sugarcane white leaf phytoplasma (white leaf of sugarcane)
Don't need the entire report?
Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.Generate report
PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- sugarcane white leaf phytoplasma
Preferred Common Name
- white leaf of sugarcane
- PHYP47 (Sugarcane white leaf phytoplasma)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Bacteria
- Phylum: Firmicutes
- Class: Mollicutes
- Order: Acholeplasmatales
- Family: Acholeplasmataceae
- Genus: Phytoplasma
- Species: sugarcane white leaf phytoplasma
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Bangladesh||Widespread||CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014|
|Japan||Present, few occurrences||Nakashima and Murata, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014|
|-Ryukyu Archipelago||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2000; EPPO, 2014|
|Sri Lanka||Widespread||Kumarasinghe and Jones, 2001; Chandrasene et al., 2003; Seneviratne et al., 2004; Ariyarathna et al., 2007; Arocha and Jones, 2010|
|Taiwan||Widespread||Rishi and Chen, 1989; Nakashima and Murata, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2000; Arocha and Jones, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|Thailand||Widespread||Seemüller et al., 1994; Nakashima et al., 1996; Wongkaew et al., 1997; CABI/EPPO, 2000; Hanboonsong et al., 2002; Hanboonsong et al., 2006; Arocha and Jones, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
Habitat ListTop of page
|Terrestrial – Managed||Cultivated / agricultural land||Present, no further details||Harmful (pest or invasive)|
Growth StagesTop of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Fruit / abnormal shape|
|Fruit / reduced size|
|Growing point / dieback|
|Growing point / discoloration|
|Growing point / distortion|
|Inflorescence / abnormal leaves (phyllody)|
|Inflorescence / discoloration panicle|
|Inflorescence / twisting and distortion|
|Leaves / abnormal colours|
|Leaves / abnormal forms|
|Leaves / leaves rolled or folded|
|Leaves / yellowed or dead|
|Roots / hairy root|
|Roots / reduced root system|
|Stems / dieback|
|Stems / distortion|
|Stems / internal red necrosis|
|Stems / stunting or rosetting|
|Stems / witches broom|
|Whole plant / distortion; rosetting|
|Whole plant / dwarfing|
|Whole plant / early senescence|
|Whole plant / elongation|
|Whole plant / plant dead; dieback|
|Whole plant / uprooted or toppled|
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Leaves||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Roots||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Seedlings/Micropropagated plants||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport|
|Fruits (inc. pods)|
|Growing medium accompanying plants|
|True seeds (inc. grain)|
Vectors and Intermediate HostsTop of page
Risk and Impact FactorsTop of page Impact outcomes
- Negatively impacts agriculture
- Reduced amenity values
- Reduced native biodiversity
- Negatively impacts animal/plant collections
- Damages animal/plant products
- Parasitism (incl. parasitoid)
- Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
- Difficult to identify/detect in the field
- Difficult/costly to control
ReferencesTop of page
Ariyarathna HACK; Everard JMDT; Karunanayake EH, 2007. Diseased sugarcane in Sri Lanka is infected with sugarcane grassy shoot and/or sugarcane white leaf phytoplasma. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 2(1):123-125. http://www.publish.csiro.au/view/journals/dsp_journal_fulltext.cfm?nid=208&f=DN07050
Arocha Rosete Y; Jones P, 2010. Phytoplasma diseases of the gramineae. In: Phytoplasmas: Genomes, Plant Hosts and Vectors [ed. by Weintraub, P. G. \Jones, P.]. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 170-187.
Chandrasene G; Brune AE; Rutherford RS; Dharmawardena N, 2003. Detection of phytoplasmas associated with grassy shoot and white leaf diseases of sugarcane in Sri Lanka using FTATM papers. Sugar Tech, 5(4):237-241.
Chen CT; Chen MJ, 1974. Pathological effects of the sugarcane white leaf agent on chlorophyll content and chloroplast ultrastructure. Proceedings XV Congress, International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists, 1974, Durban, South Africa. 1:343-347
Chen CT; Lee CS, 1972. Studies on sugarcane white leaf disease. Annual Report Taiwan Sugar Experiment Station, 1971-72, 182-183.
Chuang-Yang C; Ling KC, 1963. Studies on white leaf disease of sugarcane. V. Comparative test of healthy and diseased stools. Report Taiwan Sugar Experiment Station, 32:123-130.
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
Hanboonsong Y; Choosai C; Panyim S; Damak S, 2002. Transovarial transmission of sugarcane white leaf phytoplasma in the insect vector Matsumuratettix hiroglyphicus (Matsumura). Insect Molecular Biology, 11:97-103.
Hanboonsong Y; Ritthison W; Choosai C; Sirithorn P, 2006. Transmission of sugarcane white leaf phytoplasma by Yamatotettix flavovittatus, a new leafhopper vector. Journal of Economic Entomology, 99(5):1531-1537. http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1603/0022-0493-99.5.1531
IRPCM Phytoplasma/Spiroplasma Working Team Phytoplasma Taxonomy Group, 2004. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma', a taxon for wall-less, non-helical prokaryotes that colonize plant phloem and insects. International Journal of Systemic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 54:1243-1255.
Jones P; Devonshire BJ; Holman TJ; Ajanga S, 2004. Napier grass stunt: a new disease associated with a 16SrXI group phytoplasma in Kenya. Plant Pathology, 53(4):519. http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/ppa
Jung HeeYoung; Sawayanagi T; Wongkaew P; Kakizawa S; Nishigawa H; Wei Wei; Oshima K; Miyata S; Ugaki M; Hibi T; Namba S, 2003. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae', a novel phytoplasma taxon associated with rice yellow dwarf disease. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 53(6):1925-1929.
Kirkpatrick BC; Harrison NA; Lee I-M; Neimark H; Sears BB, 1995. Isolation of mycoplasma-like organism DNA from plant and insect hosts. In: Molecular and Diagnostic Procedures in Mycoplasmology, Vol. I. Molecular Characterization, 1 [ed. by Razin, S. \Tully, J. G.]. San Diego, USA: Academic Press, 105-117.
Lee CS, 1970. Studies on sugarcane white leaf disease. Annual Report Taiwan Sugar Experiment Station, 1970-71, 118-120.
Lee IM; Pastore M; Vibio M; Danielli A; Attathom S; Davis RE; Bertaccini A, 1997. Detection and characterization of a phytoplasma associated with annual blue grass (Poa annua) white leaf disease in southern Italy. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 103(3):251-254; 13 ref.
Lee IM; Zhao Y; Davis RE; Wei W; Martini M, 2007. Prospects of DNA-based systems for differentiation and classification of phytoplasmas. Bulletin of Insectology [First international phytoplasmologist working group meeting. Bologna, Italy, 12-15 November 2007.], 60(2):239-244. http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/
Lee IngMing; Gundersen-Rindal DE; Davis RE; Bartoszyk IM, 1998. Revised classification scheme of phytoplasmas based on RFLP analyses of 16S rRNA and ribosomal protein gene sequences. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 48(4):1153-1169; 145 ref.
Maramorosch K; Kimura M; Chareonridhi S, 1975. Mycoplasma-like organisms associated with white leaf disease of sugarcane in Thailand. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 23:137-139.
Marcone C; Ragozzino A; Seemnller E, 1997. Detection of Bermuda grass white leaf disease in Italy and characterization of the associated phytoplasma by RFLP analysis. Plant Disease, 81(8):862-866; 24 ref.
Marcone C; Ragozzino A; Seemuller E, 2001. Sugarcane white leaf and sugarcane grassy shoot diseases: biology and taxonomic characterization of the associated phytoplasmas. In: Sugarcane pathology. Volume 2: Virus and phytoplasma diseases [ed. by Rao, G. P.\Ford, R. E.\Tosic, M.\Teakle, D. S.]. Enfield, USA: Science Publishers, Inc., 83-97.
Marcone C; Rao GP, 2008. White leaf and grassy shoot diseases of sugarcane. In: Characterization, diagnosis & management of phytoplasmas [ed. by Harrison, N. A.\Rao, G. P.\Marcone, C.]. Houston, USA: Studium Press LLC, 293-305.
Marcone C; Schneider B; Seemüller E, 2004. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis', the phytoplasma associated with Bermuda grass white leaf disease. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 54(4):1077-1082.
Matsumoto T; Lee CS; Teng WS, 1968. Studies on sugarcane white leaf disease of Taiwan, with special reference to transmission by a leafhopper, Epitettix hiroglyphicus Mats. Proceedings of the International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists, 13:1090-1098.
Nakashima K; Hayashi T; Chaleeprom W; Wongkaew P; Sirithorn P, 1996. Complex phytoplasma flora in Northeast Thailand as revealed by 16S rDNA analysis. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 62(1):57-60; 20 refs.
Nakashima K; Wongkaew P; Sirithorn P, 2001. Molecular detection and characterization of sugarcane white leaf phytoplasmas. In: Sugarcane pathology. Volume 2: Virus and phytoplasma diseases [ed. by Rao, G. P.\Ford, R. E.\Tosic, M.\Teakle, D. S.]. Enfield, USA: Science Publishers, Inc., 157-175.
Rao GP; Ford RE, 2001. Vectors of virus and phytoplasma diseases of sugarcane - an overview. In: Sugarcane pathology. Volume 2: Virus and phytoplasma diseases [ed. by Rao, G. P.\Ford, R. E.\Tosic, M.\Teakle, D. S.]. Enfield, USA: Science Publishers, Inc., 267-318.
Rao GP; Ford RE; Tosi¢ M; Teakle DS, 2001. Sugarcane Pathology, Vol. II. Virus and Phytoplasma Diseases. Enfield (NH), USA: Science Publishers Inc.
Rishi N; Chen CT, 1989. Grassy shoot and white leaf diseases. In: Ricaud BC, Egan BT, eds. Diseases of Sugarcane. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier, 289-300.
Schneider B; Padovan A; Rue Sde la; Eichner R; Davis R; Bernuetz A; Gibb K, 1999. Detection and differentiation of phytoplasmas in Australia: an update. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 50(3):333-342.
Sdoodee R, 2001. Recent studies on white leaf and grassy shoot phytoplasmas of sugarcane. In: Sugarcane pathology. Volume 2: Virus and phytoplasma diseases [ed. by Rao, G. P.\Ford, R. E.\Tosic, M.\Teakle, D. S.]. Enfield, USA: Science Publishers, Inc., 235-244.
Sdoodee R; Schneider B; Padovan AC; Gibb KS, 1999. Detection and genetic relatedness of phytoplasmas associated with plant diseases in Thailand. Journal of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, 3(2):133-140.
Seemnller E; Marcone C; Lauer U; Ragozzino A; G÷schl M, 1998. Current status of molecular classification of the phytoplasmas. Journal of Plant Pathology, 80:3-26.
Seemüller E; Schneider B; Maürer R; Ahrens U; Daire X; Kison H; Lorenz KH; Firrao G; Avinent L; Sears BB; Stackebrandt E, 1994. Phylogenetic classification of phytopathogenic mollicutes by sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 44(3):440-446
Viswanathan R, 1997. Detection of phytoplasmas associated with grassy shoot disease of sugarcane by ELISA techniques. Zeitschrift fu^umlaut~r Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 104(1):9-16; 20 ref.
Viswanathan R, 2001. Serodiagnosis of phytoplasmas causing grassy shoot disease in sugarcane. In: Sugarcane pathology. Volume 2: Virus and phytoplasma diseases [ed. by Rao, G. P.\Ford, R. E.\Tosic, M.\Teakle, D. S.]. Enfield, USA: Science Publishers, Inc., 209-220.
Wongkaew P; Fletcher J, 2004. Sugarcane white leaf phytoplasma in tissue culture: long-term maintenance, transmission, and oxytetracycline remission. Plant Cell Reports, 23(6):426-434. http://link.springer.de/link/service/journals/00299/index.htm
Wongkaew P; Hanboonsong Y; Sirithorn P; Choosai C; Boonkrong S; Tinnangwattana T; Kitchareonpanya R; Damak S, 1997. Differentiation of phytoplasmas associated with sugarcane and gramineous weed white leaf disease and sugarcane grassy shoot disease by RFLP and sequencing. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 95(4):660-663; 17 ref.
Distribution MapsTop of page
Unsupported Web Browser:
One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using.
Please consider upgrading your browser to the latest version or installing a new browser.
More information about modern web browsers can be found at http://browsehappy.com/