Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Setosphaeria turcica
(maize leaf blight)

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Datasheet

Setosphaeria turcica (maize leaf blight)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 24 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Setosphaeria turcica
  • Preferred Common Name
  • maize leaf blight
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Dothideomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleAscospores and ascomata
Caption
Copyright©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience
Ascospores and ascomata©J.M. Waller/CABI BioScience
TitleAscospores
Caption
CopyrightR.A. Shoemaker
AscosporesR.A. Shoemaker

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Setosphaeria turcica (Luttr.) K. J. Leonard & Suggs

Preferred Common Name

  • maize leaf blight

Other Scientific Names

  • Bipolaris turcica (Pass.) Shoemaker
  • Drechslera turcica (Pass.) Subram. & B. L. Jain
  • Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.) K. J. Leonard & Suggs
  • Helminthosporium inconspicuum Cooke & Ellis
  • Helminthosporium turcicum Pass.
  • Keissleriella turcica (Luttr.) Arx
  • Luttriella turcica (Pass.) Khokhr.
  • Trichometasphaeria turcica Luttr.

International Common Names

  • English: leaf blight: maize; leaf blight: Sorghum spp.; northern corn leaf blight; northern: maize leaf blight
  • Spanish: niebla del maíz; tizon de las hojas: maiz
  • French: brûlure des feuilles du maïs; brûlure du mais; brûlure helminthosporienne du mais; helminthosporiose du mais; suie du mais

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Blattduerre: Mais; Streifenkrankheit: Mais

EPPO code

  • SETOTU (Setosphaeria turcica)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Dothideomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Pleosporomycetidae
  •                         Order: Pleosporales
  •                             Family: Pleosporaceae
  •                                 Genus: Setosphaeria
  •                                     Species: Setosphaeria turcica

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresent
BeninPresent
BotswanaPresent
Burkina FasoPresent
BurundiPresent
CameroonPresent
Central African RepublicPresent
ChadPresent
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent
Congo, Republic of thePresent
EgyptPresent
EritreaPresent
EswatiniPresent
EthiopiaPresent
GabonPresent
GambiaPresent
GhanaPresent
GuineaPresent
KenyaPresent
LibyaPresent
MadagascarPresent
MalawiPresent
MaliPresent
MauritiusPresent
MoroccoPresent
NigerPresent
NigeriaPresent
RéunionPresent
RwandaPresent
SenegalPresent
Sierra LeonePresent
South AfricaPresent
SudanPresent
TanzaniaPresent
TogoPresent
UgandaPresent
ZambiaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

AfghanistanPresent
AzerbaijanPresent
BangladeshPresent
BhutanPresent
BruneiPresent
CambodiaPresent
ChinaPresent
-AnhuiPresent
-FujianPresent
-GansuPresent
-GuangdongPresent
-GuangxiPresentOriginal citation: Wu et al., 1893
-GuizhouPresent
-HainanPresent
-HebeiPresent
-HeilongjiangPresent
-HenanPresent
-HubeiPresentOriginal citation: Zhu et al., 1995
-HunanPresent
-Inner MongoliaPresent
-JiangsuPresent
-JiangxiPresent
-JilinPresent
-LiaoningPresent
-ShaanxiPresent
-ShandongPresent
-ShanxiPresent
-SichuanPresent
-TibetPresent
-YunnanPresent
-ZhejiangPresent
GeorgiaPresent
Hong KongPresent
IndiaPresent, Widespread
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-Arunachal PradeshPresent
-BiharPresent
-DelhiPresent
-GujaratPresent
-HaryanaPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-Jammu and KashmirPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresentOriginal citation: Barde, 1988
-MaharashtraPresent
-MeghalayaPresent
-NagalandPresent
-RajasthanPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-UttarakhandPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresent
-JavaPresent
IranPresent
IraqPresent
IsraelPresent
JapanPresent
-HokkaidoPresent
KazakhstanPresent
LaosPresent
LebanonPresent
MalaysiaPresent
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
-SabahPresent
MyanmarPresent
NepalPresent
OmanPresent
PakistanPresent
PhilippinesPresent
Saudi ArabiaPresent
South KoreaPresent
TaiwanPresent
ThailandPresent
TurkeyPresent
VietnamPresent
YemenPresent

Europe

AustriaPresent
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresent
BulgariaPresent
CroatiaPresent
CzechiaPresent
CzechoslovakiaPresent
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresent
FrancePresent
GermanyPresent
HungaryPresent
ItalyPresent
PolandPresent
PortugalPresent
RomaniaPresent
RussiaPresent
-Russian Far EastPresent
-Southern RussiaPresent
-Western SiberiaPresent
SloveniaPresent
SpainPresent
SwitzerlandPresent
UkrainePresent
United KingdomPresent

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresent
BermudaPresent
CanadaPresent
-ManitobaPresent
-OntarioPresent
-QuebecPresent
Costa RicaPresent
CubaPresent
Dominican RepublicPresent
El SalvadorPresent
GuadeloupePresent
GuatemalaPresent
HaitiPresent
HondurasPresent
JamaicaPresent
MexicoPresent
NicaraguaPresent
PanamaPresent
Puerto RicoPresent
Trinidad and TobagoPresent
United StatesPresent, Widespread
-ArkansasPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-DelawarePresent
-FloridaPresentOriginal citation: Pieczarka, 1908
-GeorgiaPresent
-HawaiiPresent
-IllinoisPresent
-IndianaPresent
-IowaPresent
-LouisianaPresent
-MarylandPresent
-MontanaPresent
-NebraskaPresent
-New HampshirePresent
-New JerseyPresent
-New YorkPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-OhioPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent
-South CarolinaPresent
-South DakotaPresent
-TexasPresent
-VirginiaPresent
-West VirginiaPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent
-New South WalesPresent
-Northern TerritoryPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-TasmaniaPresent
-VictoriaPresent
-Western AustraliaPresent
FijiPresent
French PolynesiaPresent
New CaledoniaPresent
New ZealandPresent
Papua New GuineaPresent
TongaPresent
Wallis and FutunaPresent

South America

ArgentinaPresent
BoliviaPresent
BrazilPresent
-GoiasPresent
-Mato GrossoPresent
-Mato Grosso do SulPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-ParanaPresent
-Rio Grande do SulPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ColombiaPresent
EcuadorPresent
French GuianaPresent
GuyanaPresent
PeruPresent
SurinamePresent
UruguayPresent
VenezuelaPresent

Growth Stages

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Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / necrotic areas
Roots / reduced root system
Whole plant / damping off

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

References

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Adipala E; Lipps PE; Madden LV, 1993. Occurrence of Exserohilum turcicum on maize in Uganda. Plant Disease, 77(2):202-205

Alagianagalingam MN; Devasagayam HL; Kandaswamy M, 1969. Some experiments on the fungicidal control of leaf disease of sorghum. Madras Agricultural Journal, 56(10):617-622

Arjunan G; Vidhyasekaran P; Kandaswamy TK, 1976. Fungicidal control of Helminthosporium blight. Madras Agricultural Journal, 63(5/7):410-411

Arun Kumar, 1988. Screening of forage sorghum cultivars against prevalent foliar disease. Sorghum Newsletter, 31:99

Auila SS; Sandhu KS; Sharma YR, 1977. Incidence of leaf blight of maize as influenced by varying levels of zinc. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 7(2):166-167

Bach EE; Kimati H, 1995. Serological and electrophoresis analysis of Exserohilum turcicum isolated from maize, sorghum and Johnson grass. Summa Phytopathologica, 21(2):140-146; 18 ref.

Bacha F; Ivanovich M; Petrovich R; Kaitovich Zh, 1994. Breeding ZP hybrids for pest resistance. Kukuruza i Sorgo, No. 6:20-21; 6 ref.

Bair W; McGahen JH; Ayers JE, 1990. Effect of time and rate of N sidedress application on northern corn leaf blight severity and the associated yield loss. Journal of Production Agriculture, 3(1):44-49

Barde AK, 1988. New host records of fungi of Balaghat from India. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 18(2):217-218

Bashan B; Abadi R; Levy Y, 1996. Involvement of a phytotoxic peptide in the development of the Northern leaf blight of corn. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 102(9):891-893; 15 ref.

Bashan B; Levy RS; Cojocaru M; Levy Y, 1995. Purification and structural determination of a phytotoxic substance from Exserohilum turcicum. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 47(4):225-235

Benedict WG; Palmerley RA, 1979. Suppression of germ-tube abnormalities in Helminthosporium turcicum by blue light. Canadian Journal of Botany, 57(1):87-89

Bentolila S; Guitton C; Bouvet N; Sailland A; Nykaza S; Freyssinet G, 1991. Identification of an RFLP marker tightly linked to the Ht1 gene in maize. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 82(4):393-398

Berger RD, 1973. Helminthosporium turcicum lesion numbers related to numbers of trapped spores and fungicide sprays. Phytopathology, 63(7):930-933.

Berger RD, 1973. Timing of aerially applied sprays to control corn blight. Proceedings of the Florida State Horticultural Society, 85:141-144.

Bergquist RR, 1975. Helminthosporium leaf blight race 2. Miscellaneous Publication, Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station, No. 122:6

Berquist RR; Masias OR, 1974. Physiologic specialization in Trichometasphaeria turcica f. sp. zeae and T. turcica f. sp. sorghi in Hawaii. Phytopathology, 64:645-649.

Bleicher J; Balmer E, 1993. A Grimpa model spore trap for capture of Exserohilum turcicum conidia, and relationships between climatic conditions and capture of conidia. Summa Phytopathologica, 19(2):118-122

Bunker RN; Mathur K, 2008. Evaluation of neem based formulations and chemical fungicides for the management of sorghum leaf blight. Indian Phytopathology, 61(2):192-196. http://www.ipsdis.org

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Calub AG; Dunn GM; Routley DG, 1973. Effects of genetic background on monogenic resistance to Helminthosporium turcicum in maize (Zea mays L.). Crop Science, 13(5):561-563

Calub AG; Dunn GM; Routley DG; Couture RM, 1974. Production of inhibitory compounds in corn inbreds with monogenic and multigenic resistance to Helminthosporium turcicum. Genetic and environmental effects on production of inhibitory compounds in corn resistant to Helminthosporium turcicum. Crop Science, 14(3):359-361.

Chamberlain DW, 1972. Heat-induced susceptibility to nonpathogens and cross-protection against Phytophthora megasperma var. sojae in soybean. Phytopathology, 62(6):645-646

Chen WeiQun; Chen FaJun; Zhang TianYu, 2000. Some saprotrophic deuteromycetes in Xisha Islands. Mycosystema, 19(3):428-430.

Chiang MY; Dyke CG van; Leonard KJ, 1989. Evaluation of endemic foliar fungi for potential biological control of johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense): screening and host range tests. Plant Disease, 73(6):459-464

Choudhary DP, 1990. Extracellular cellulolytic enzyme activity of Helminthosporium turcicum, the incitant of leafblight of maize. Environment and Ecology, 8(4):1181-1184

Cohen Y; Levi Y; Eyal H, 1978. Sporogenesis of some fungal plant pathogens under intermittent light conditions. Canadian Journal of Botany, 56(20):2538-2543

Collins SD; Frederiksen RA; Rosenow DT; Miller FR, 1993. Registration of Tx2891 sorghum germplasm line. Crop Science, 33(5):1109; 1 ref.

Cook RJ, 1973. Disease of grain maize. ADAS Quarterly Review, 11. Winter, 113-117.

Cox RS; Wolf EA, 1955. A crown rot of sweet corn caused by Helminthosporium turcicum. Phytopathology, 45(5):291-292.

Cuq F; Herrmann-Gorline S; Klaebe A; Rossignol M; Petitprez M, 1993. Monocerin in Exserohilum turcicum isolates from maize and a study of its phytotoxicity. Phytochemistry, 34(5):1265-1270

Degefu Y; Fagerstrom R; Kalkkinen N, 1995. Purification and partial characterization of xylanase from the fungal maize pathogen Helminthosporium turcicum (Pass). European Journal of Plant Pathology, 101(3):291-299

Deng FuYou; Dong JinGao; Li LiPing, 1995. The application of Ht-toxins in identifying resistance of maize varieties to Helminthosporium turcicum. Journal of Hebei Agricultural University, 18(4):12-15; 6 ref.

D'Ercole N; Nipoti P, 1979. Microbiological analysis of sorghum seeds. Informatore Fitopatologico, 29(9):7-12

Dingerdissen AL; Geiger HH; Lee M; Schechert A; Welz HG, 1996. Interval mapping of genes for quantitative resistance of maize to Setosphaeria turcica, cause of northern leaf blight, in a tropical environment. Molecular Breeding, 2(2):143-156; 57 ref.

Draper MA; Deneke D, 2005. Recognizing and Managing Common Crop Diseases in South Dakota. Extension Extra ExEx8005. College of Agricultural & Biological Sciences, South Dakota State University/USDA. South Dakota, USA: South Dakota State University/USDA. http://agbiopubs.sdstate.edu/articles/ExEx8005

Duncan RR; Miller FR; Rosenow DT; Sotomayor-Rfos A; Torres-Cardona S, 1990. Registration of GTPP7R(H)C5 white seeded, tan plant, and foliar disease resistant sorghum germplasm population. Crop Science, 30(1):239-240.

El Shafie p; Webster J, 1979. Trichometasphaeria turcica as a root pathogen of Sorghum bicolor var. feterita. Plant Disease Reporter, 63(5):424-426

Ellis MB; Holliday P, 1971. Cochliobolus heterostrophus. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria, No. 301. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Evans RC; Stempen H; Frasca P, 1982. Evidence for a two-layered sheath on germ tubes of three species of Bipolaris. Phytopathology, 72(7):804-807

Fajemisin JM; Kim SK; Efron Y; Singh J; Bjarnason M; Thottapilly G; Rossel HW, 1982. Maize pathology. Annual Report, International Institute of Tropical Agriculture, 1981 IITA Ibadania Niger, 91-98

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Frederiksen RA(Editor), 1986. Compendium of sorghum diseases. St. Paul, MN, USA; American Phytopathological Society, v + 82 pp.

Fullerton RA, 1982. Assessment of leaf damage caused by northern leaf blight in maize. New Zealand Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 10(3):313-316

Fullerton RA; Fletcher JD, 1974. Observations on the survival of Drechslera turcica in maize debris in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 17(2):153-155.

Gangadharan K; Subramanian N; Mohanraj D; Kandaswamy TK; Sundaram MV, 1976. Efficacy of fungicides in the control of foliar diseases of sorghum. Madras Agricultural Journal, 63(5/7):413-414

Ginns JH, 1986. Compendium of plant disease and decay fungi in Canada, 1960-1980. Ottawa, Canada; Canadian Government Publishing Centre1813:416..

Gowda KTP; Shetty HS; Gowda BJ; Prakash HS; Sangam Lal, 1992. Comparison of two methods for assessment of yield loss due to turcicum leaf blight of maize. Indian Phytopathology, 45(3):316-320

Gowda KTP; Shetty HS; Gowda BJ; Sangamlal, 1995. Incidence of leaf blight (Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.) Leonard and Suggs.) of maize in relation to meteorological factors. Mysore Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 29(1):31-35

Hamid AH; Aragaki M, 1975. Inheritance of pathogenicity in Setosphaeria turcica. Phytopathology, 65(3):280-283

Harlapur SI; Kulkarni MS; Yeshoda Hegde; Srikant Kulkarni, 2007. Variability in Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.) Leonard and Suggs., causal agent of turcicum leaf blight of maize. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 20(3):665-666. http://203.129.218.157/ojs/index.php/kjas/article/viewFile/296/283

Higgins VJ, 1972. A study of the role of the phytoalexin medicarpin in three leaf spot diseases of alfalfa. Canadian Phytopathological Society: Proceedings of the thirty eighth Session of the Canadian Phytopathological Society, University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, June 26-28, 1972. Canada: CPS.

Honda Y; Aragaki M, 1978. Stability of hilum protuberance in Exserohilum species. Mycologia, 70(3):547-555

Hu XA, 1993. High-yielding maize variety Ya Yu 2. Crop Genetic Resources, No. 4:26.

Ingham JL; Millar RL, 1973. Sativin: an induced isoflavan from the leaves of Medicago sativa L. Nature, 242(5393):125-126.

Issa E, 1983. Chemical control of Helminthosporium turcicum Pass. on maize (Zea mays L.). Biologico, 49(2):41-44

Johnson MW, 1989. Registration of PA356, PA376 and PA891 parental lines of maize. Crop Science, 29(5):1333-1334.

Jondle DJ; Coors JG; Duke SH, 1989. Maize leaf -1,3-glucanase activity in relation to resistance to Exserohilum turcicum. Canadian Journal of Botany, 67(1):263-266

Jones MW; Pratt RC; Findley WR Jr; StMartin SK; Guthrie WD, 1993. Multiple trait improvement in OhS3 using a "rank and replace" S recurrent selection method. Maydica, 38(4):283-290

Kachapur MR; Hegde RK, 1988. Studies on turcicum blight of maize (Zea mays L.) caused by Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.) Leonard & Suggs with special reference to crop loss assessment. Plant Pathology Newsletter, 6(1-2):33-35

Kaiser SAKM; Chowdhuri BK, 1986. Reaction of multiple disease resistant I & II full-sib families to three diseases at Kalimpong, West Bengal. Indian Journal of Mycological Research, 24(2):147-150

Keller NP; Bergstrom GC, 1990. Predominance in New York of isolates of Exserohilum turcicum virulent on maize with gene Htl. Plant Disease, 74(7):530

Khedekar SA; Harlapur SI; Shripad Kulkarni; Benagi VI; Deshpande VK, 2010. Integrated management of turcicum leaf blight of maize caused by Exserohilum turcicum (Pass.) Leonard and Suggs. Karnataka Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 23(2):372-373.

Knox-Davies PS, 1974. Penetration of maize leaves by Helminthosporium turcicum. Phytopathology, 64(11):1468-1470

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Kumar S; Gupta U; Mahmood M, 1976. Control of leaf blight disease of maize with spray fungicides. Proceedings of the Bihar Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 24(1):63-65

Kumar S; Gupta U; Mahmood M, 1977. Effect of seed treatment with fungicides in relation to seed germination, growth of maize seedlings and seed borne disease (Helminthosporium turcicum Pass.). Proceedings of the Bihar Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 25(1):31-34

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Leach CM; Fullerton RA; Young K, 1977a. Northern leaf blight of maize in New Zealand: release and dispersal of conidia of Drechslera turcica. Phytopathology, 67(3):380-387

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Leonard KJ; Levy Y; Smith DR, 1989. Proposed nomenclature for pathogenic races of Exserohilum turcicum on corn. Plant Disease, 73(9):776-777

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Liu SD; Liu JL, 1986. Preliminary study on the histopathology of inbred lines of maize differing in resistance to northern leaf blight. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, No. 4:40-44

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Long BJ; Dunn GM; Routley DG, 1975. Relationship of hydroxamic acid content in maize and resistance to northern corn leaf blight. Crop Science, 15(3):333-335

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Luttrell ES, 1964. Morphology of Trichometasphaeria turcica. American Journal of Botany, 51(2):213-219.

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Markov M, 1996. Can Trichometasphaeria turcicum be transmitted through maize seeds. Rev. Roum. Biol, Ser. Bot, 11(1-3):139-142.

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Meenakshi MS; Ramalingam A, 1979. The effect of sorghum pollen on the germination of conidia of Drechslera turcica (Pass.) Subram. & Jain. Current Science, 48(10):447-448

Meredith DS, 1965. Violent spore release in Helminthosporium turcicum. Phytopathology, 55(10):1099-1102.

Meredith DS, 1966. Airborne conidia of Helminthosporium turcicum in Nebraska. Phytopathology, 56(8):949-952.

Mickala-Doukaga E; Albertini L; Petitprez M, 1978. Action in vitro of fungal antagonists on mycelial growth of Helminthosporium turcicum Pass., parasite of maize. Preliminary note. Bulletin Trimestriel de la Societe Mycologique de France, 94(1):33-47

Mori K; Takaishi H, 1989. Synthesis of monocerin, an antifungal, insecticidal and phytotoxic heptaketide metabolite of Exserohilum monoceras.. Tetrahedron, 45(6):1639-1646; 14 ref.

Natsvlishvili AA, 1973. The effect of mixed sowings of maize and soybean on the intensity of infection of maize by Helminthosporium turcicum Pass. Trudy Nauchno Issledovatel'skogo Instituta Zashchity Rastenii Gruz. SSR., 24:244-246.

Obi IU, 1979. Additional phytoalexin-like compounds in Ht-gene resistance of corn to Helminthosporium turcicum. Annals of Applied Biology, 92(3):377-381

Obi IU; Hooker AL; Lim SM, 1980a. Phytoalexin production in corn resistant to three species of Helminthosporium fungi. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 98(3):228-236

Obi IU; Hooker AL; Lim SM, 1980b. Phytoalexin production by corn plants with different genetic backgrounds having chlorotic-lesion resistance against Helminthosporium turcicum. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 87(4):244-251

Palmerley RA; Benedict WG, 1977. Patterns of conidial release by Helminthosporium turcicum on sweet corn under controlled environmental conditions. Canadian Journal of Botany, 55(14):1991-1995

Palti J, 1960. Helminthosprium blight of maize. Hassadeh 40:1294-95.

Pedersen WL; Brandenburg LJ, 1986. Mating types, virulence, and cultural characteristics of Exserohilum turcicum race 2. Plant Disease, 70(4):290-292

Pelmus V; Craiu D; Craiciu D, 1986. Effect of some ecological factors on Helminthosporium turcicum Pass. on successive maize crops. Probleme de Protectia Plantelor, 14(2):119-132

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