Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

sugarcane white leaf phytoplasma
(white leaf of sugarcane)

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Datasheet

sugarcane white leaf phytoplasma (white leaf of sugarcane)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 27 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • sugarcane white leaf phytoplasma
  • Preferred Common Name
  • white leaf of sugarcane
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Bacteria
  •   Phylum: Firmicutes
  •     Class: Mollicutes
  •       Order: Acholeplasmatales
  •         Family: Acholeplasmataceae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
SCWL - affected sugarcane plants with severe chlorosis of the entire leaf blades.
TitleSymptoms on sugarcane plants
CaptionSCWL - affected sugarcane plants with severe chlorosis of the entire leaf blades.
CopyrightC. Marcone
SCWL - affected sugarcane plants with severe chlorosis of the entire leaf blades.
Symptoms on sugarcane plantsSCWL - affected sugarcane plants with severe chlorosis of the entire leaf blades.C. Marcone
SCWL - affected sugarcane plants showing symptoms of decline, reduced growth and chlorosis.
TitleSymptoms on sugarcane plants
CaptionSCWL - affected sugarcane plants showing symptoms of decline, reduced growth and chlorosis.
CopyrightC. Marcone
SCWL - affected sugarcane plants showing symptoms of decline, reduced growth and chlorosis.
Symptoms on sugarcane plantsSCWL - affected sugarcane plants showing symptoms of decline, reduced growth and chlorosis.C. Marcone

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • sugarcane white leaf phytoplasma

Preferred Common Name

  • white leaf of sugarcane

EPPO code

  • PHYP47 (Sugarcane white leaf phytoplasma)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Bacteria
  •     Phylum: Firmicutes
  •         Class: Mollicutes
  •             Order: Acholeplasmatales
  •                 Family: Acholeplasmataceae
  •                     Genus: Phytoplasma
  •                         Species: sugarcane white leaf phytoplasma

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal shape
Fruit / reduced size
Growing point / dieback
Growing point / discoloration
Growing point / distortion
Inflorescence / abnormal leaves (phyllody)
Inflorescence / discoloration panicle
Inflorescence / twisting and distortion
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / leaves rolled or folded
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Roots / hairy root
Roots / reduced root system
Stems / dieback
Stems / distortion
Stems / internal red necrosis
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Stems / witches broom
Whole plant / distortion; rosetting
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / early senescence
Whole plant / elongation
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback
Whole plant / uprooted or toppled

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Leaves Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Roots Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
True seeds (inc. grain)

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Matsumuratettix hiroglyphicusMatsumoto et al., 1968. InsectTaiwan
Yamatotettix flavovittatusHanboonsong et al., 2006. InsectThailand

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Impact outcomes
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Negatively impacts animal/plant collections
  • Damages animal/plant products
Impact mechanisms
  • Parasitism (incl. parasitoid)
  • Pathogenic
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field
  • Difficult/costly to control

References

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Ahrens U; Seemuller E, 1992. Detection of DNA of plant pathogenic mycoplasmalike organisms by a polymerase chain reaction that amplifies a sequence of the 16S rRNA gene. Phytopathology, 82(8):828-832

Ariyarathna HACK; Everard JMDT; Karunanayake EH, 2007. Diseased sugarcane in Sri Lanka is infected with sugarcane grassy shoot and/or sugarcane white leaf phytoplasma. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 2(1):123-125. http://www.publish.csiro.au/view/journals/dsp_journal_fulltext.cfm?nid=208&f=DN07050

Arocha Rosete Y; Jones P, 2010. Phytoplasma diseases of the gramineae. In: Phytoplasmas: Genomes, Plant Hosts and Vectors [ed. by Weintraub, P. G. \Jones, P.]. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 170-187.

Bertaccini A; Duduk B, 2009. Phytoplasma and phytoplasma diseases: a review of recent research. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 48(3):355-378. http://epress.unifi.it/riviste

Blanche KR; Tran-Nguyen LTT; Gibb KS, 2003. Detection, identification and significance of phytoplasmas in grasses in northern Australia. Plant Pathology, 52(4):505-512.

CABI/EPPO, 2000. Sugarcane white leaf phytoplasma. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Map No. 807. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Chandrasene G; Brune AE; Rutherford RS; Dharmawardena N, 2003. Detection of phytoplasmas associated with grassy shoot and white leaf diseases of sugarcane in Sri Lanka using FTATM papers. Sugar Tech, 5(4):237-241.

Chen CT, 1978. Vector-pathogen relationships of sugarcane white leaf disease. Taiwan Sugar, 25(2):50-54

Chen CT; Chen MJ, 1974. Pathological effects of the sugarcane white leaf agent on chlorophyll content and chloroplast ultrastructure. Proceedings XV Congress, International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists, 1974, Durban, South Africa. 1:343-347

Chen CT; Lee CS, 1972. Studies on sugarcane white leaf disease. Annual Report Taiwan Sugar Experiment Station, 1971-72, 182-183.

Chuang-Yang C; Ling KC, 1963. Studies on white leaf disease of sugarcane. V. Comparative test of healthy and diseased stools. Report Taiwan Sugar Experiment Station, 32:123-130.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Hanboonsong Y; Choosai C; Panyim S; Damak S, 2002. Transovarial transmission of sugarcane white leaf phytoplasma in the insect vector Matsumuratettix hiroglyphicus (Matsumura). Insect Molecular Biology, 11:97-103.

Hanboonsong Y; Ritthison W; Choosai C; Sirithorn P, 2006. Transmission of sugarcane white leaf phytoplasma by Yamatotettix flavovittatus, a new leafhopper vector. Journal of Economic Entomology, 99(5):1531-1537. http://www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1603/0022-0493-99.5.1531

IRPCM Phytoplasma/Spiroplasma Working Team Phytoplasma Taxonomy Group, 2004. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma', a taxon for wall-less, non-helical prokaryotes that colonize plant phloem and insects. International Journal of Systemic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 54:1243-1255.

Jones P; Devonshire BJ; Holman TJ; Ajanga S, 2004. Napier grass stunt: a new disease associated with a 16SrXI group phytoplasma in Kenya. Plant Pathology, 53(4):519. http://www.blackwellpublishing.com/ppa

Jung HeeYoung; Sawayanagi T; Wongkaew P; Kakizawa S; Nishigawa H; Wei Wei; Oshima K; Miyata S; Ugaki M; Hibi T; Namba S, 2003. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae', a novel phytoplasma taxon associated with rice yellow dwarf disease. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 53(6):1925-1929.

Kirkpatrick BC; Harrison NA; Lee I-M; Neimark H; Sears BB, 1995. Isolation of mycoplasma-like organism DNA from plant and insect hosts. In: Molecular and Diagnostic Procedures in Mycoplasmology, Vol. I. Molecular Characterization, 1 [ed. by Razin, S. \Tully, J. G.]. San Diego, USA: Academic Press, 105-117.

Kumarasinghe NC; Jones P, 2001. Identification of white leaf disease of sugarcane in Sri Lanka. Sugar Tech, 3(1/2):55-58.

Lee CS, 1970. Studies on sugarcane white leaf disease. Annual Report Taiwan Sugar Experiment Station, 1970-71, 118-120.

Lee IM; Pastore M; Vibio M; Danielli A; Attathom S; Davis RE; Bertaccini A, 1997. Detection and characterization of a phytoplasma associated with annual blue grass (Poa annua) white leaf disease in southern Italy. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 103(3):251-254; 13 ref.

Lee IM; Zhao Y; Davis RE; Wei W; Martini M, 2007. Prospects of DNA-based systems for differentiation and classification of phytoplasmas. Bulletin of Insectology [First international phytoplasmologist working group meeting. Bologna, Italy, 12-15 November 2007.], 60(2):239-244. http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/

Lee IngMing; Davis RE; Gundersen-Rindal DE, 2000. Phytoplasma: phytopathogenic mollicutes. Annual Review of Microbiology, 54:221-255.

Lee IngMing; Gundersen-Rindal DE; Davis RE; Bartoszyk IM, 1998. Revised classification scheme of phytoplasmas based on RFLP analyses of 16S rRNA and ribosomal protein gene sequences. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 48(4):1153-1169; 145 ref.

Maramorosch K; Kimura M; Chareonridhi S, 1975. Mycoplasma-like organisms associated with white leaf disease of sugarcane in Thailand. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 23:137-139.

Marcone C, 2002. Phytoplasma diseases of sugarcane. Sugar Tech, 4(3/4):79-85.

Marcone C; Ragozzino A; Seemnller E, 1997. Detection of Bermuda grass white leaf disease in Italy and characterization of the associated phytoplasma by RFLP analysis. Plant Disease, 81(8):862-866; 24 ref.

Marcone C; Ragozzino A; Seemuller E, 2001. Sugarcane white leaf and sugarcane grassy shoot diseases: biology and taxonomic characterization of the associated phytoplasmas. In: Sugarcane pathology. Volume 2: Virus and phytoplasma diseases [ed. by Rao, G. P.\Ford, R. E.\Tosic, M.\Teakle, D. S.]. Enfield, USA: Science Publishers, Inc., 83-97.

Marcone C; Rao GP, 2008. White leaf and grassy shoot diseases of sugarcane. In: Characterization, diagnosis & management of phytoplasmas [ed. by Harrison, N. A.\Rao, G. P.\Marcone, C.]. Houston, USA: Studium Press LLC, 293-305.

Marcone C; Schneider B; Seemüller E, 2004. 'Candidatus Phytoplasma cynodontis', the phytoplasma associated with Bermuda grass white leaf disease. International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, 54(4):1077-1082.

Matsumoto T; Lee CS; Teng WS, 1968. Studies on sugarcane white leaf disease of Taiwan, with special reference to transmission by a leafhopper, Epitettix hiroglyphicus Mats. Proceedings of the International Society of Sugar Cane Technologists, 13:1090-1098.

Nakashima K; Hayashi T; Chaleeprom W; Wongkaew P; Sirithorn P, 1996. Complex phytoplasma flora in Northeast Thailand as revealed by 16S rDNA analysis. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 62(1):57-60; 20 refs.

Nakashima K; Murata N, 1993. Destructive plant diseases caused by mycoplasma-like organisms in Asia. Outlook on Agriculture, 22(1):53-58

Nakashima K; Wongkaew P; Sirithorn P, 2001. Molecular detection and characterization of sugarcane white leaf phytoplasmas. In: Sugarcane pathology. Volume 2: Virus and phytoplasma diseases [ed. by Rao, G. P.\Ford, R. E.\Tosic, M.\Teakle, D. S.]. Enfield, USA: Science Publishers, Inc., 157-175.

Namba S; Oyaizu H; Kato S; Iwanami S; Tsuchizaki T, 1993. Phylogenetic diversity of phytopathogenic mycoplasmalike organisms. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 43(3):461-467

Rao GP; Ford RE, 2001. Vectors of virus and phytoplasma diseases of sugarcane - an overview. In: Sugarcane pathology. Volume 2: Virus and phytoplasma diseases [ed. by Rao, G. P.\Ford, R. E.\Tosic, M.\Teakle, D. S.]. Enfield, USA: Science Publishers, Inc., 267-318.

Rao GP; Ford RE; Tosi¢ M; Teakle DS, 2001. Sugarcane Pathology, Vol. II. Virus and Phytoplasma Diseases. Enfield (NH), USA: Science Publishers Inc.

Rishi N; Chen CT, 1989. Grassy shoot and white leaf diseases. In: Ricaud BC, Egan BT, eds. Diseases of Sugarcane. Amsterdam, The Netherlands: Elsevier, 289-300.

Sarindu N; Clark MF, 1993. Antibody production and identity of MLOs associated with sugar-cane whiteleaf disease and bermuda-grass whiteleaf disease from Thailand. Plant Pathology, 42(3):396-402

Schneider B; Padovan A; Rue Sde la; Eichner R; Davis R; Bernuetz A; Gibb K, 1999. Detection and differentiation of phytoplasmas in Australia: an update. Australian Journal of Agricultural Research, 50(3):333-342.

Sdoodee R, 2001. Recent studies on white leaf and grassy shoot phytoplasmas of sugarcane. In: Sugarcane pathology. Volume 2: Virus and phytoplasma diseases [ed. by Rao, G. P.\Ford, R. E.\Tosic, M.\Teakle, D. S.]. Enfield, USA: Science Publishers, Inc., 235-244.

Sdoodee R; Schneider B; Padovan AC; Gibb KS, 1999. Detection and genetic relatedness of phytoplasmas associated with plant diseases in Thailand. Journal of Biochemistry, Molecular Biology and Biophysics, 3(2):133-140.

Seemnller E; Marcone C; Lauer U; Ragozzino A; G÷schl M, 1998. Current status of molecular classification of the phytoplasmas. Journal of Plant Pathology, 80:3-26.

Seemüller E; Schneider B; Maürer R; Ahrens U; Daire X; Kison H; Lorenz KH; Firrao G; Avinent L; Sears BB; Stackebrandt E, 1994. Phylogenetic classification of phytopathogenic mollicutes by sequence analysis of 16S ribosomal DNA. International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology, 44(3):440-446

Seneviratne JAUT; Bandara JMRS; Ahangama D; Li HuaPing, 2004. Rapid detection of sugarcane phytoplasma by PCR amplification using specific primers. Tropical Agricultural Research, 16:61-70.

Tran-Nguyen L; Blanche KR; Egan B; Gibb KS, 2000. Diversity of phytoplasmas in northern Australian sugarcane and other grasses. Plant Pathology, 49(6):666-679.

Viswanathan R, 1997. Detection of phytoplasmas associated with grassy shoot disease of sugarcane by ELISA techniques. Zeitschrift fu^umlaut~r Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 104(1):9-16; 20 ref.

Viswanathan R, 2001. Serodiagnosis of phytoplasmas causing grassy shoot disease in sugarcane. In: Sugarcane pathology. Volume 2: Virus and phytoplasma diseases [ed. by Rao, G. P.\Ford, R. E.\Tosic, M.\Teakle, D. S.]. Enfield, USA: Science Publishers, Inc., 209-220.

Wongkaew P; Fletcher J, 2004. Sugarcane white leaf phytoplasma in tissue culture: long-term maintenance, transmission, and oxytetracycline remission. Plant Cell Reports, 23(6):426-434. http://link.springer.de/link/service/journals/00299/index.htm

Wongkaew P; Hanboonsong Y; Sirithorn P; Choosai C; Boonkrong S; Tinnangwattana T; Kitchareonpanya R; Damak S, 1997. Differentiation of phytoplasmas associated with sugarcane and gramineous weed white leaf disease and sugarcane grassy shoot disease by RFLP and sequencing. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 95(4):660-663; 17 ref.

Distribution Maps

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