Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Setosphaeria turcica
(maize leaf blight)

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Datasheet

Setosphaeria turcica (maize leaf blight)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 24 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Setosphaeria turcica
  • Preferred Common Name
  • maize leaf blight
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Dothideomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleAscospores and ascomata
Caption
Copyright©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience
Ascospores and ascomata©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience
TitleAscospores
Caption
CopyrightR.A. Shoemaker
AscosporesR.A. Shoemaker

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Setosphaeria turcica (Luttr.) K. J. Leonard & Suggs

Preferred Common Name

  • maize leaf blight

Other Scientific Names

  • Bipolaris turcica (Pass.) Shoemaker
  • Drechslera turcica (Pass.) Subram. & B. L. Jain
  • Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.) K. J. Leonard & Suggs
  • Helminthosporium inconspicuum Cooke & Ellis
  • Helminthosporium turcicum Pass.
  • Keissleriella turcica (Luttr.) Arx
  • Luttriella turcica (Pass.) Khokhr.
  • Trichometasphaeria turcica Luttr.

International Common Names

  • English: leaf blight: maize; leaf blight: Sorghum spp.; northern corn leaf blight; northern: maize leaf blight
  • Spanish: niebla del maíz; tizon de las hojas: maiz
  • French: brûlure des feuilles du maïs; brûlure du mais; brûlure helminthosporienne du mais; helminthosporiose du mais; suie du mais

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Blattduerre: Mais; Streifenkrankheit: Mais

EPPO code

  • SETOTU (Setosphaeria turcica)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Dothideomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Pleosporomycetidae
  •                         Order: Pleosporales
  •                             Family: Pleosporaceae
  •                                 Genus: Setosphaeria
  •                                     Species: Setosphaeria turcica

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
BeninPresentUK, CAB International (1988)
BotswanaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
Burkina FasoPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
BurundiPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
CameroonPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
Central African RepublicPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
ChadPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
Congo, Republic of thePresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
EgyptPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
EritreaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
EswatiniPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
EthiopiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
GabonPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
GambiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
GhanaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
GuineaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
KenyaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
LibyaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
MadagascarPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
MalawiPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
MaliPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
MauritiusPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
MoroccoPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
NigerPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
NigeriaPresentFajemisin et al. (1982); CABI and EPPO (2008);
RéunionPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
RwandaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
SenegalPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
Sierra LeonePresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
South AfricaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
SudanPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
TanzaniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
TogoPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
UgandaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
ZambiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
ZimbabwePresentCABI and EPPO (2008)

Asia

AfghanistanPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
BangladeshPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
BhutanPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
BruneiPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
CambodiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
ChinaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-AnhuiPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-FujianPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-GansuPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-GuangdongPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-GuangxiPresentCABI (Undated); CABI and EPPO (2008)Original citation: Wu et al., 1893
-GuizhouPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-HainanPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-HebeiPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-HeilongjiangPresentZhang and Lai (1990); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-HenanPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-HubeiPresentCABI (Undated); CABI and EPPO (2008)Original citation: Zhu et al., 1995
-HunanPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-Inner MongoliaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-JiangsuPresentXie et al. (1993); CABI and EPPO (2008);
-JiangxiPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-JilinPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-LiaoningPresentWu et al. (1983); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-ShaanxiPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-ShandongPresentZhou (1994); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-ShanxiPresentLiu (1983); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-SichuanPresentHu (1993); CABI and EPPO (2008);
-TibetPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-YunnanPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-ZhejiangPresentWu et al. (1983); CABI and EPPO (2008)
GeorgiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
Hong KongPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
IndiaPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2008)
-Andhra PradeshPresentSingh et al. (1994); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-Arunachal PradeshPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-BiharPresentSharma and Mishra (1993); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-DelhiPresentHarlapur et al. (2007)
-GujaratPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-HaryanaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-Himachal PradeshPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-KarnatakaPresentGowda et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-Madhya PradeshPresentCABI (Undated); CABI and EPPO (2008)Original citation: Barde, 1988
-MaharashtraPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-MeghalayaPresentMahajan et al. (1995); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-NagalandPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-RajasthanPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-Tamil NaduPresentVeerraju and Prasad (1974); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-Uttar PradeshPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-UttarakhandPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-West BengalPresentKaiser and Chowdhuri (1986); CABI and EPPO (2008)
IndonesiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-JavaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
IranPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
IraqPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
IsraelPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
JapanPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-HokkaidoPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
KazakhstanPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
LaosPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
LebanonPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
MalaysiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-SabahPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
MyanmarPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
NepalPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
OmanPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
PakistanPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
PhilippinesPresentTangonan and Sorongon (1990); CABI and EPPO (2008);
Saudi ArabiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
South KoreaPresentSeo JongHo et al. (1996); CABI and EPPO (2008);
TaiwanPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
ThailandPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
TurkeyPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
VietnamPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
YemenPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)

Europe

AustriaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
BulgariaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
CroatiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
CzechiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
CzechoslovakiaPresentUK, CAB International (1988)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentUK, CAB International (1988)
FrancePresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
GermanyPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
HungaryPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
ItalyPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
PolandPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
PortugalPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
RomaniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
RussiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008); Martyniyuk (2003)
-Russian Far EastPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-Southern RussiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-Western SiberiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
SloveniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
SpainPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
SwitzerlandPresentSivanesan (1987); CABI and EPPO (2008)
UkrainePresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
United KingdomPresentCook (1973)

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
BermudaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
CanadaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-ManitobaPresentGinns (1986); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-OntarioPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-QuebecPresentGinns (1986); CABI and EPPO (2008)
Costa RicaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
CubaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
Dominican RepublicPresentUK, CAB International (1988)
El SalvadorPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
GuadeloupePresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
GuatemalaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
HaitiPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
HondurasPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
JamaicaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
MexicoPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
NicaraguaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
PanamaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
Puerto RicoPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
United StatesPresent, WidespreadCABI and EPPO (2008)
-ArkansasPresentArun Kumar (1988)
-CaliforniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-DelawarePresentPedersen and Brandenburg (1986); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-FloridaPresentCABI (Undated); CABI and EPPO (2008)Original citation: Pieczarka, 1908
-GeorgiaPresentDuncan et al. (1990); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-HawaiiPresentBergquist (1975); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-IllinoisPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-IndianaPresentTurner and Johnson (1980); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-IowaPresentJones et al. (1993); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-LouisianaPresentSloane et al. (1975); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-MarylandPresentMace (1973); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-MontanaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-NebraskaPresentCalub et al. (1974); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-New HampshirePresentLong et al. (1975); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-New JerseyPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-New YorkPresentSmith and Gracen (1993); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-North CarolinaPresentLeonard et al. (1988); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-OhioPresentPratt et al. (1994); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-PennsylvaniaPresentJohnson (1989); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-South CarolinaPresentSmith and Kinsey (1980); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-South DakotaPresentDraper and Deneke (2005)
-TexasPresentCollins et al. (1993); Krausz et al. (1993); CABI and EPPO (2008)
-VirginiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-West VirginiaPresentPedersen and Brandenburg (1986); CABI and EPPO (2008)

Oceania

AustraliaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-New South WalesPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-Northern TerritoryPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-QueenslandPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-TasmaniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-VictoriaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-Western AustraliaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
FijiPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
French PolynesiaPresentSivanesan (1987); CABI and EPPO (2008);
New CaledoniaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
New ZealandPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
Papua New GuineaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
TongaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
Wallis and FutunaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)

South America

ArgentinaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
BoliviaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
BrazilPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-GoiasPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-Mato GrossoPresentUK, CAB International (1988)
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-Minas GeraisPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-ParanaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
-Sao PauloPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
ColombiaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
EcuadorPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
French GuianaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
GuyanaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
PeruPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
SurinamePresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
UruguayPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)
VenezuelaPresentCABI and EPPO (2008)

Growth Stages

Top of page Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / necrotic areas
Roots / reduced root system
Whole plant / damping off

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

References

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Adipala E; Lipps PE; Madden LV, 1993. Occurrence of Exserohilum turcicum on maize in Uganda. Plant Disease, 77(2):202-205

Alagianagalingam MN; Devasagayam HL; Kandaswamy M, 1969. Some experiments on the fungicidal control of leaf disease of sorghum. Madras Agricultural Journal, 56(10):617-622

Arjunan G; Vidhyasekaran P; Kandaswamy TK, 1976. Fungicidal control of Helminthosporium blight. Madras Agricultural Journal, 63(5/7):410-411

Arun Kumar, 1988. Screening of forage sorghum cultivars against prevalent foliar disease. Sorghum Newsletter, 31:99

Auila SS; Sandhu KS; Sharma YR, 1977. Incidence of leaf blight of maize as influenced by varying levels of zinc. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 7(2):166-167

Bach EE; Kimati H, 1995. Serological and electrophoresis analysis of Exserohilum turcicum isolated from maize, sorghum and Johnson grass. Summa Phytopathologica, 21(2):140-146; 18 ref.

Bacha F; Ivanovich M; Petrovich R; Kaitovich Zh, 1994. Breeding ZP hybrids for pest resistance. Kukuruza i Sorgo, No. 6:20-21; 6 ref.

Bair W; McGahen JH; Ayers JE, 1990. Effect of time and rate of N sidedress application on northern corn leaf blight severity and the associated yield loss. Journal of Production Agriculture, 3(1):44-49

Barde AK, 1988. New host records of fungi of Balaghat from India. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 18(2):217-218

Bashan B; Abadi R; Levy Y, 1996. Involvement of a phytotoxic peptide in the development of the Northern leaf blight of corn. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 102(9):891-893; 15 ref.

Bashan B; Levy RS; Cojocaru M; Levy Y, 1995. Purification and structural determination of a phytotoxic substance from Exserohilum turcicum. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 47(4):225-235

Benedict WG; Palmerley RA, 1979. Suppression of germ-tube abnormalities in Helminthosporium turcicum by blue light. Canadian Journal of Botany, 57(1):87-89

Bentolila S; Guitton C; Bouvet N; Sailland A; Nykaza S; Freyssinet G, 1991. Identification of an RFLP marker tightly linked to the Ht1 gene in maize. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 82(4):393-398

Berger RD, 1973. Helminthosporium turcicum lesion numbers related to numbers of trapped spores and fungicide sprays. Phytopathology, 63(7):930-933.

Berger RD, 1973. Timing of aerially applied sprays to control corn blight. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 85:141-144.

Bergquist RR, 1975. Helminthosporium leaf blight race 2. Miscellaneous Publication, Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station, No. 122:6

Berquist RR; Masias OR, 1974. Physiologic specialization in Trichometasphaeria turcica f. sp. zeae and T. turcica f. sp. sorghi in Hawaii. Phytopathology, 64:645-649.

Bleicher J; Balmer E, 1993. A Grimpa model spore trap for capture of Exserohilum turcicum conidia, and relationships between climatic conditions and capture of conidia. Summa Phytopathologica, 19(2):118-122

Bunker RN; Mathur K, 2008. Evaluation of neem based formulations and chemical fungicides for the management of sorghum leaf blight. Indian Phytopathology, 61(2):192-196. http://www.ipsdis.org

CABI/EPPO, 2008. Setosphaeria turcica. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, April (Edition 6). Wallingford, UK: CABI, Map 257.

Calub AG; Dunn GM; Routley DG, 1973. Effects of genetic background on monogenic resistance to Helminthosporium turcicum in maize (Zea mays L.). Crop Science, 13(5):561-563

Calub AG; Dunn GM; Routley DG; Couture RM, 1974. Production of inhibitory compounds in corn inbreds with monogenic and multigenic resistance to Helminthosporium turcicum. Genetic and environmental effects on production of inhibitory compounds in corn resistant to Helminthosporium turcicum. Crop Science, 14(3):359-361.

Chamberlain DW, 1972. Heat-induced susceptibility to nonpathogens and cross-protection against Phytophthora megasperma var. sojae in soybean. Phytopathology, 62(6):645-646

Chen WeiQun; Chen FaJun; Zhang TianYu, 2000. Some saprotrophic deuteromycetes in Xisha Islands. Mycosystema, 19(3):428-430.

Chiang MY; Dyke CG van; Leonard KJ, 1989. Evaluation of endemic foliar fungi for potential biological control of johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense): screening and host range tests. Plant Disease, 73(6):459-464

Choudhary DP, 1990. Extracellular cellulolytic enzyme activity of Helminthosporium turcicum, the incitant of leafblight of maize. Environment and Ecology, 8(4):1181-1184

Cohen Y; Levi Y; Eyal H, 1978. Sporogenesis of some fungal plant pathogens under intermittent light conditions. Canadian Journal of Botany, 56(20):2538-2543

Collins SD; Frederiksen RA; Rosenow DT; Miller FR, 1993. Registration of Tx2891 sorghum germplasm line. Crop Science, 33(5):1109; 1 ref.

Cook RJ, 1973. Disease of grain maize. ADAS Quarterly Review, 11. Winter, 113-117.

Cox RS; Wolf EA, 1955. A crown rot of sweet corn caused by Helminthosporium turcicum. Phytopathology, 45(5):291-292.

Cuq F; Herrmann-Gorline S; Klaebe A; Rossignol M; Petitprez M, 1993. Monocerin in Exserohilum turcicum isolates from maize and a study of its phytotoxicity. Phytochemistry, 34(5):1265-1270

Degefu Y; Fagerstrom R; Kalkkinen N, 1995. Purification and partial characterization of xylanase from the fungal maize pathogen Helminthosporium turcicum (Pass). European Journal of Plant Pathology, 101(3):291-299

Deng FuYou; Dong JinGao; Li LiPing, 1995. The application of Ht-toxins in identifying resistance of maize varieties to Helminthosporium turcicum. Journal of Hebei Agricultural University, 18(4):12-15; 6 ref.

D'Ercole N; Nipoti P, 1979. Microbiological analysis of sorghum seeds. Informatore Fitopatologico, 29(9):7-12

Dingerdissen AL; Geiger HH; Lee M; Schechert A; Welz HG, 1996. Interval mapping of genes for quantitative resistance of maize to Setosphaeria turcica, cause of northern leaf blight, in a tropical environment. Molecular Breeding, 2(2):143-156; 57 ref.

Draper MA; Deneke D, 2005. Recognizing and Managing Common Crop Diseases in South Dakota. Extension Extra ExEx8005. College of Agricultural & Biological Sciences, South Dakota State University/USDA. South Dakota, USA: South Dakota State University/USDA. http://agbiopubs.sdstate.edu/articles/ExEx8005

Duncan RR; Miller FR; Rosenow DT; Sotomayor-Rfos A; Torres-Cardona S, 1990. Registration of GTPP7R(H)C5 white seeded, tan plant, and foliar disease resistant sorghum germplasm population. Crop Science, 30(1):239-240.

El Shafie p; Webster J, 1979. Trichometasphaeria turcica as a root pathogen of Sorghum bicolor var. feterita. Plant Disease Reporter, 63(5):424-426

Ellis MB; Holliday P, 1971. Cochliobolus heterostrophus. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria, No. 301. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Evans RC; Stempen H; Frasca P, 1982. Evidence for a two-layered sheath on germ tubes of three species of Bipolaris. Phytopathology, 72(7):804-807

Fajemisin JM; Kim SK; Efron Y; Singh J; Bjarnason M; Thottapilly G; Rossel HW, 1982. Maize pathology. Annual Report, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, 1981 IITA Ibadania Niger, 91-98

Farr DF; Bills GF; Chamuris GP; Rossman AY, 1989. Fungi on Plants and Plant Products in the United States. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: APS Press, 1252 pp.

Frederiksen RA(Editor), 1986. Compendium of sorghum diseases. St. Paul, MN, USA; American Phytopathological Society, v + 82 pp.

Fullerton RA, 1982. Assessment of leaf damage caused by northern leaf blight in maize. New Zealand Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 10(3):313-316

Fullerton RA; Fletcher JD, 1974. Observations on the survival of Drechslera turcica in maize debris in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 17(2):153-155.

Gangadharan K; Subramanian N; Mohanraj D; Kandaswamy TK; Sundaram MV, 1976. Efficacy of fungicides in the control of foliar diseases of sorghum. Madras Agricultural Journal, 63(5/7):413-414

Ginns JH, 1986. Compendium of plant disease and decay fungi in Canada, 1960-1980. Ottawa, Canada; Canadian Government Publishing Centre1813:416..

Gowda KTP; Shetty HS; Gowda BJ; Prakash HS; Sangam Lal, 1992. Comparison of two methods for assessment of yield loss due to turcicum leaf blight of maize. Indian Phytopathology, 45(3):316-320

Gowda KTP; Shetty HS; Gowda BJ; Sangamlal, 1995. Incidence of leaf blight (Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.) Leonard and Suggs.) of maize in relation to meteorological factors. Mysore Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 29(1):31-35

Hamid AH; Aragaki M, 1975. Inheritance of pathogenicity in Setosphaeria turcica. Phytopathology, 65(3):280-283

Harlapur SI; Kulkarni MS; Yeshoda Hegde; Srikant Kulkarni, 2007. Variability in Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.) Leonard and Suggs., causal agent of turcicum leaf blight of maize. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 20(3):665-666. http://203.129.218.157/ojs/index.php/kjas/article/viewFile/296/283

Higgins VJ, 1972. A study of the role of the phytoalexin medicarpin in three leaf spot diseases of alfalfa. Canadian Phytopathological Society: Proceedings of the thirty eighth Session of the Canadian Phytopathological Society, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, June 26-28, 1972. Canada: CPS.

Honda Y; Aragaki M, 1978. Stability of hilum protuberance in Exserohilum species. Mycologia, 70(3):547-555

Hu XA, 1993. High-yielding maize variety Ya Yu 2. Crop Genetic Resources, No. 4:26.

Ingham JL; Millar RL, 1973. Sativin: an induced isoflavan from the leaves of Medicago sativa L. Nature, 242(5393):125-126.

Issa E, 1983. Chemical control of Helminthosporium turcicum Pass. on maize (Zea mays L.). Biologico, 49(2):41-44

Johnson MW, 1989. Registration of PA356, PA376 and PA891 parental lines of maize. Crop Science, 29(5):1333-1334.

Jondle DJ; Coors JG; Duke SH, 1989. Maize leaf -1,3-glucanase activity in relation to resistance to Exserohilum turcicum. Canadian Journal of Botany, 67(1):263-266

Jones MW; Pratt RC; Findley WR Jr; StMartin SK; Guthrie WD, 1993. Multiple trait improvement in OhS3 using a "rank and replace" S recurrent selection method. Maydica, 38(4):283-290

Kachapur MR; Hegde RK, 1988. Studies on turcicum blight of maize (Zea mays L.) caused by Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.) Leonard & Suggs with special reference to crop loss assessment. Plant Pathology Newsletter, 6(1-2):33-35

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