Setaria viridis (green foxtail)
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Habitat List
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Uses List
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. (1812)
Preferred Common Name
- green foxtail
Other Scientific Names
- Chaetochloa viridis (L.) Scribn.
- Chamaeraphis viridis (L.) Millsp. (1892)
- Ixophorus viridis (L.) Nash (1895)
- Panicum bicolor Moench. (1794)
- Panicum laevigatum Lam.
- Panicum purpurascens Opiz (1823)
- Panicum reclinatum Vill. (1778)
- Panicum viride L. (1759)
- Pennisetum viride (L.) R. Br. (1822)
International Common Names
- English: bottle grass (Canada); giant green foxtail (USA); green bristlegrass; green panicum; green pigeongrass (Australia); robust purple foxtail (USA); robust white foxtail (USA)
- Spanish: almoralejo; almorejo verde
- French: setaire verte
- Portuguese: capim-verde; milha-verde
Local Common Names
- Argentina: gramilla
- Bangladesh: shabuz shiallaja
- Egypt: deil-el-far
- Germany: Gròne Borstenhirse; Grònes Fennichgras
- Iran: arzan
- Iraq: dukhain el-forsheh
- Italy: panico selvatico
- Japan: enokorogusa
- Netherlands: groene naaldaar
- Philippines: buntot-pusa
- Sweden: groen kolvhirs; grønhirs
- Taiwan: gou-wei-tsau
- Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro): muraika
- SETVI (Setaria viridis)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Monocotyledonae
- Order: Cyperales
- Family: Poaceae
- Genus: Setaria
- Species: Setaria viridis
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
There are a number of varieties or subspecies of S. viridis, some of which have been given their own common names in North America (Douglas et al., 1985). These include: S. viridis var. major (Gaud.) Posp. (giant green foxtail) which was first recognized in North America in 1938 and became common in Illinois and Iowa; var. robusta-alba Schreiber (robust white foxtail); var. robusta-purpurea Schreiber (robust purple foxtail); var. weinmanni (R. & S.) Brand; var. gigantea Fr. et Sav. ex Matsum; forma arenosa (L.) P. Beauv; subsp. glareosa (L.) P. Beauv. and subsp. minor (L.) P. Beauv. Differences in morphology and stature are discussed in the Morphology section.
According to Clayton (1980), hybrids with S. verticillata have been reported, for example, through much of South and Central Europe. However, Stace (1991) concludes that some of these supposed hybrids should be ascribed to S. verticillata var. ambigua.
DescriptionTop of page
The development of the root system has been studied and described in some detail (see Douglas et al., 1985).
S. viridis var. major is similar in form to the typical S. viridis var. viridis but much more robust, up to 2 m high with up to 12 nodes per stem (v. 6-7), long nodding inflorescences, brownish red bristles and up to 6000 seeds per panicle (v. 600-800). It has been suggested that this may be a form of S. italica with genes from S. viridis for disarticulation below the glumes (Douglas et al., 1985).
S. viridis var. robusta alba and var. robusta-purpurea differ from typical S. viridis in their much greater vigour and long nodding inflorescence, normally at least 15 cm long, with white and reddish-purple bristles, respectively. They differ from S. viridis var. major in bristle colour and in the denser inflorescence. Numerical and chemotaxonomic studies by Williams and Schreiber (1976) suggest a close relationship with var. major. Schreiber and Oliver (1971) provide a useful key.
S. viridis var. weinmanni has a more spreading habit, narrower leaves and smaller, more slender panicles.
DistributionTop of page
Although listed by Holm et al. (1979) as occurring in Kenya, S. viridis is not recorded by Clayton and Renvoize (1982) for any country in East Africa.
In China, Wang (1980) records S. viridis as occurring 'over all parts of the country'.
In Europe, Clayton (1980) records S. viridis as occurring throughout Europe except the Azores (Portugal), the UK, the Faeroe Islands, Ireland, Iceland and northern Russia. It has, however, been recorded sporadically in the UK.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|-Jammu and Kashmir||Present, Widespread|
|Mongolia||Present||Original citation: Tselev and Federov (1983)|
|Saudi Arabia||Present, Widespread|
|Turkey||Present||Original recorded location: Turkey-in-Asia; Original citation: Erik and Demirkus, 1988|
|Federal Republic of Yugoslavia||Present, Widespread|
|United Kingdom||Present, Localized|
|-British Columbia||Present, Widespread|
|-New Brunswick||Present, Widespread|
|-Newfoundland and Labrador||Present, Localized|
|-Nova Scotia||Present, Widespread|
|-Prince Edward Island||Present, Widespread|
|-Saskatchewan||Present, Widespread||Original citation: Douglas et al., 1979|
|United States||Present, Widespread|
|-New South Wales||Present|
|-Goias||Present||Original citation: Flora do Brasil 2020 (2017)|
|-Minas Gerais||Present||Original citation: Flora do Brasil 2020 (2017)|
|-Rio Grande do Norte||Present|
|-Rio Grande do Sul||Present|
|-Sao Paulo||Present||Original citation: Flora do Brasil 2020 (2017)|
HabitatTop of page
Habitat ListTop of page
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
Biology and EcologyTop of page
Emergence in the USA occurs mainly in April and May, while in Canada it is predominantly in late May, although it can continue throughout the summer.
Development of S. viridis seedlings is critically affected by light and temperature. As a C4 plant, S. viridis benefits from high temperatures and full sunlight, and is sensitive to shading, which greatly reduces tillering and seed production (Douglas et al., 1985). It also has the potential to benefit from increasing levels of carbon dioxide (Ziska and Bunce, 1997). There have been various studies of the growth of S. viridis under different conditions of light, temperature, moisture and nutrient level (see Douglas et al., 1985) and a growth model has been developed for the var. robusta-purpurea in the US mid-west (Schroll and Schreiber, 1985).
S. viridis is not profoundly affected by daylength, but does behave as a quantitative short-day plant, such that, at 22.5°C, flowering occurs after 26 days growth in an 8-hour photoperiod and after 62 days in a 16-hour photoperiod. The differences are smaller at a higher temperature of 30°C. As growth is considerably more vigorous under longer days, the weed is able to tiller and produce abundant seed within 2-3 months under the relatively long days of the temperate summer of North America (Douglas et al., 1985).
Mycorrhizal associations are believed to be important in the early stages of growth (Douglas et al., 1985).
Cultural practices have some influence on the abundance of S. viridis, with a tendency for reduced tillage to increase populations of the weed, it can, however, persist and be troublesome in most systems. In some areas S. viridis is associated with light and coarse-textured soils, but in others, it occurs on all soils including black clays. It is favoured by high nitrogen levels (Douglas et al., 1985).
There is no specialized mechanism for seed dispersal, but long-distance spread is known to have occurred through contaminated crop seed. Seeds are able to survive passage through the digestive systems of livestock and transmission with irrigation or flood water (Douglas et al., 1985; Holm et al., 1977).
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page
ImpactTop of page
The competitive and yield reducing effects of S. viridis depend on the associated crop, the weed density, the time of emergence, and environmental conditions (Douglas et al., 1985). Yield reductions in cereals in Canada vary greatly from season to season and depend especially on temperature early in the crop season. When wheat was planted in early May in Saskatchewan, Canada, even 1550 S. viridis plants/m² failed to affect wheat yields (Rahman and Ashford, 1972), however, in other circumstances, 100 plants/m² can reduce yields (Blackshaw et al., 1981). In the USA, wheat yield losses ranged from 0-47% when infested with 720 plants/m² (Peterson and Nalewaja, 1991). S. viridis is most competitive when it emerges with or shortly after the wheat crop (Blackshaw et al., 1981; O'Donovan, 1994). Peterson and Nalewaja (1992) showed that at 30°C, S. viridis sown 4 days before and 4 days after wheat reduced crop growth by 50 and 13%, respectively. S. viridis can be especially damaging when sowing of cereals is deliberately delayed as a means of reducing infestations of Avena fatua. In these circumstances, S. viridis is more likely to experience the high temperature conditions under which it can develop rapidly and outgrow the crop.
Models have been developed to help understand and predict competitive effects in wheat (for example, see Maxwell, 1992) and in other crops (McGiffen et al., 1997). The latter authors note that both maize and soyabean can suffer heavy losses due to competition from the 'robust' forms of S. viridis.
In maize, densities of 20 and 56 plants/m² failed to reduce yields in two trials but in the same trials densities above 40 and 89 plants/m² reduced yields by 6-18%. The competitive effects of S. viridis and S. pumila in maize were reduced with nitrogen application (Douglas et al., 1985).
In soyabean, no significant yield loss was detected from populations up to 800 plants/m² in either of two years in Italy (Sartorato et al., 1996) whereas in the USA, S. viridis var. rubusta-purpurea reduced yields by 30-63% at densities of 70-170 plants/m² (Schroll and Schreiber, 1983).
In sugarbeet, 26 and 52 plants/m², reduced yields by 27 and 36%, respectively (Douglas et al., 1985). Mesbah et al. (1994) determined the thresholds for reduction in yields of sugarbeet to be 0.06 plants of S. viridis per m of row all-season, or three plants per m of row for 3.5 weeks after crop emergence.
Douglas et al. (1985) provide further examples of the competitive effects of S. viridis, but do not comment on the likelihood of considerable differences in competitiveness between the different varieties of the species. It seems most probable that the 'giant' and 'robust' forms are significantly more damaging.
Holm et al. (1977) record that there have been reports of allelopathic effects of S. viridis on cabbage seedlings.
Contamination of crop seed (leading to 'dockage') can also be a source of financial loss. In a study in Manitoba, Canada, the average number of seeds per kg of grain varied from over 4000 in rapeseed to over 10,000 in barley (Douglas et al., 1985).
UsesTop of page
An interesting by-product from the development of triazine-resistance in S. viridis has been the deliberate transfer of this resistance into the crop S. italica (Italian millet) in France, so that the crop can then be safely treated with triazine herbicides (Naciri et al., 1992). It has, however, been shown that natural outcrossing can occur with S. viridis, so, even where triazine-resistance does not already occur in the weed, it is likely to develop by outcrossing from the crop (Darmency et al., 1992). Resistances to trifluralin and to sethoxydim have also been transferred from S. viridis to S. italica (Wang et al., 1997a, b).
Uses ListTop of page
Animal feed, fodder, forage
Human food and beverage
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
S. verticillata is also closely related but is normally clearly distinguished by the retrorse (downward pointing) barbs on the bristles, hence its 'sticky' inflorescence. The inflorescence is also more lobed, with spikelets grouped into whorls. This character helps to distinguish the non-sticky S. verticillata var. ambigua from S. viridis.
S. pumila is superficially very similar in form to S. viridis but differs in having more bristles per spikelet (at least five) which are yellow or reddish, not green. The upper glume is much shorter than the upper lemma, exposing the coarsely rugose upper lemma. Holm et al. (1997) provide a useful drawing comparing S. viridis with S. glauca [S. pumila] and S. faberi.
S. parviflora is close to S. pumila but differs in being perennial with a distinct rhizome.
S. faberi is more robust than typical S. viridis, and has larger spikelets, 2.5 to 3 mm long, more bristles (2-6 per spikelet) and a larger, nodding inflorescence up to 2 cm wide. It is often confused with S. viridis var. major which also has a nodding inflorescence, but Parochetti (1973) points out that S. faberi has an abundance of short hairs on the upper leaf surface, while S. viridis var. major is only rough to the touch. Also the seed heads of S. faberi are whitish-yellow at maturity while those of S. viridis var. major are reddish-purple. Schreiber and Oliver (1971) provide a useful key and other details for distinguishing the various forms of S. viridis from S. faberi and S. pumila as well as from each other.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.
S. viridis, being a tufted annual grass, is readily controlled by all normal tillage practices. Where these do not suffice and other non-chemical methods are needed, early planting is one of the main recommended practices for reducing S. viridis importance in cereals in North America, as wheat is able to establish at lower temperatures than the weed (Douglas et al., 1985; Khan et al., 1996). Dense planting and increased nutrient are also helpful in wheat and barley. Higher density is also suggested for growing maize without herbicide in Ukraine (Bobro et al., 1994). Crop rotation is recommended as a means of reducing the S. viridis seed bank in the USA (Jordan et al., 1995).
S. viridis is normally susceptible to a very wide range of standard herbicides recommended for annual grass control. These include atrazine and other triazines, trifluralin and other dinitroanilines, metolachlor, diclofop, fluazifop, sethoxydim and other inhibitors of acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase), propanil, EPTC and butylate, paraquat, glyphosate, glufosinate. Douglas et al. (1985) give a number of examples of herbicide use in cereals and some other crops. Williams and Schreiber (1976) comment that the giant and robust forms of S. viridis are more resistant to certain herbicides.
Herbicide resistance has developed quite widely, and atrazine-resistant populations are now common in Europe and the USA ( de Prado et al., 1993; Wang and Dekker, 1995). Atrazine-resistance also involves some degree of cross-resistance to related herbicides. Resistance to the ACCase inhibitors, and to trifluralin has also developed in North America. Resistance to trifluralin has been associated with cross-resistance to all other dinitroaniline herbicides, and to some other herbicides inhibiting mitosis including chlorthal dimethyl and dithiopyr (Beckie and Morrison, 1993; McAlister et al., 1995). This resistance was thought to be controlled by a single recessive gene (Jasieniuk et al., 1994) but is now believed to involve a complex of genes (Wang et al., 1996). Resistance to trifluralin is not associated with any reduction in fitness, and resistant populations can persist for at least 7 years even in the absence of selection pressure for herbicide resistance (Andrews and Morrison, 1997). Dual resistance to trifluralin and ACCase inhibitors has now been detected in Canada (Heap and Morrison, 1996). In the case of ACCase inhibitors, the cross-resistance pattern is complex, suggesting that there have been a number of different mutations affecting the sensitivity of the enzyme in different populations (Shukla et al., 1997). Resistance to sethoxydim is apparently controlled by a single dominant gene (Wang et al., 1997a).
ReferencesTop of page
Blackshaw RE, Stobbe EH, Shaykewich CF, Woodbury W, 1981. Influence of soil temperature and soil moisture on green foxtail (Setaria viridis) establishment in wheat (Triticum aestivum). Weed Science, 29(2):179-184
Bobro MA, Bachassi A, 1994. Sowing date, plant density and hybrid as the basis of technology for growing maize without herbicides. Selektsionno-geneticheskie i biotekhnologicheskie priemy povysheniya produktivnosti sel'skokhozyaistvennykh rastenii., 77-82; 8 ref.
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Darmency H, Lefol E, Chadoeuf R, 1992. Risk assessment of the release of herbicide resistant transgenic crops: two plant models. IXe Colloque international sur la biologie des mauvaises herbes, 16-18 September 1992, Dijon, France., 513-523; 25 ref.
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Erik S, Demirkus, 1988. New localities for some plants in the flora of Turkey. Doga, Turk Botanik Dergisi, 12:224-233.
Flora do Brasil 2020, 2017. Website under construction. Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/floradobrasil/FB87062
Holm LG, Doll J, Holm E, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, 1997. World Weeds: Natural Histories and Distribution. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc.
Keresztes Z, Dorner Z, Zalai M, 2014. Weed composition and diversity of three organic farms in Hungary. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin [Proceedings of the IOBC/WPRS Working Group "Landscape Management for Functional Biodiversity", Poznan, Poland, 21-31 May 2014.], 100:69-72. http://www.iobc-wprs.org/pub/bulletins/bulletin_2014_100_table_of_contents_abstracts.pdf
Maxwell BD, 1992. Weed thresholds: the space component and considerations for herbicide resistance. Weed Technology, 6(1):205-212; [presented at a symposium on the ecological perspectives on utility of thresholds for weed management held in Louisville, USA, 5 February 1991]; 30 ref.
Naciri Y, Darmency H, Belliard J, Dessaint F, Pernès J, 1992. Breeding strategy in foxtail millet, Setaria italica (L. P. Beauv.) following interspecific hybridization. Euphytica, 60(2):97-104; 10 ref.
Parochetti JV, 1973. Giant green foxtail in Maryland and surrounding areas. Proceedings of the Northeastern Weed Science Society, New York, 1973. Volume 27, 168-169.
Prado Rde, Romero E, Tena M, 1993. Chloroplastic susceptibility of three Setaria species to different photosynthesis-inhibiting herbicides. Proceedings of the 1993 Congress of the Spanish Weed Science Society, Lugo, Spain, 1-3 December 1993., 239-242; 5 ref.
Reflora - Virtual Herbarium, 2017. Brazil: Jardim Botânico do Rio de Janeiro. http://reflora.jbrj.gov.br/reflora/herbarioVirtual/
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Schreiber MM, Oliver LR, 1971. Two new varieties of Setaria viridis. Weed Science, 19:424-427.
Shukla A, Leach GE, Devine MD, 1997. High-level resistance to sethoxydim conferred by an alteration in the target enzyme, acetyl-CoA carboxylase, in Setaria faberi and Setaria viridis. Plant Physiology and Biochemistry (Paris), 35(10):803-807; 20 ref.
Shukla U, 1996. The Grasses of North-Eastern India. Jodhpur, India: Scientific Publishers, 325 pp.
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Wang RL, Wendel JF, Dekker JH, 1995. Weedy adaptation in Setaria spp. I. Isozyme analysis of genetic diversity and population genetic structure in Setaria viridis. American Journal of Botany, 82(3):308-317; 44 ref.
Wang T, Darmency H, Wang TY, 1997. Dinitroaniline herbicide cross-resistance in resistant Setaria italica lines selected from interspecific cross with S. viridis. Pesticide Science, 49:277-283.
Wang ZM, Devos KM, Liu CJ, Wang RQ, Gale MD, 1998. Construction of RFLP-based maps of foxtail millet, Setaria italica (L.) P. Beauv. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 96:31-36.
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Ziska LH, Bunce JA, 1997. Influence of increasing carbon dioxide concentration on the photosynthetic and growth stimulation of selected C crops and weeds. Photosynthesis Research, 54(3):199-208; 25 ref.
Anon, 1975. Weed flora of Japan (illustrated by colour). In: Weed flora of Japan (illustrated by colour). [ed. by Numata M, Yoshizawa N]. Tokyo, Japan: Japan Association for the Advancement of Phyto-Regulators. 415 pp.
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Celepcİ E, Uygur S, Kaydan M B, Uygur F N, 2017. Mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) species on weeds in Citrus (Rutaceae) plantations in Çukurova Plain, Turkey. Türkiye Entomoloji Bülteni. 7 (1), 15-21. http://dergipark.gov.tr/download/article-file/315531
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