Sirex noctilio (woodwasp)
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Risk of Introduction
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Plant Trade
- Wood Packaging
- Environmental Impact
- Detection and Inspection
- Prevention and Control
- Links to Websites
- Distribution Maps
Don't need the entire report?
Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.Generate report
PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Sirex noctilio Fabricius, 1793
Preferred Common Name
Other Scientific Names
- Paururus noctilio
International Common Names
- English: European woodwasp; horntail; Sirex wasp; steel blue; wood wasp, steel-blue
- Spanish: avispa barrenadora de los pinos; avispa taladradora de la madera
- Portuguese: sirex; vespa-da-madeira
Local Common Names
- Denmark: sortfodet træhveps
- Germany: Holzwespe, Blaue Fichten-
- Norway: sartfottreveps
- Sweden: svartfotad vedstekel
- SIRXNO (Sirex noctilio)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Arthropoda
- Subphylum: Uniramia
- Class: Insecta
- Order: Hymenoptera
- Family: Siricidae
- Genus: Sirex
- Species: Sirex noctilio
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
DescriptionTop of page
The eggs are white, soft, smooth and elongate. They are 1.55 mm long and 0.28 mm wide (Neumann and Minko, 1981).
The larvae are creamy-white, deeply segmented, usually S-shaped and nearly uniform in diameter. The antennae are one-segmented. The thoracic legs are short and the abdomen has a conspicuous dark brown sclerotic spine (Neumann et al., 1987).
The pupae are creamy-white and gradually assume the colour of the adults (Neumann et al., 1987).
The adult male is metallic dark blue, except for abdominal segments three to seven. The front and mid-legs are orange-brown, while the hind legs are thickened and black. The wings are amber and 9.3 to 35 mm long. The antennae have 20 segments and are 6.8 mm long (Neumann et al., 1987).
The adult female is metallic dark blue all over, except for the wings and the legs, which are amber. A sheath protects the ovipositor, which projects 2 to 3 mm beyond the abdomen. The body is 12 to 34 mm long. The antennae have 21 segments and are 7.8 mm long (Neumann et al., 1987).
A prominent spine is present in the final abdominal segment in both sexes.
DistributionTop of page
S. noctilio is a minor pest in its native regions of Europe, Asia and North Africa. It has become the main pest in pine plantations where it has been introduced in countries such as New Zealand (1900), Australia (1951), Uruguay (1980), Argentina (1985), Brazil (1988) and more recently, South Africa (1994) (Rawlings and Wilson, 1949; Gilbert and Miller, 1952; Iede et al., 1988; Rebuffo, 1990; Echeverria, 1991; Tribe, 1995). In Chile, S. noctilio was detected in January 2001 in an area with no commercial plantations of radiata pine (Ciesla, 2003). The pest was subsequently eradicated but was later found in Los Lagos and has now spread to other parts of Chile.
According to Smith (1978), S. noctilio is found in Austria, Azores, Belgium, Cyprus, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Italy, England, Mongolia, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, former Czechoslovakia and former USSR. It is also found in the Canary Islands (Ortega and Baez, 1986), Estonia (Heidemaa et al., 1998) and the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (Grujic, 1979).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Serbia||Present||Native||Original citation: Grujic,1979|
|Serbia and Montenegro||Present|
|-Canary Islands||Present||Original citation: Ortega & Baez, 1986|
|United Kingdom||Present, Widespread|
|-Prince Edward Island||Present|
|United States||Present, Localized|
|-Connecticut||Present, Few occurrences|
|-Michigan||Present, Few occurrences|
|-Ohio||Present, Few occurrences|
|-Vermont||Present, Few occurrences|
|-New South Wales||Present|
|New Zealand||Present, Widespread||Introduced||1900|
|-Rio Grande do Sul||Present, Localized|
|-Santa Catarina||Present, Localized|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
S. noctilio probably entered New Zealand and Australia from Europe via sea ports, in cargo heavily infested with larvae and adults of siricid species (Rawlings and Wilson, 1949; Neumann et al., 1987). In South Africa and South America, it could have been introduced in solid wood packing material (SWPM) (Tribe, 1995; Iede et al., 2000a).
This pest is an A1 quarantine pest for several areas: for example, USA (Kliejunas et al., 2001), Japan and Canada. These countries may require a phytosanitary certificate for pine logs. Infested wood can only be transported outside the infected area once it has been properly treated. The wood used in SWPM must be free from signs of S. noctilio activity, damage or insect specimens.
S. noctilio can naturally spread between 30 and 50 km per year. However, the transportation of wood from attacked areas to plantations where the pest remains undetected, increases the possibility of dispersal. This is probably how S. noctilio was introduced from Uruguay to Brazil. Consequently the monitoring of affected areas and the prohibition of wood transportation from attacked to non-attacked areas are strategies created to avoid pest dispersal.
Habitat ListTop of page
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
Growth StagesTop of page
SymptomsTop of page
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Leaves / abnormal colours|
|Leaves / wilting|
|Leaves / yellowed or dead|
|Stems / dead heart|
|Stems / galls|
|Stems / gummosis or resinosis|
|Stems / internal feeding|
|Stems / mycelium present|
|Stems / rot|
|Whole plant / dead heart|
|Whole plant / discoloration|
|Whole plant / internal feeding|
|Whole plant / plant dead; dieback|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
The woodwasp population is found in the centre and lower half of the upper third of the stem (Penteado et al., 1998). The pattern of adult emergence varies considerably under different climatic conditions. In Australia, the adults emerge between early summer (December) and early autumn (April), with a peak emergence in February (Neumann and Minko, 1981; Neumann et al., 1987); and from mid-spring (October) to early autumn (April) in Brazil. The emergence is followed by attacks on trees and in Brazil the peak emergence occurs between November and December (Carvalho et al., 1993; Iede et al., 1998).
The adult longevity varies from 5 to 12 days for the males and from 4 to 5 days for the females in the summer (Neumann et al., 1987; Iede et al., 1988; Carvalho et al., 1993) and 14 days for both sexes in the autumn (Neumann et al., 1987).
The different volatiles produced by the phloem and cambium tissues of the stems and large branches of living trees are important in attracting S. noctilio. In its native regions, S. noctilio normally develops in trees that have been damaged or have died due to biotic and abiotic factors, such as fire, wind, other insects, diseases, snowstorms, mechanical operations (pruning), drought or nutritional stress. In a review of major outbreaks in Australasia, Madden (1988) found that most pest outbreaks were characterized by managerial or environmental events (e.g. fire, wind damage, and thinning and harvest operations during the flight season of S. noctilio). The outbreaks are only limited by an absence of suitable host material.
After the initial flight period, the females penetrate the tree trunks with their ovipositors and lay their eggs in the sapwood. The eggs that are laid by unmated females hatch to produce males and the eggs from mated females produce females and males. The females lay around 210 to 226 eggs, but the largest females lay 300 to 500 eggs (Morgan and Stewart, 1966; Morgan, 1968; Carvalho et al., 1993). During this process, the females introduce arthrospores of the symbiotic fungus, Amylostereum areolatum, along with a mucous secretion that causes toxicity and subsequent death of the trees. This pathogen, which is a source of nutrients for the pest larvae, dries up the wood and makes it rot. The incubation period of the egg is 14-28 days (Morgan and Stewart, 1966; Morgan, 1968).
The larvae that complete their development within 1 year have an average of six to seven instars, whereas those that take 2 years develop in eight instars. In a temperate climate in Tasmania up to twelve instars have been observed, suggesting that larval development is correlated to the ambient temperature (Taylor, 1981). The larvae construct large galleries that are 5 to 26 cm long. The wood quality is also affected by the larvae building galleries and by the entrance of secondary agents that facilitate damage to the wood. This limits its use or decreases its market value. Once the tree is dead, the wood is degraded quickly and must be used within 6 months after the attack (Iede et al., 1993, 1998).
The pupal stage takes around 3 to 5 weeks in Australia and 10 to 20 days in Brazil (Morgan and Stewart, 1966; Carvalho et al., 1993).
The plantations that are most susceptible to S. noctilio attack are generally 10 to 25 years old and under stress. Those stands that are not subjected to thinning are more susceptible than thinned ones.
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
|Certonotus nitidulus||Parasite||Australia; Victoria; Tasmania||Pinus|
|Deladenus siricidicola||Parasite||Adults; Arthropods|Larvae; Arthropods|Pupae|
|Ibalia leucospoides||Parasite||Australia; New Zealand; Tasmania; Victoria||Pinopsida; Pinus radiata|
|Ibalia leucospoides ensiger||Parasite||Eggs; Arthropods|Larvae||New Zealand; Tasmania||Pinopsida; Pinus radiata|
|Ibalia leucospoides leucospoides||Parasite||Eggs; Arthropods|Larvae|
|Ibalia rufipes drewseni||Parasite||Eggs; Arthropods|Larvae||Australia; Tasmania||Pinus radiata|
|Ibalia rufipes rufipes||Parasite||Eggs; Arthropods|Larvae|
|Megarhyssa nortoni||Parasite||Australia; New Zealand; South Australia; Tasmania; Victoria||Pinopsida|
|Megarhyssa nortoni nortoni||Parasite||Arthropods|Larvae||New Zealand; Tasmania||Pinus radiata|
|Megarhyssa nortoni quebecensis||Parasite||Arthropods|Larvae||Tasmania||Pinopsida|
|Rhyssa persuasoria||Parasite||Australia; Tasmania||Pinus radiata|
|Rhyssa persuasoria himalayensis||Parasite||Arthropods|Larvae||New Zealand; Tasmania||Pinopsida|
|Rhyssa persuasoria persuasoria||Parasite||Arthropods|Larvae|
|Schlettererius cinctipes||Parasite||Arthropods|Larvae||Australia; Tasmania||Pinus radiata|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
Biological control was pioneered in Australia: extensive exploration in Europe was carried out in 1962-1967 and the first importations of insect parasitoids ensued. The nematode, Deladenus siricidicola [Beddingia siricidicola], was discovered in New Zealand but had been introduced with the pest from Europe, where other strains have since been obtained. The Australian work has recently been reviewed and summarized by Waterhouse and Sands (2001). New Zealand (reviewed in Cameron et al., 1989) and South Africa (reviewed by Tribe, 2003) soon followed the progress made in Australia. It is only recently that introductions have been made in South America and thus the outcome is not yet fully apparent there. These authors show that, although D. siricidicola is the most effective single natural enemy, it does not spread rapidly once established. This is in contrast to the insect parasitoids that are useful in helping to lower pest densities ahead of the arrival of the nematode.
Evidence from different countries showed that D. siricidicola is the most effective biological control agent against S. noctilio (Iede et al., 1998; 2000a). This parasite feeds on the symbiotic fungus, Amylostereum areolatum, in its free-living phase (micetophagous phase) and infects the woodwasp larvae in the parasitic-living phase. The nematode feeds on the fungus, which is inoculated into the trees by S. noctilio. When it finds the S. noctilio larva, it enters into the larval body. The larva then completes its development, but the ensuing adult female S. noctilio is sterile because her eggs are infested with nematodes (Bedding, 1972; Bedding and Akhurst, 1974).
Insect parasites were introduced in some countries but they have not been as effective as the nematode, although they are important in maintaining a natural equilibrium. The egg or early stage larval parasite, Ibalia leucospoides, is a small wasp present in all countries where S. noctilio was introduced and causes a parasitism level of up to 39%, with an average close to 25% (Neumann et al., 1987; Carvalho, 1993; Iede et al., 1993, 1998).
Megarhyssa nortoni and Rhyssa persuasoria were introduced and released in Brazil in 1996, 1997 and 1998, but at the time of writing this datasheet no specimens had been recovered in the field (Iede et al., 2000b). Certonotus tasmaniensis and Guiglia schausislandi are indigenous parasitoids in Australia and New Zealand, respectively, and occasionally infest S. noctilio larvae but not significantly.
The parasitoid complex of Ibalia spp., Rhyssa spp. and Megarhyssa spp. does not cause more than 40% mortality in S. noctilio populations and their activity alone is not sufficient to prevent outbreaks (Haugen and Underdown, 1990b).
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
The adults, pupae, larvae and eggs may be carried on solid wood packing material (SWPM), in logs and in saw timber in the internal, regional or international trade (Haugen and Iede, 2001).
The shipment of logs is a primary pathway for transporting wood borers. Another important pathway is in green, untreated saw timber, especially if this material has large dimensions and the wood does not rapidly dry out. Untreated SWPM has been identified as a high-risk pathway in international trade. Low-quality wood is frequently used for making crates, pallets and other SWPM (Haugen and Iede, 2001). The Quarantine Pest Inspection Services have intercepted siricids in SWPM in several countries.
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Bark||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches||arthropods/adults; arthropods/eggs; arthropods/larvae; arthropods/pupae||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Wood||arthropods/adults; arthropods/eggs; arthropods/larvae; arthropods/pupae||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Fruits (inc. pods)|
|Growing medium accompanying plants|
|True seeds (inc. grain)|
Wood PackagingTop of page
|Wood Packaging liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Timber type||Used as packing|
|Solid wood packing material with bark||Pinus spp., Abies sp., Larix sp., Picea sp., Pseudotsuga sp.||Yes|
|Solid wood packing material without bark||Pinus spp., Abies sp., Larix sp., Picea sp., Pseudotsuga sp.||Yes|
|Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Loose wood packing material|
|Processed or treated wood|
ImpactTop of page
On mainland Australia, the worst outbreak of S. noctilio occurred in Victoria, in a 12- to 15-year-old plantation of 1906 ha between 1932 and 1979. S. noctilio killed 77% of the trees on 25 ha, 63% on 79 ha, 35% on 379 ha and 5% on 701 ha. One area of 388 ha remained undamaged. The total and merchantable volumes of wood were reduced by 50% and 48%, respectively, in the more damaged stands (McKimm and Walls, 1980).
In southeastern South Australia and southwestern Victoria between 1987 and 1989, an outbreak of S. noctilio caused the death of five million trees with a value of AUS $10 to 12 million. It was necessary to inoculate 147,000 trees with the parasitic nematode, Deladenus siricidicola. The inoculation programme cost AUS $1.3 million. An intensive project to salvage S. noctilio-infested trees and to release the parasitoid, Megarhyssa nortoni was also implemented (Haugen, 1990; Haugen and Underdown, 1990a, b).
In Brazil, the average mortality caused by S. noctilio attacks in 17-year-old stands, which had not undergone thinning, was 9.6% in February, 1988; 30% in August, 1988; and 60% in August, 1989 (Iede et al., 1988, 1998). The tunnelling activity of the larvae degrades the wood and if they are left to tunnel for a half to 1 year, then the wood is unfit for trade.
Environmental ImpactTop of page
Pine trees have become valuable for more reasons than just their economical value. In countries where these trees have become an important part of the landscape, their loss is not acceptable for aesthetic and recreational reasons. In countries where pine trees are indigenous, the environmental impact is considered to be high, because S. noctilio could find enough suitable host material to reach outbreak levels.
Detection and InspectionTop of page
Trap-trees are used for monitoring and sampling S. noctilio in the field. Trap-trees are trees that are stressed by injecting them with herbicide. This is the most appropriate and efficient technique for early pest detection, as well as for monitoring dispersion. The stressed trees are attractive to S. noctilio for egg laying (Neumann and Minko, 1981; Haugen and Underdown, 1990a).
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
S. noctilio is a secondary opportunistic wood-boring insect. Therefore the prevention of severe outbreaks is a forest management problem that can be mitigated through good silvicultural practices, mainly timely thinning and the early removal of damaged and unhealthy or multi-stemmed trees (Neumann et al., 1987; Iede et al., 1993).
An effective strategy is to aim for the early detection and rapid suppression of small S. noctilio populations. The ground surveillance for early detection of the pest includes a trap-tree system. The biocontrol agents used against S. noctilio include the nematode, Deladenus siricidicola and parasitoids, such as Ibalia leucospoides (Haugen, 1990; Haugen and Underdown, 1990a; Iede et al., 1993, 1998). An Integrated Pest Management programme must involve the following activities.
Monitoring for the Early Detection of S. noctilio
Detailed maps of pine plantations should be available and include the number and location of groups of trap-trees. These should also include the areas where S. noctilio is found and the places where nematodes and parasites are released.
For the early detection of S. noctilio, aerial monitoring, with visual observations and estimates of damage in the attacked areas, is imprecise. This is because the trees normally preferred by S. noctilio are not detected in these kinds of surveys (Iede et al., 1998; Ciesla, 2003). For an accurate evaluation of the attacked areas in plantations, infrared photography and photographic interpretation, followed by ground surveys, are more informative than aerial sketch-maps.
The use of trap-trees that are stressed by herbicide injection is the most appropriate and efficient technique for early pest detection and for monitoring dispersion. The detection of S. noctilio during its early developmental stages and colonization helps to define the locations for biological control agent release and allows thinning practices to be carried out before the pest reaches high damaging levels. The maintenance of a trap-tree system may greatly increase the biological control efficiency of S. noctilio (Neumann et al., 1987; Haugen, 1990; Haugen and Underdown, 1990a; Iede et al., 1993, 1998).
The detection method chosen and the intensity with which it should be applied in a region, must be based on a risk analysis of introduction and dispersal of the pest in that region. A general recommendation is that the trap-trees, preferably with diameters at breast height (DBH) of 10 and 20 cm, are installed in groups of five to ten. Also the distance between the groups should vary according to where the pest is established (Neumann et al., 1987; Haugen, 1990; Haugen and Underdown, 1990a; Iede et al., 1993, 1998). The groups of trap-trees should be installed 2 months before the emergence peak of S. noctilio.
The trees that are resistant to S. noctilio are those that remain free of injury and continue to grow vigorously in well-managed blocks and good sites, with favourable climatic and soil conditions. The mortality level of the trees is significantly related to the DBH. The trees with a low DBH show higher levels of mortality than thicker ones in the same stand. Thinning is one of the most important silvicultural practices, conducted in order to accelerate or modify the course of competition (Neumann et al., 1987; Iede et al., 1998).
Most of the thinning practices reduce losses due to damaging agents not only because they work as a prevention strategy but also because the vigour and resistance of the trees are increased. Thinning can only enhance the susceptibility of trees to insect attack under special circumstances, for example when it is carried out during the flight period of the pest (Madden, 1988). During drought periods, thinned plantations are not resistant to S. noctilio attack.
Biological control, along with prevention strategies, is the most efficient and economical method for controlling S. noctilio. D. siricidicola is the most effective biological control agent of S. noctilio. This nematode sterilizes females and has two life cycles: a free-living one during which it feeds on the same symbiotic fungus as S. noctilio associates with and a parasitic-living one inside the larvae, pupae and adults of S. noctilio. As its free-living life cycle is based on the fungus, Amylostereum areolatum, it is easily bred under laboratory conditions and then it can be released into the field by application into trees attacked by S. noctilio. Parasitism levels close to 100% can be achieved, which causes a collapse in the woodwasp population (Zondag, 1969; Bedding, 1972; Haugen, 1990; Haugen and Underdown, 1990a; Iede et al., 1998).
The inoculation of D. siricidicola into trees is described by Bedding (1972), Bedding and Akhurst (1974), Neumann et al. (1987), Haugen (1990), Haugen and Underdown (1990a) and Iede et al. (1993, 1998).
The average level of parasitism achieved with D. siricidicola in Australia was 70% (Bedding and Akhurst, 1974). Although the level of parasitism verified for the nematode in attacked areas of Brazil has been quite variable, it was found to be as high as 70 or 80% in most of the monitored areas (Iede et al., 1998).
I. leucospoides parasitizes the eggs, first-instar and second-instar larvae of S. noctilio. This parasitoid is attracted to the odour of A. areolatum as it begins to spread (Zondag, 1959; Madden, 1968; Taylor, 1981).
The parasites, Rhyssa persuasoria and Megarhyssa nortoni, have long ovipositors and therefore attack larvae that are in the advanced stages of development. The parasites introduce the ovipositor into the wood in search of the host larvae. The larvae are paralyzed when stung by the parasite and the eggs of the parasite are then laid on the body of the host. After they hatch, the larvae of the parasite feed externally and, after consuming the host, they develop into pupae. In this species group, most members of each generation undergo a diapause in the larval stage, once they are completely fed. They pupate in the spring and emerge when the host larvae move towards the tree bark to pupate.
The complex of parasites (Ibalia sp. and Rhyssa sp.) can eliminate about 40% of S. noctilio populations in some places (Neumann et al., 1987). However, it does not exceed this and thus is an insufficient percentage to keep S. noctilio attacks from reaching high levels. Nevertheless the parasitic complex is important for the maintenance of the ecosystem/pest equilibrium (Neumann et al., 1987; Haugen and Underdown, 1990a).
ReferencesTop of page
Cameron PJ; Hill RL; Bain J; Thomas WP, 1989. A review of biological control of invertebrate pests and weeds in New Zealand 1874 to 1987. CAB Institute of Biological Control, Technical Communication No. 10. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.
Capecki Z, 1972. The occurrence of Ibalia leucospoides and I. drewseni (Hym., Cynipidae) in Poland. Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne, 42:801-805.
Carvalho AG, 1993. Parasitism by Ibalia sp. (Hymenoptera: Ibalidae) in Sirex noctilio (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) in Sao Francisco de Paula - Rio Grande do Sul. Boletim de Pesquisa Florestal, No. 26/27:61-62; 1 ref.
Carvalho AG; Pedrosa-Macedo JH; Santos HR, 1993. Bioecol=gicos de Sirex noctilio Fabricius, 1793 (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) em povoamentos de Pinus taeda L.. In: EMBRAPA, FAO, USDA, FUNCEMA, eds. Anais da ConferOncia Regional da Vespa da Madeira Sirex Noctilio na AmTrica do Sul, Florian=polis, Brazil: EMBRAPA/FAO/USDA/FUNCEMA, 85-96.
Ciesla WM, 2003. European woodwasp - a potential threat to North America's Conifer Forests. Journal of Forestry, 18-23.
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
Gilbert JM; Miller LW, 1952. An outbreak of Sirex noctilio (F.) in Tasmania. Australian Forestry, 16:63-69.
Haack RA; Cavey JF, 2000. Insects intercepted on solid wood packing materials at United States ports-of-entry: 1985-1998. In: Silvotecna, eds. Proceedings of the 14th Silvotecna Quarantine pests, risks for the forestry sector and their effects on foreign trade. Concepcion, Chile: CORMA.
Harris EC, 1965. Xeris spectrum L. (Hym., Siricidae) breeding in southern England. Ent. Mon. Mag., 99:197-198.
Haugen DA; Iede ET, 2001. Wood Borers. Proceedings of the American Phytopathological Society, St Paul, USA. http://www.apsnet.org/online/exoticpest/Papers/haugen.htm.
Iede ET; Klasmer P; Penteado SRC, 2000a. Sirex noctilio in South AmTrica: Distribution, Monitoring and Control. In: EMBRAPA SOJA, eds. Proceedings of XXI International Congress of Entomology. Foz do Iguatu, Brazil. EMBRAPA SOJA, 1: 474.
Iede ET; Penteado S do RC; Bisol JC, 1988. First record of Sirex noctilio attacking Pinus tpda in Brazil. Circular Tecnica - Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Florestas Curitiba, Parana, Brazil, No. 20:ii + 12 pp.
Iede ET; Penteado SRC; Gaiad DCM; Silva SMS, 1993. Panorama a nfvel mundial da ocorrOncia de Sirex noctilio F. (Hymenoptera: Siricidae). In: EMBRAPA, FAO, USDA, FUNCEMA, eds. Anais da ConferOncia Regional da Vespa da Madeira Sirex Noctilio na AmTrica do Sul, Florian=polis, Brazil: EMBRAPA/FAO/USDA/FUNCEMA, 23-33.
Iede ET; Penteado SRC; Murphy S; Haugen; D; Reis Filho; W, 2000b. Introduction and release of rhyssines to control Sirex noctilio in Brazil. In: EMBRAPA SOJA, eds. Proceedings of XXI International Congress of Entomology. Foz do Iguatu, Brazil. EMBRAPA SOJA, 1: 460.
Iede ET; Schaitza E; Penteado S; Reardon RC; Murphy ST, 1998. Proceedings of a conference: Training in the control of Sirex noctilio by the use of natural enemies, Colombo, Brazil, 4-9 November, 1996. Proceedings of a conference: Training in the control of ^italic~Sirex noctilio^roman~ by the use of natural enemies, Colombo, Brazil, 4-9 November, 1996., viii + 104 pp.; [ref. at ends of papers].
Iede ET; Zanetti R, 2007. Occurrence and management recommendations of Sirex noctilio Fabricius (Hymenoptera, Siricidae) on Pinus patula (Pinaceae) plantations in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. (Ocorrência e recomendações para o manejo de Sirex noctilio Fabricius (Hymenoptera, Siricidae) em plantios de Pinus patula (Pinaceae) em Minas Gerais, Brasil.) Revista Brasileira de Entomologia, 51(4):529-531. HTTP://www.scielo.br/rbent
Klasmer P; Fritz G; Corley J; Botto E, 1998. Current status of research on Sirex noctilio F. in the Andean-Patagonian region in Argentina. In: EMBRAPA, USDA, FUNCEMA, eds. Proceedings of a conference: Training in the control of Sirex noctilio by the use of natural enemies. Colombo, Brazil: EMBRAPA/USDA/FUNCEMA, 89-90.
Kliejunas JT; Tkacz BM; Burdsall HHJr; DeNitto GA; Eglitis A; Haugen DA; Wallner WE, 2001. Pest risk assessment of the importation into the United States of unprocessed Eucalyptus logs and chips from South America. General Technical Report - Forest Products Laboratory, USDA Forest Service, No. FPL-GTR-124:viii + 134 pp.
Madden JL, 1968. Physiological aspects of host tree favourability for the woodwasp Sirex noctilio F. Proc. Ecol. Soc. Aust., 3:147-149.
Madden JL, 1988. Sirex in Australia. In: Berryman AA, ed. Dynamics of Forest Insect Populations. London, UK: Plenum Pub. Corp., 407-427.
McKimm RJ; Walls JW, 1980. A survey of damage caused by the Sirex woodwasp in the radiata pine plantation at Delatite, north-eastern Victoria, between 1972 and 1979. For. Comm. Vic., For. Tech. Pap., 28:3-11.
Morgan DF, 1968. Bionomics of Siricidae. Annual Review of Entomology, 13:239-256.
Morgan FD; Stewart NC, 1966. The biology of the woodwasp Sirex noctilio (F) in New Zealand. Transactions of the Royal Society of New Zealand, 7:195-204.
NAPPO, 2005. Detection of Sirex noctilio Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) (sirex woodwasp) in Cayuga, Onondaga, and Oswego Counties in New York. https://www.pestalerts.org/official-pest-report/detection-sirex-noctilio-fabricius-hymenoptera-siricidae-sirex-woodwasp-cayuga
NAPPO, 2005. Detection of the European wood wasp, Sirex noctilio (Fabricius) in New York. https://www.pestalerts.org/official-pest-report/detection-european-wood-wasp-sirex-noctilio-fabricius-new-york
NAPPO, 2005. Sirex Wood Wasp (Sirex noctilio) - Confirmation in Southeastern Ontario. https://www.pestalerts.org/official-pest-report/sirex-wood-wasp-sirex-noctilio-confirmation-southeastern-ontario-gu-pe-perce
NAPPO, 2006. Detection of Sirex noctilio Fabricius (Sirex woodwasp) in five additional New York Counties - United States. https://www.pestalerts.org/official-pest-report/confirmation-golden-nematode-globodera-rostochiensis-province-quebec
NAPPO, 2006. Detections of Sirex noctilio Fabricius (Sirex woodwasp) in New York and Pennsylvania. https://www.pestalerts.org/official-pest-report/detections-sirex-noctilio-fabricius-sirex-woodwasp-new-york-and-pennsylvania
Negru S; Pirvescu D, 1966. Further insect pests of the blue Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco var. glauca (Boiss.) Franco). Travaux du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle `Gr. Antipa', Bucarest, 6:147-52.
Neumann FG; Minko G, 1981. The sirex wood wasp in Australian radiata pine plantations. Australian-Forestry, 44:46-63.
Neves CMB; Moreira MIS, 1960. The use of X-rays in evaluating the quality, soundness and results of treatments of some agricultural and forest products. Agricultura, Lisboa, 8:12-17.
Penteado SRC; Oliveira EB; Iede ET, 1998. Distribuitpo da vespa-da-madeira e de seus inimigos naturais ao longo do tronco de Pinus. Boletim de Pesquisa Florestal, 40:23-34.
Rafes PM, 1960. Types of tunnels made by Uroceridae and larval behaviour patterns which determine the shape of the tunnels in wood. Dokl. Akad. Nauk SSSR, 132:478-480.
Rawlings GB, 1948. Recent observations on the Sirex noctilio population in Pinus radiata in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Forestry, 5:411-421.
Rawlings GB, 1955. Epidemics in Pinus radiata forests in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Forestry, 7:53-57.
Rawlings GB; Wilson NM, 1949. Sirex noctilio as a beneficial and destructive insect to Pinus radiata in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Forestry, 6:20-29.
Rebuffo S, 1990. La "Avispa de la Madera" Sirex noctilio F. en el Uruguay. Montevideo: Dir. For., 1-17.
Schimitschek E, 1968. The causes of susceptibility to siricid attack. Extent of damage, and preventive control. Z. angew. Ent., 61:45-60.
Smith DR, 1978. Hymenopterorum Catalogus - Suborder Symphita (Xyelidae, Pararchexyelidae, Parapamphiliidae, Xyelydidae, Karatavitidae, Gigasiridae, Sepulcidae, Pseudosiricidae, Anaxyelidae, Siricidae, Xiphydriidae, Paroryssidae, Xyelotomidae, Blasticotomidae, Pergidae). In: van der Vecht J, Shenefelt RD, eds. Hymenopterorum Catalogus, pars 14. Holland: W. Junk BV, 59-63.
Supatashvili ShM; Shalibashvili GK; Supatashvili ASh, 1972. New representatives of the insect pest fauna of forest and park plantations in Georgia. Bulletin of the Academy of Sciences of the Georgian SSR, 68(1):217-220
Taylor KL, 1981. The Sirex woodwasp: ecology and control of an introduced forest insect. In: Kitching RL, Jones RE, eds. The Ecology of Pests: some Australian case histories. Australia: CSIRO, 231-248.
Tribe GD, 2003. Biological control of defoliating and phloem- or wood-feeding insects in commercial forestry in Southern Africa. In: Neuenschwander P, Borgemeister C, Langewald J, eds. Biological control in IPM systems in Africa. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 113-129.
Wermelinger B; Rigling A; Mathis DS; Dobbertin M, 2008. Assessing the role of bark- and wood-boring insects in the decline of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) in the Swiss Rhone valley. Ecological Entomology, 33(2):239-249. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1365-2311.2007.00960.x
Wolf F, 1969. The Siricidae in Belgium: their habits and their importance in forestry. Bull. Soc. For. Belg., 6/7:281-342.
Zondag R, 1959. Progress Report on the Establishment in New Zealand of Ibalia leucospoides a parasite of Sirex noctilio. New Zealand Forestry Research Notes, 20:1-10.
Zondag R, 1969. A nematode infection of Sirex noctilio in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Forestry Science, 12:732-747.
Zondag R; Nuttal MJ, 1977. Sirex noctilio Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Siricidae). FRI, NZ For. Serv., Forest and Timber Insects in New Zealand, 20:1-7.
Anon, 1998. Proceedings of a conference: Training in the control of Sirex noctilio by the use of natural enemies, Colombo, Brazil, 4-9 November, 1996. In: Proceedings of a conference: Training in the control of Sirex noctilio by the use of natural enemies, Colombo, Brazil, 4-9 November, 1996. [Proceedings of a conference: Training in the control of Sirex noctilio by the use of natural enemies, Colombo, Brazil, 4-9 November, 1996.], [ed. by Iede E T, Schaitza E, Penteado S, Reardon R C, Murphy S T]. Morgantown, USA: Forest Health Technology Enterprise Team, USDA Forest Service. viii + 104 pp.
Attard G, 1973. Presence of Sirex noctilio F. (Hymenoptera Siricidae) on Pinus maritima in Gironde. (Presence de Sirex noctilio F. (Hymenoptere Siricidae) sur Pinus maritima en Gironde.). Revue de Zoologie Agricole et de Pathologie Vegetale. 72 (3), 93-95.
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Capecki Z, 1972. The occurrence of Ibalia leucospoides and I. drewseni (Hym., Cynipidae) in Poland. In: Polskie Pismo Entomologiczne, 42 801-805.
Ciesla WM, 2003. European woodwasp - a potential threat to North America's Conifer Forests. In: Journal of Forestry, 18-23.
Heidemaa M, Voolma K, Süda I, 1998. Species composition and distribution of the horntails (Hymenoptera, Siricoidea) of Estonia. (Puiduvaablaste (Hymenoptera, Siricoidea) liigiline koosseis ja levik Eestis.). Metsanduslikud Uurimused. 124-131.
Hoebeke E R, Haugen D A, Haack R A, 2005. Sirex noctilio: discovery of a palearctic siricid woodwasp in New York. In: Newsletter of the Michigan Entomological Society, 50 (1/2) East Lansing, USA: Michigan Entomological Society. 24-25.
Iede E T, Penteado S do R C, Bisol J C, 1988. First record of Sirex noctilio attacking Pinus taeda in Brazil. (Primeiro registro de ataque de Sirex noctilio em Pinus taeda no Brasil.). Circular Técnica - Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Florestas. ii + 12 pp.
Iede E T, Zanetti R, 2007. Occurrence and management recommendations of Sirex noctilio Fabricius (Hymenoptera, Siricidae) on Pinus patula (Pinaceae) plantations in the state of Minas Gerais, Brazil. (Ocorrência e recomendações para o manejo de Sirex noctilio Fabricius (Hymenoptera, Siricidae) em plantios de Pinus patula (Pinaceae) em Minas Gerais, Brasil.). Revista Brasileira de Entomologia. 51 (4), 529-531. HTTP://www.scielo.br/rbent DOI:10.1590/S0085-56262007000400023
Klasmer P, Fritz G, Corley J, Botto E, 1998. Current status of research on Sirex noctilio F. in the Andean-Patagonian region in Argentina. [Proceedings of a conference: Training in the control of Sirex noctilio by the use of natural enemies], [ed. by EMBRAPA, USDA, FUNCEMA]. Colombo, Brazil: EMBRAPA/USDA/FUNCEMA. 89-90.
Mejri M, Naves P, Sousa E de, Ben Jamâa M L, 2016. The European wood wasp Sirex noctilio: distribution, hosts and parasitoids recovered in Tunisia. Tunisian Journal of Plant Protection. 11 (1), 157-163. http://www.iresa.agrinet.tn/tjpp/tjpp21/14Mejri.pdf
NAPPO, 2005. Sirex Wood Wasp (Sirex noctilio) - Confirmation in Southeastern Ontario., https://www.pestalerts.org/official-pest-report/sirex-wood-wasp-sirex-noctilio-confirmation-southeastern-ontario-gu-pe-perce
NAPPO, 2005a. Detection of the European wood wasp, Sirex noctilio (Fabricius) in New York., https://www.pestalerts.org/official-pest-report/detection-european-wood-wasp-sirex-noctilio-fabricius-new-york
NAPPO, 2005b. Detection of Sirex noctilio Fabricius (Hymenoptera: Siricidae) (sirex woodwasp) in Cayuga, Onondaga, and Oswego Counties in New York., https://www.pestalerts.org/official-pest-report/detection-sirex-noctilio-fabricius-hymenoptera-siricidae-sirex-woodwasp-cayuga
NAPPO, 2006a. Detection of Sirex noctilio Fabricius (Sirex woodwasp) in five additional New York Counties - United States., https://www.pestalerts.org/official-pest-report/confirmation-golden-nematode-globodera-rostochiensis-province-quebec
NAPPO, 2006b. Detections of Sirex noctilio Fabricius (Sirex woodwasp) in New York and Pennsylvania., https://www.pestalerts.org/official-pest-report/detections-sirex-noctilio-fabricius-sirex-woodwasp-new-york-and-pennsylvania
Negru S, Pirvescu D, 1966. Further insect pests of the blue Douglas Fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirbel) Franco var. glauca (Boiss.) Franco). Travaux du Museum d'Histoire Naturelle 'Grigore Antipa'. 147-52.
Rafes P M, 1960. Types of tunnels made by Uroceridae and larval behaviour patterns which determine the shape of the tunnels in wood. (Tipy hodov rogohvostov i zakonomernosti povedenija licinki, opredeljajuscie formy ee hoda v drevesine.). Doklady Akademii nauk SSSR. 132 (2), 478-80.
Rebuffo S, 1990. [English title not available]. (La "Avispa de la Madera" Sirex noctilio F. en el Uruguay.). In: La "Avispa de la Madera" Sirex noctilio F. en el Uruguay. Montevideo, Uruguay: Dir. For. 1-17.
Smith DR, 1978. (Hymenopterorum Catalogus - Suborder Symphita (Xyelidae, Pararchexyelidae, Parapamphiliidae, Xyelydidae, Karatavitidae, Gigasiridae, Sepulcidae, Pseudosiricidae, Anaxyelidae, Siricidae, Xiphydriidae, Paroryssidae, Xyelotomidae, Blasticotomidae, Pergidae)). In: Hymenopterorum Catalogus, 14 [ed. by van der Vecht J, Shenefelt RD]. Holland, W. Junk BV. 59-63.
Sousa E, Naves P, Bonifácio L, Bravo M A, Penas A C, Pires J, Serrão M, 2002. Preliminary survey for insects associated with Bursaphelenchus xylophilus in Portugal. Bulletin OEPP. 32 (3), 499-502. DOI:10.1046/j.1365-2338.2002.00597.x
Wermelinger B, Rigling A, Mathis D S, Dobbertin M, 2008. Assessing the role of bark- and wood-boring insects in the decline of Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) in the Swiss Rhone valley. Ecological Entomology. 33 (2), 239-249. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/doi/pdf/10.1111/j.1365-2311.2007.00960.x DOI:10.1111/j.1365-2311.2007.00960.x
Wilcken C F, Souza A R de, Puretz B de O, Camargo G F de, 2018. Detection of pine woodwasp in Pinus taeda in São Paulo State, Brazil. Ciência Rural. 48 (2), e20170632. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0103-84782018000200151&lng=pt&nrm=iso&tlng=en
Wilson A D, Schiff N M, Haugen D A, Hoebeke E R, 2009. First report of Amylostereum areolatum in pines in the United States. Plant Disease. 93 (1), 108. HTTP://www.apsnet.org DOI:10.1094/PDIS-93-1-0108A
Distribution MapsTop of page
Select a dataset
CABI Summary Records
Unsupported Web Browser:
One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using.
Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser.
More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/