4):259-260

Parona C, 1888. Note on Collembola and Thysanura. III e IV (1). IV. New species of Smynthuris collected in Sardinia. Annali del Museo Civico di Storia Naturale di Genova, 26:78-86.

Pearson JF; Goldson SL, 1980. A preliminary examination of pests of fodder beet in Canterbury. In: Hartley MJ, ed. Proceedings of the thirty-third New Zealand weed and pest control conference. Willow Park Motor Hotel, Tauranga, August 12th to 14th, 1980. New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Society Inc. Palmerston North New Zealand, 211-214

Petersen H, 1965. Collembola of Hansted reserve, North Jutland. (With a description of a new species and subgenus and a record of a single species of Protura.). Entomologiske Meddelelser, 30(4):313-395.

Petersen H, 1971. Collembolernes ernaeringsbiologi og dennes okologiske beytdning. Entomologiske Meddelelser, 39:97-118.

Pittman HA, 1930. An outbreak of "Downy Mildew" (so-called "Blue Mould") of tobacco in Western Australia. Journal of the Department of Agriculture of Western Australia, 7(3):469-476.

Pottinger RP; Wrenn NR; McGhie RA, 1985. Timing treatments for control of lucerne flea (Sminthurus viridis) in northern North Island pastures. In: Chapman RB, ed. Proceedings of the 4th Australasian Conference on Grassland Invertebrate Ecology, held at Lincoln College, University College of Agriculture, Canterbury, New Zealand, 13-17 May, 1985. Christchurch, New Zealand; Caxton Press, 133-140

Rath AC, 1991. Pathogens for the biological control of mite and Collembolan pests. Plant Protection Quarterly, 6(4):172-174

Rusek J, 1971. Second contribution to the knowledge of Collembola of China. Acta Entomologica Bohemoslovaca, 68(2):108-137.

Salmon JT, 1964. An index to the Collembola. Bulletin. Royal Society of New Zealand, 7:145-644.

Shaw MW; Haughs GM, 1983. Damage to potato foliage by Sminthurus viridis (L.). Plant Pathology, 32(4):465-466

Slater PD; Lewington D; Pratley JE, 1996. An investigation into the effects of redlegged earth mite (Halotydeus destructor Tucker) and lucerne flea (Sminthurus viridis (Linnaeus)) on the performance of subterranean clover in annual pasture in southern New South Wales. Plant Protection Quarterly, 11(1):6-8; 10 ref.

Spafford WJ, 1921. Lucerne flea. Journal of Agriculture of South Australia, 24(11):893.

Stach J, 1956. The Apterygotan fauna of Poland in relation to the world fauna of this group of insects. Families Neogastruridae and Brachystomellidae. Acta Monographica. Eighth edition. Krakow, Poland: Historiae Naturalis. Polska Akademia Umicjetnósci, 269-272.

Stach J, 1967. Collembola fauna of Malta. Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia, 12(15):393-418.

Steenberg T; Eilenberg J; Bresciani J, 1996. First record of a Neozygites species (Zygomycetes: Entomophthorales) infecting springtails (Insecta: Collembola). Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 68(2):97-100; 21 ref.

Szeptycki A, 1967. Fauna of the springtails (Collembola) of the Ojców National Park in Poland. Acta Zoologica Cracoviensia, 12(10):219-280.

Townsend RJ; Pottinger RP; Rowe SJ, 1979. Evaluation of alternative insecticides for lucerne flea on pasture. In: Hartley MJ, ed. Proceedings of the thirty-second New Zealand weed and pest control conference. Southern Cross Hotel, Dunedin August 7th to 9th, 1979. New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Society Inc. Palmerston North New Zealand, 68-71

Tsutiyama T, 1953. A catalogue of the agricultural and orchard pests in northeast China. Acta Entomologica Sinica, 3:435-502.

Tucker GR; Collingwood P; Hildebrand O; McCormack W, 1995. The use of synthetic acaricides as tools for management of redlegged earth mite in crop and pasture systems in southern Australia. Plant Protection Quarterly, 10(2):60-61

Uchida H, 1940. Some Japanese cavernicolous springtails. Bulletin of the Tokyo Science Museum, 3:1-10.

Uchida H, 1965. On some Collembola from the Southern Kuriles. Kontyû, 33(2):207-210.

Vaidya JG; Joshi PV; Pahade PM, 1991. A study of mycetocolous insect fauna on wood rotting fungi of Karnala, Raigad District, Maharashtra. Biovigyanam, 17(2):98-104

Vappula NA, 1965. Pests of cultivated plants in Finland. Acta Entomologica Fennica, 19:1-239.

Wallace MMH, 1973. The taxonomy and distribution of Sminthurus viridis and related species (Collembola: Sminthuridae) in Western Europe and Morocco. Revue d'Ecologie et de Biologie du Sol, 10(2):211-224.

Wallace MMH, 1974. An attempt to extend the biological control of Sminthurus viridis (Collembola) to new areas in Australia by introducing a predatory mite, Neomolgus capillatus (Bdellidae). Australian Journal of Zoology, 22(4):519-529

Wallace MMH, 1981. Tackling the lucerne flea and red-legged earth mite. Journal of Agriculture, Western Australia, 22(2):72-74

Wallace MMH; Mahon JA, 1971. The ecology of Sminthurus viridis (Collembola) III. The influence of climate and land use on its distribution and that of an important predator, Bdellodes lapidaria (Acari: Bdellidae). Australian Journal of Zoology, 19(2):177-188.

Wallace MMH; Walters MC, 1974. The introduction of Bdellodes lapidaria (Acari: Bdellidae) from Australia into South Africa for the biological control of Sminthurus viridis (Collembola). Australian Journal of Zoology, 22(4):505-517

Walters MC, 1968. A study of Sminthurus viridis (L.)(Collembola) in the Western Cape Province. Entomology Memoirs. Department of Agricultural Technical Services. Republic of South Africa, 16:1-99.

Wiles JA; Frampton GK, 1996. A field bioassay approach to assess the toxicity of insecticide residues on soil to Collembola. Pesticide Science, 47(3):273-285; 56 ref.

Wrenn NR; McGhie RA, 1986. An evaluation of the insect growth regulators diflubenzuron and teflubenzuron for control of lucerne flea (Sminthurus viridis). Proceedings of the Thirty-Ninth New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Conference. Quality Inn, Palmerston North, August 12th to 14th, 1986. Palmerston North, New Zealand: New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Society, 27-32.

Wrenn NR; McGhie RA; Pottinger RP, 1984. Control of lucerne flea with insecticide granules. In: Hartley MJ, Popay AJ, Popay AI, eds. Proceedings of the Thirty-Seventh New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Conference. Russley Hotel, Christchurch, August 14th to 16th, 1984. Hastings, New Zealand; New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Society, 86-90.

Wrenn NR; Pottinger RP; McGhie RA, 1984. Spray application techniques for lucerne flea control in pastures. In: Hartley MJ, Popay AJ, Popay AI, eds. Proceedings of the Thirty-Seventh New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Conference. Russley Hotel, Christchurch, August 14th to 16th, 1984. New Zealand: New Zealand Weed and Pest Control Society, 91-95.

Yang YQ; Lu ZJ; Zhao QY, 1992. Preliminary study on the damage caused by Sminthrus vinidis annulatus Folsom [Sminthurus viridis annulatus] to garlic seedlings. Chinese Vegetables, No. 5:7, 36.

Yosii R; Lee CE, 1963. On some Collembola of Korea with notes on the genus Ptenothrix. Contributions from the Biological Laboratory Kyoto University, 15:1-37.

Distribution References

Alvarez T, Frampton G K, Goulson D, 2000. The role of hedgerows in the recolonisation of arable fields by epigeal Collembola. In: Pedobiologia [Proceedings of Vth International Seminar on Apterygota, Cordoba, Spain 1998.], 44 (3/4) [ed. by Gaju M, Molero R, Bach C]. 516-526. DOI:10.1078/S0031-4056(04)70068-2

Annecke D P, Moran V C, 1982. Insects and mites of cultivated plants in South Africa. Durban, South Africa: Butterworth. xiv + 383 pp.

ASHRAF M, 1965. Occurrence of Sminthurus virìdis Linn. in West Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Science. 17 (5-6), 216 p.

AVIDOV Z, HARPAZ I, 1969. Plant pests of Israel. Plant pests of Israel. x+549 pp.

Bei-Bienko GY, 1964. Keys to the insects of the European parts of the USSR., 1 (84) Jerusalem, Israel: Israel Program for Scientific Translations Ltd. 98.

Bödvarsson H, 1957. Apterygota &c. In: Zoology of Iceland, Eighth edition, 3 (37) [ed. by Fridriksson A, Tuxen SL]. 1-86.

Brown J M, 1926. On some Collembola from Mesopotamia. Journal of the Linnean Society: Zoology. 36 (242), 201-218.

Buitendijk A M, 1930. Species list of Dutch Collembola. (Naamlijst van Nederlansche Collembola.). Zoologische Mededelingen. 53-75.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

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