Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Schistocerca gregaria
(desert locust)

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Datasheet

Schistocerca gregaria (desert locust)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Schistocerca gregaria
  • Preferred Common Name
  • desert locust
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Fifth-instar nymph of solitary S. gregaria.
TitleNymph
CaptionFifth-instar nymph of solitary S. gregaria.
CopyrightJurgen Langewald/IITA
Fifth-instar nymph of solitary S. gregaria.
NymphFifth-instar nymph of solitary S. gregaria.Jurgen Langewald/IITA
Fifth-instar nymph of gregarious S. gregaria.
TitleNymph
CaptionFifth-instar nymph of gregarious S. gregaria.
CopyrightChris Lomer/Dept of Molecular Genetics, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey
Fifth-instar nymph of gregarious S. gregaria.
NymphFifth-instar nymph of gregarious S. gregaria.Chris Lomer/Dept of Molecular Genetics, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey
Adult solitary S. gregaria.
TitleAdult
CaptionAdult solitary S. gregaria.
CopyrightJurgen Langewald/IITA
Adult solitary S. gregaria.
AdultAdult solitary S. gregaria.Jurgen Langewald/IITA
Adult gregarious S. gregaria.
TitleAdult
CaptionAdult gregarious S. gregaria.
CopyrightChris Lomer/Dept of Molecular Genetics, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey
Adult gregarious S. gregaria.
AdultAdult gregarious S. gregaria.Chris Lomer/Dept of Molecular Genetics, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey
Adult of S. gregaria (museum set specimen).
TitleAdult
CaptionAdult of S. gregaria (museum set specimen).
Copyright©Georg Goergen/IITA Insect Museum, Cotonou, Benin
Adult of S. gregaria (museum set specimen).
AdultAdult of S. gregaria (museum set specimen).©Georg Goergen/IITA Insect Museum, Cotonou, Benin
S. gregaria swarm in flight.
TitleSwarm
CaptionS. gregaria swarm in flight.
CopyrightHans Wilps/GTZ, Eschborn, Germany
S. gregaria swarm in flight.
SwarmS. gregaria swarm in flight.Hans Wilps/GTZ, Eschborn, Germany
Hopper band of S. gregaria.
TitleHoppers
CaptionHopper band of S. gregaria.
CopyrightChristiaan Kooyman/CAB International, Africa Regional Centre
Hopper band of S. gregaria.
HoppersHopper band of S. gregaria.Christiaan Kooyman/CAB International, Africa Regional Centre
Cadaver of S. gregaria killed by Metarhizium anisoplia var. acridium.
TitleNatural enemy
CaptionCadaver of S. gregaria killed by Metarhizium anisoplia var. acridium.
CopyrightChris Prior/CABI BioScience
Cadaver of S. gregaria killed by Metarhizium anisoplia var. acridium.
Natural enemyCadaver of S. gregaria killed by Metarhizium anisoplia var. acridium.Chris Prior/CABI BioScience
Scelio spp. parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera) hatching from Acridid eggs.
TitleNatural enemy
CaptionScelio spp. parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera) hatching from Acridid eggs.
CopyrightChris Lomer/Dept of Molecular Genetics, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey
Scelio spp. parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera) hatching from Acridid eggs.
Natural enemyScelio spp. parasitic wasps (Hymenoptera) hatching from Acridid eggs.Chris Lomer/Dept of Molecular Genetics, Bilkent University, Ankara, Turkey

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Schistocerca gregaria (Forskål, 1775)

Preferred Common Name

  • desert locust

Other Scientific Names

  • Acridium flaviventre Burmeister 1838
  • Acridium peregrina
  • Acridium peregrinum Olivier, 1804
  • Acridium sellatum Walker, 1870
  • Acridium tataricum Latreille, 1804
  • Gryllus gregarius Forskål, 1775
  • Gryllus rufescens Thunberg, 1815
  • Schistocerca americana gregaria (Forskål, 1775)
  • Schistocerca flaviventris (Burmeister 1838)
  • Schistocerca peregrina

International Common Names

  • English: locust, desert
  • Spanish: chapulin; langosta chapulin; langosta del desierto
  • French: criquet pelerin

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Heuschrecke, Wüsten-; Wanderheuschrecke, Ägyptische
  • Iran: malache sahrai
  • Israel: arbe hamidbar
  • Italy: cavalletta del deserto; locusta del deserto; pellegrino

EPPO code

  • SHICGR (Schistocerca gregaria)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Orthoptera
  •                         Family: Acrididae
  •                             Genus: Schistocerca
  •                                 Species: Schistocerca gregaria

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AfghanistanPresentDirsh and, 1974
ArmeniaPresentDirsh and, 1974
BahrainPresentDirsh and, 1974
ChinaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001; Chen YongLin, 2002
ChinaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001; Chen YongLin, 2002
-TibetPresentChen YongLin, 2002
-YunnanPresentChen YongLin, 2002
IndiaPresentDirsh and, 1974
-GujaratPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001; Sinha and Jagdish, 2001
-GujaratPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001; Sinha and Jagdish, 2001
-HaryanaPresentSinha and Jagdish, 2001
-Madhya PradeshPresentSinha and Jagdish, 2001
-ManipurPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
-RajasthanPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001; Sinha and Jagdish, 2001
-RajasthanPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001; Sinha and Jagdish, 2001
-Uttar PradeshPresentShah and Pandey, 2001
IranPresentDirsh and, 1974
IraqPresentDirsh and, 1974
IsraelPresentDirsh and, 1974
JordanPresentDirsh and, 1974
KuwaitPresentDirsh and, 1974
LebanonPresentDirsh and, 1974
Middle EastPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
OmanPresentDirsh and, 1974
PakistanPresentDirsh and, 1974
PhilippinesPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Saudi ArabiaPresentDirsh and, 1974
SyriaPresentDirsh and, 1974
TajikistanPresentDirsh and, 1974
TurkeyPresentDirsh and, 1974
TurkmenistanPresentDirsh and, 1974
United Arab EmiratesPresentDirsh and, 1974
UzbekistanPresentDirsh and, 1974
YemenPresentDirsh and, 1974

Africa

AlgeriaPresentDirsh and, 1974
BeninPresentDirsh and, 1974
Burkina FasoPresentDirsh and, 1974
CameroonPresentDirsh and, 1974
Cape VerdePresentDirsh and, 1974
Central African RepublicPresentDirsh and, 1974
ChadPresentDirsh and, 1974
CongoPresentDirsh and, 1974
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentDirsh and, 1974
DjiboutiPresentDirsh and, 1974
EgyptPresentDirsh and, 1974
EritreaPresentDirsh and, 1974
EthiopiaPresentDirsh and, 1974
GambiaPresentDirsh and, 1974
GhanaPresentDirsh and, 1974
GuineaPresentDirsh and, 1974
KenyaPresentDirsh and, 1974
LibyaPresentDirsh and, 1974
MaliPresentDirsh and, 1974
MauritaniaPresentDirsh and, 1974
MauritiusPresentDirsh and, 1974
MoroccoPresentDirsh and, 1974
NamibiaPresentDirsh and, 1974
NigerPresentDirsh and, 1974
NigeriaPresentDirsh and, 1974
SenegalPresentDirsh and, 1974
SomaliaPresentDirsh and, 1974
South AfricaPresentDirsh and, 1974
SudanPresentDirsh and, 1974
TanzaniaPresentDirsh and, 1974
TogoPresentDirsh and, 1974
TunisiaPresentDirsh and, 1974
UgandaPresentDirsh and, 1974
West AfricaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
Western SaharaPresentDirsh and, 1974

Central America and Caribbean

CaribbeanPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001

South America

VenezuelaPresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001

Europe

FrancePresentCAB ABSTRACTS Data Mining 2001
PortugalPresent, few occurrencesDirsh and, 1974
SpainPresent, few occurrencesDirsh and, 1974

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / external feeding
Growing point / external feeding
Inflorescence / external feeding
Inflorescence / frass visible
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / frass visible
Leaves / shredding
Leaves / webbing
Seeds / external feeding
Seeds / frass visible
Stems / external feeding
Stems / visible frass
Whole plant / external feeding
Whole plant / frass visible

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Acanthodactylus cantoris Predator Adults/Nymphs
Argiope arcuata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Argyope arcuata Predator Adults/Nymphs
Bacillus thuringiensis Pathogen
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen
Blaesoxipha agrestis Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Blaesoxipha filipjevi Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Gregarina garnhami Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Gregarina ridiga Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Lysinibacillus sphaericus Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Malamoeba locustae Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Mantis religiosa Predator Adults/Nymphs
Metarhizium anisopliae Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Metarhizium flavoviride Pathogen Adults/Nymphs Mauritania
Nosema locustae Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Nucleopolyhedrosis virus Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Passer domesticus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Pseudomonas aeruginosa Pathogen Adults/Nymphs
Schizodactylus monstrosus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Seniorwhitea krameri Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Sphex nivosus Predator Adults/Nymphs
Steinernema carpocapsae Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Stomorhina lunata Parasite Eggs
Symmictus costatus Parasite Adults/Nymphs
Systoechus aurifacies Predator Eggs
Systoechus somali Predator Eggs
Trox procerus Predator Eggs
Uromastix hardwickii Predator Adults/Nymphs

References

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Ashall C, Ellis PE, 1962. Studies on Numbers and Mortality in Field Populations of the Desert Locust (Schistocerca gregaria Forscal). Anti Locust Bulletin, 38:1-59

Bateman R, 1993. Simple, standardized methods for recording droplet measurements and estimation of deposits from controlled droplet applications. Crop Protection, 12(3):201-206

Bateman RP, 1997. Methods of application of microbial pesticide formulations for the control of locusts and grasshoppers. Memoirs of the Entomological Society of Canada, 171:69-81

Bateman RP, Carey M, Moore D, Prior C, 1993. The enhanced infectivity of Metarhizium flavoviride in oil formulations to desert locusts at low humidities. Annals of Applied Biology, 122(1):145-152

Bernays EA, Chapman RF, 1978. Plant chemistry and acridoid feeding behaviour. In: Harborne, ed. Biochemical aspects of plant and animal co-evolution. Symposium of the Phytochemical Society of Europe. London, UK: Centre for Overseas Pest Research, 5:99-151

Blanford S, Thomas MB, 1999. Host thermal biology: the key to understanding insect-pathogen interactions and microbial pest control? Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 1:195-202

Burt PJA, Colvin J, Smith SM, 1995. Remote sensing of rainfall by satellite as an aid to Oedaleus senegalensis (Orthoptera: Acrididae) control in the Sahel. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 85(4):455-462; 28 ref

Cassier P, 1972. Der Phasenpolymorphismus der Wanderheuschrecke. In: Schmidt, GH, ed. Sozialpolymorphismus bei Insekten, Kastenbildung im Tierreich. Stuttgart, Germany, 110-151

Chen YongLin, 2002. Watch out for the outbreaks of desert locusts. Entomological Knowledge, 39(5):335-339

Courshee RJ, 1983. Criteria for choosing application techniques for desert locust control. Bulletin, Organisation Europeenne et Mediterraneenne pour la Protection des Plantes, 13(3):535-540

Courshee RJ, 1990. Desert locusts and their control. International Pest Control, 32(1):16-18

Cressman K, 1997. A geographic information system for desert locust forecasting. In: Krall S, Peveling R, Ba Diallo D, eds. New strategies in locust control. Basel, Switzerland: Birkhaeuser Verlag, 27-36

Cross N, Baker R eds. , 1992. At the desert's edge. London, UK: Panos Publications Ltd., 248 pp

Delgado FX, Britton JH, Onsager JA, Swearingen W, 1999. Field assessment of Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin and potential synergism with diflubenzuron for control of savanna grasshopper complex (Orthoptera) in Mali. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 73(1):34-39; 28 ref

Diop B, Wilps H, 1997. Field trials with neem oil and Melia volkensii extracts on Schistocerca gregaria. In: Krall S, Peveling R, Ba Diallo D, eds. New strategies in locust control. Basel, Switzerland: Birkhaeuser Verlag, 21-26

Dirsh VM, 1974. Genus Schistocerca (Acridomorpha, Insecta). Genus Schistocerca (Acridomorpha, Insecta). The Hague, The Netherlands: Dr. W. Junk B.V., 238 pp

Dorow E, 1996. Alsystin - an environmentally friendly insecticide for the control of plagues of locusts. Pflanzenschutz-Nachrichten Bayer (English ed.), 49(2):145-180; 15 ref

Ellis PE, 1956. Differences in social aggregation in two species of locust. Nature, 178:1007

FAO, 1994. The desert locust guidelines, I-IV. Rome, Italy: FAO

Farrow RA, Longstaff BC, 1986. Comparison of the annual rates of increase of locusts in relation to the incidence of plagues. Oikos, 46(2):207-222

Gillett SD, 1973. Social determinants of aggregation behaviour in adults of the desert locust. Animal Behaviour, 21:599-606

Gillett SD, Phillips ML, 1977. Fpces as a source of a locust gregarisation stimulus. Effects on social aggregation and on cuticular colour of nymphs of the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria (Forsk.). Acrida, 6(4):279-286

Greathead DJ, 1963. A review of the insect enemies of Acridoidea (Orthoptera). Transactions of the Royal Entomological Society, 114:437-517

Greathead DJ, 1966. A brief survey of the effects of biotic factors on populations of the desert locust. Journal of Applied Ecology, 3:239-250

Herok CA, Krall S, 1995. Economics of Desert Locust Control. Rossdorf, Germany: GTZ, 33-34

Inglis GD, Johnson DL, Cheng KJ, Goettel MS, 1997. Use of pathogen combinations to overcome the constraints of temperature on entomopathogenic hyphomycetes against grasshoppers. Biological Control, 8(2):143-152; 31 ref

Johnson DL, Goettel MS, 1993. Reduction of grasshopper populations following field application of the fungus Beauveria bassiana. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 3(2):165-175

Kooyman C, Godonou I, 1997. Infection of Schistocerca gregaria (Orthoptera: Acrididae) hoppers by Metarhizium flavoviride (Deuteromycotina: Hyphomycetes) conidia in an oil formulation applied under desert conditions. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 87(1):105-107; 8 ref

Lactin DJ, Johnson DL, 1996. Behavioural optimization of body temperature by nymphal grasshoppers (Melanoplus sanguinipes, Orthoptera: Acrididae) in temperature gradients established using incandescent bulbs. Journal of Thermal Biology, 21(4):231-238; 18 ref

Langewald J, Kooyman C, Douro-Kpindou O, Lomer CJ, Dahmoud AO, Mohamed HO, 1997. Field treatment of desert locust (Schistocerca gregaria Forsk+l) hoppers in Mauritania using an oil formulation of the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium flavoviride. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 7(4):603-611; 30 ref

Langewald J, Ouambama Z, Mamadou A, Peveling R, Stolz I, Bateman R, Attignon S, Blanford S, Arthurs S, Lomer C, 1999. Comparison of an organophosphate insecticide with a mycoinsecticide for the control of Oedaleus senegalensis (Orthoptera: Acrididae) and other Sahelian grasshoppers at an operational scale. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 9(2):199-214; 46 ref

Langewald J, Schmutterer H, 1995. Colour change in the desert locust, Schistocerca gregaria (Forsk.) (Orth., Cyrtacanthacridinae), induced by topical treatment with azadirachtin-enriched neem oil in semi-field trials in Benin at different population densities. Journal of Applied Entomology, 119(3):221-226

Launois M, 1997. The SGR biomodel: a synoptic model for surveillance and early warning specific to the desert locust over the whole of its distribution habitat. In: Krall S, Peveling R, Ba Diallo D, eds. New strategies in locust control. Basel, Switzerland: Birkhaeuser Verlag, 93-94

Lomer CJ, Bateman RP, Dent D, DeGroote H, Kooyman C, Langewald J, Johnson D, Peveling R, Thomas MB, 1999. Development of strategies for the incorporation of microbial pesticides into the integrated management of migratory pests. Agricultural and Forest Entomology, 1:71-88

Lomer CJ, Prior C(Editors), 1992. Biological control of locusts and grasshoppers: proceedings of a workshop held at the International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, Cotonou, Republic of Benin, 29 April-1 May 1991 Wallingford, UK; CAB International, x + 394 pp

Magor JI, Pender J, 1997. Desert locust forecasters' GIS: a researchers view. In: Krall S, Peveling R, Ba Diallo D, eds. New strategies in locust control. Basel, Switzerland: Birkhaeuser Verlag, 21-26

Matthews GA, 1992. Pesticide application methods. Pesticide application methods., Ed. 2:405 pp

Palcy L, 1989. The desert locust migrating to the Antilles. Phytoma, 404:24

Pener MP, 1983. Endocrine aspects of phase polymorphism in locusts. In: Endocrinology of Insects. New York, USA, 379-794

Peveling R, Attignon S, Langewald J, Ouambama Z, 1999. An assessment of the impact of biological and chemical grasshopper control agents on ground-dwelling arthropods in Niger, based on presence/absence sampling. Crop Protection, 18(5):323-339; 54 ref

Price RE, Bateman RP, Brown HD, Butler ET, Mnller EJ, 1997. Aerial spray trials against brown locust (Locustana pardalina, Walker) nymphs in South Africa using oil-based formulations of Metarhizium flavoviride. Crop Protection, 16(4):345-351; 14 ref

Prior C, Greathead DJ, 1989. Biological control of locusts: the potential for the exploitation of pathogens. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin 37:37-48

Riley JR, Reynolds DR, 1997. Vertical-looking radar as a means to improve forecasting and control of desert locust. In: Krall S, Peveling R, Ba Diallo D, eds. New strategies in locust control. Basel, Switzerland: Birkhaeuser Verlag, 21-26

Sánchez-Zapata JA, Donázar JA, Delgado A, Forero MG, Ceballos O, Hiraldo F, 2007. Desert locust outbreaks in the Sahel: resource competition, predation and ecological effects of pest control. Journal of Applied Ecology, 44(2):323-329. http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/jpe

Schmutterer H, Baumgart M, Freisewinkel D, Langenwald J, Nicol CMY, 1993. The effects of neem oil and other neem products on nymphs and resulting adults of Schistocerca gregaria, Nomadacris septemfasciata, Locusta migratoria migratorioides, and Zonocerus variegatus. Journal of Applied Entomology, 116(2):178-186

Shah NK, Pandey KC, 2001. Bio-efficacy of commercial formulations of neem for the management of grasshopper complex of Sehima-Heteropogon dominated grass cover. Range Management and Agroforestry, 22(1):125-127

Showler AT, Potter CS, 1991. Synopsis of the 1986-1989 desert locust (Orthoptera: Acrididae) plague and the concept of strategic control. American Entomologist, 37(2):106-110

Sinha PP, Jagdish Prasad, 2001. Locust invasion in Madhya Pradesh during 1993. Insect Environment, 6(4):178-179

Steedman A(Editor), 1990. Locust handbook. Chatham, UK: Natural Resources Institute, vi + 204 pp

Symmons P, 1992. Strategies to combat the desert locust. Crop Protection, 11(3):206-212

Thomas MB, Wood SN, Langewald J, Lomer CJ, 1997. Persistence of biopesticides and consequences for biological control of grasshoppers and locusts. Pesticide Science, 49:47-55

Uvarov B, 1977. Grasshoppers and locusts. A handbook of general acridology. Volume 2. Behaviour, ecology, biogeography, population dynamics. Grasshoppers and locusts. A handbook of general acridology. Volume 2. Behaviour, ecology, biogeography, population dynamics. Centre for Overseas Pest Research. London UK, ix + 613 pp

Van Huis A, 1997. Can we prevent desert locust plagues? In: Krall S, Peveling R, Ba Diallo D, eds. New strategies in locust control. Basel, Switzerland: Birkhaeuser Verlag, 453-460

Voss F, Dreiser U, 1997. Mapping of desert locust habitats using remote sensing techiques. In: Krall S, Peveling R, Ba Diallo D, eds. New strategies in locust control. Basel, Switzerland: Birkhaeuser Verlag, 37-46

Wilps H, Nasseh O, Rembold H, Krall S, 1993. The effect of Melia volkensii extracts on mortality and fitness of adult Schistocerca gregaria (Forskal) (Orth., Cyrtacanthacrinae). Investigations conducted under natural conditions in S. gregaria recession areas in the southern Tamesna Desert (Republic of Niger). Journal of Applied Entomology, 116(1):12-19

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