Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Setaria verticillata
(bristly foxtail)

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Datasheet

Setaria verticillata (bristly foxtail)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 21 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Setaria verticillata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • bristly foxtail
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • S. verticillata is listed by Holm et al. (1979) as a ‘serious’ or ‘principal’ weed in 11 countries in Europe, Asia...

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    Compendia
    CAB International
    Wallingford
    Oxfordshire
    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Setaria verticillata (L.) P. Beauv. (1812)

Preferred Common Name

  • bristly foxtail

Other Scientific Names

  • Chaetochloa verticillata (L.) Scribn. (1879)
  • Ixophorus verticillatus (L.) Nash (1859)
  • Panicum aparine Seud. (1854)
  • Panicum asperum Lamk. (1778)
  • Panicum respiciens (A. Rich.) Steud. (1854)
  • Panicum rottleri Nees (1841)
  • Panicum verticillatum L. (1762)
  • Pennisetum respiciens A. Rich. (1851)
  • Pennisetum verticillatum (L.) Nash (1817)
  • Setaria adhaerens (Forssk.) Chiov.
  • Setaria ambigua (Guss.) Guss.
  • Setaria aparine (Steud.) Chiov. (1912)
  • Setaria nubica Link. (1827)
  • Setaria verticillata var. ambigua (Guss.) Parl.
  • Setaria verticilliformis Dumort.
  • Setaria viridis var. ambigua

International Common Names

  • English: rough bristle grass; tropical barbed bristle grass; whorled pigeon grass (Australia)
  • Spanish: almorejo verticilado; alorejo; amor de hortelano; carreig; cola de zorro; lagartera; panissola; pata de gallina; pega-pega; rabo de zorro; zacate pegarropa
  • French: setaire verticillee
  • Arabic: quam el-far
  • Portuguese: capim-grama; milha-verticilada; pega-saias

Local Common Names

  • Argentina: cola de zorro; hierba pegajosa
  • Chile: pega-pega
  • East Africa: love grass
  • Ethiopia: asinabo; be-getti-fedaui; marbo; yemogne fitur
  • Germany: Kletten Borstenhirse; Quirl Borstenhirse; Wirtel Borstenhirse
  • Indonesia: kamala; oehoe
  • Italy: fieno stellino; panico maggiore
  • Japan: zaratsukienokorogusa
  • Lebanon: dukhain; khishin
  • Netherlands: Kransnaaldaar
  • Peru: rabo de zorro
  • South Africa: bur bristle grass
  • Sudan: lossaig
  • Sweden: kolvhirs
  • Thailand: yah hang chnig-chok
  • Turkey: kirpi dari
  • USA: barbed bristle grass; bur bristle grass; hooked bristle grass
  • USA/Hawaii: mau‘ pilipili
  • Zimbabwe: bur grass

EPPO code

  • SETAD (Setaria adhaerens)
  • SETVE (Setaria verticillata)

Summary of Invasiveness

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S. verticillata is listed by Holm et al. (1979) as a ‘serious’ or ‘principal’ weed in 11 countries in Europe, Asia, Africa, South America and the Pacific. From its origins in Europe and perhaps Africa, it has been accidentally introduced to many other countries across the world. It is often listed as one of the two or three most important weeds in a wide range of crops, within and outside its native range, and it can also become dominant in grassland. The combination of ready dispersal by its ‘sticky’ seed and seed-heads, and its C4 physiology and rapid growth make it an extremely successful invader. It adapts to local conditions rapidly and has developed resistance to atrazine and other herbicides.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Setaria
  •                                 Species: Setaria verticillata

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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S. verticillata sensu latu includes both the diploid, tropical S. adhaerens and the polyploid, more temperate, S. verticillata sensu stricto. Typical examples of these taxa can be distinguished on the basis that S. adhaerens has smaller spikelets less than 2 mm long, hairy leaf blades and glabrous sheath margins, while S. verticillata s.s. has larger spikelets over 2 mm long, glabrous leaf blades and ciliate sheath margins. Several authorities have in the past commented that these morphological characters are not always distinct, suggesting a complex of intergrading populations, best treated as a single polymorphic species (Hepper, 1972; Clayton and Renvoize, 1982). Since it has become clear that the two taxa have different ploidy, they are now more commonly distinguished, as in the UK (Sell and Murrell, 1996), in Israel (Danin and Scholtz, 1997) and the USA (USDA-ARS, 2008; USDA-NRCS, 2008). However, due to the confusion between the two in much of the weed science literature they are treated together under S. verticillata in this datasheet, with comment on the individual taxa where appropriate.

A form without retrorse barbs is known variously as S. ambigua (Guss.) Guss, S. verticilliformis Dumort., S. verticillata var. ambigua (Guss.) Parl., or S. viridis var. ambigua (Steel et al., 1983; Douglas et al., 1985; Stace, 1991). According to Hafliger and Scholtz (1980) this form is widespread in Europe, the Middle East and North Africa, also occurring in Central America. Stace (1991) also states that previous treatments of this variety as a hybrid between S. verticillata and S. viridis are incorrect. USDA-ARS (2008) accept S. verticilliformis as a separate species, though the taxonomical relationships and synonymy remain unclear.

Description

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S. verticillata is a loosely tufted annual grass, up to 1 m high, the branches spreading geniculately and often rooting at the lower nodes. The nodes are glabrous, often dark-coloured. The leaves are up to 30 cm long and 1-1.5 cm wide, with an acute apex, thin, soft with distinct veins, usually glabrous (loosely hairy in S. adhaerens). The sheath has a ciliate margin in the temperate form (glabrous in S. adhaerens). The ligule is a short fringe of hairs, 1-2 mm long. The inflorescence is a narrow, spike-like panicle, 5-15 cm long, more or less cylindrical but somewhat lobed with the rachis visible in places. The spikelets are in clusters on short branchlets around the rachis. Individual spikelets are 2-2.4 mm long (1.5-2 mm in S. adhaerens), each subtended by 1-3 bristles, 2-8 mm long, which are retrorsely barbed, making them cling to fur and clothing, and often to other inflorescences. The lower glume is less than half as long as the spikelet, the upper glume as long as, and hiding the finely wrinkled upper lemma. A form without the retrorse bristles is known as var. ambigua (see Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature). Caryopsis is pale brown, broadly ovoid, slightly dorsiventrally compressed, 1.2-1.5 mm long. Adapted from Holm et al. (1977) and Steel et al. (1983).

Plant Type

Top of page Annual
Grass / sedge
Herbaceous
Seed propagated

Distribution

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S. verticillata is a native of the Old World but has been introduced into North and South America. The extent of its natural range in Europe and Asia is uncertain. Bor (1979) indicates that it is widely distributed in the Old World Tropics and introduced into America, whereas PIER (2008) indicates it is native to Europe only, and USDA-ARS (2012) states its origin as palaeotropical and lists countries in North Africa and temperate Asia as part of the native range. Wagner et al. (1999) state that its native range is Europe but that it is widely naturalized.

The diploid form corresponding to S. adhaerens has a generally tropical distribution, while the tetraploid S. verticillata s.s. has a more temperate distribution. Thus in Israel, the diploid tropical form is common and the tetraploid form rare, while in the USA, the temperate tetraploid S. verticillata is present in all mainland states except seven south-eastern states, whereas the tropical diploid S. adhaerens is almost restricted to the most southern states (USDA-NRCS, 2008). The form without retrorse barbs, var. ambigua occurs sporadically throughout the range of S. verticillata s.s.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresentUSDA-ARS (2012)
AngolaPresentHolm et al. (1979)
BotswanaPresentClayton (1989)
Burkina FasoPresentClayton (1972)
Cabo VerdePresentLima and Duclos (2001)
CameroonPresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2008)
EgyptPresentHolm et al. (1979)
Equatorial GuineaPresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2008)Only as S. adhaerens
EswatiniPresentWells et al. (1986)
EthiopiaPresentHolm et al. (1979)
GambiaPresentClayton (1972)
GhanaPresentClayton (1972)
KenyaPresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1979)
LesothoPresentWells et al. (1986)
LibyaPresentFaruqi et al. (1987); USDA-ARS (2012)
MalawiPresentClayton (1989)
MaliPresentClayton (1972)
MauritaniaPresentClayton (1972)
MauritiusPresentHolm et al. (1979)
MoroccoPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Holm et al., 1989
MozambiquePresentClayton (1989)
NamibiaPresentWells et al. (1986)
NigerPresentClayton (1972)
NigeriaPresentHolm et al. (1979)
SenegalPresentClayton (1972)
South AfricaPresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1979)
SudanPresentHolm et al. (1979)
TanzaniaPresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1979)
TunisiaPresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1979)
UgandaPresentHolm et al. (1979)
ZambiaPresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1979); Clayton (1989)
ZimbabwePresentHolm et al. (1979); Clayton (1989)

Asia

ArmeniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
AzerbaijanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
BahrainPresent, WidespreadChaudhary et al. (1981)
ChinaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Inner MongoliaPresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2008)
-TibetPresentKaul (1986)
-YunnanPresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2008)
GeorgiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
IndiaPresentHolm et al. (1979)
-AssamPresentIntroducedShukla (1996)
-BiharPresentIntroducedShukla (1996)
-HaryanaPresentIntroducedRathi and Panwar (1993)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentIntroducedKaul (1986)
-Madhya PradeshPresentIntroducedShukla (1996)
-MaharashtraPresentIntroducedGandhe and Kanchanganga Gandhe (1999)
-MeghalayaPresentIntroducedShukla (1996)
-RajasthanPresentIntroducedJain et al. (1981)
-SikkimPresent, LocalizedIntroducedNoltie (2000)
-Tamil NaduPresentIntroducedShukla (1996)
-Uttar PradeshPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Alam & Khan, 1975
-West BengalPresentIntroducedShukla (1996)
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedPIER (2008)
-JavaPresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2008)
-Lesser Sunda IslandsPresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2008)
-SulawesiPresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2008)
IranPresentTselev (1983)
IraqPresentHolm et al. (1979)
IsraelPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasiveHolm et al. (1979)S.adhaerens (common) and S. verticillata s.s.(rare)
JapanPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2012)
KazakhstanPresentUSDA-ARS (2012)
LebanonPresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1979)
OmanPresent, WidespreadChaudhary et al. (1981)
PakistanPresentCope (1982)
PhilippinesPresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2008)
Saudi ArabiaPresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1979); Chaudhary et al. (1981)
Sri LankaPresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1979)
TaiwanPresentMissouri Botanical Garden (2008)
ThailandPresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1979)
TurkeyPresent, WidespreadInvasiveHolm et al. (1979)Original recorded location: Turkey-in-Asia
TurkmenistanPresentUSDA-ARS (2012)
UzbekistanPresentUSDA-ARS (2012)
YemenPresent, WidespreadInvasiveCABI (Undated)Original citation: Al-Kathiri (1994)

Europe

AlbaniaPresentNativeClayton (1980)
AustriaPresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1979)
BelarusPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2012)
BelgiumPresentIntroducedClayton (1980)
BulgariaPresentClayton (1980)
CroatiaPresentUSDA-ARS (2012)
CyprusPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
CzechiaPresentLepší and Lepší (2012)
CzechoslovakiaPresentClayton (1980)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentNativeClayton (1980)
DenmarkPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2012)
FinlandPresentIntroducedUSDA-ARS (2012)
FrancePresentNativeHolm et al. (1979)
-CorsicaPresentClayton (1980)
GermanyPresentNativeHolm et al. (1979); ISSG (2012); USDA-ARS (2012)
GreecePresentNativeHolm et al. (1979)
HungaryPresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1979)
ItalyPresentNativeHolm et al. (1979)
MoldovaPresentUSDA-ARS (2012)
NetherlandsPresentIntroducedClayton (1980)
North MacedoniaPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasiveCABI (Undated b)
NorwayPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated b)
PolandPresentClayton (1980)
PortugalPresentNativeClayton (1980)
-AzoresPresentNativeClayton (1980)
RomaniaPresentNativeClayton (1980)
RussiaPresentClayton (1980)
-Central RussiaPresentIntroducedRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2008)
-Northern RussiaPresentIntroducedRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2008)
-Southern RussiaPresentNativeRoyal Botanic Garden Edinburgh (2008)
SpainPresent, WidespreadNativeInvasiveHolm et al. (1979)
-Balearic IslandsPresentClayton (1980)
-Canary IslandsPresentSiverio et al. (2011)
SwitzerlandPresentClayton (1980)
UkrainePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2012)
United KingdomPresentSell. P. and Murrell (1996)

North America

BahamasPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2008)S. adhaerens
BermudaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2008)
CanadaPresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1979)S. verticillata s.s.only
-British ColumbiaPresent, LocalizedIntroducedSteel et al. (1983)S. verticillata s.s.only
-ManitobaPresent, LocalizedIntroducedSteel et al. (1983)S. verticillata s.s.only
-Northwest TerritoriesPresentIntroducedUSA, USDA-NRCS (2008)
-Nova ScotiaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2008)
-OntarioPresentIntroducedSteel et al. (1983)S. verticillata s.s.only
-QuebecPresentIntroducedSteel et al. (1983)S. verticillata s.s.only
CubaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2008)
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2008)
MexicoPresentIntroducedHafliger and Scholz (1980)
Netherlands AntillesPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2008)
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2008)
United StatesPresentIntroducedHolm et al. (1979)
-AlabamaPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)S. adhaerens only; Original citation: Hitchcock (1951)
-ArizonaPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)S. adhaerens and S. verticillata s.s; Original citation: Hitchcock (1951)
-ArkansasPresentIntroducedUSA, USDA-NRCS (2008)S. verticillata s.s.only
-CaliforniaPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)S. verticillata s.s.only; Original citation: Hitchcock (1951)
-ColoradoPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)S. verticillata s.s.only; Original citation: Hitchcock (1951)
-ConnecticutPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)S. verticillata s.s.only; Original citation: Hitchcock (1951)
-DelawarePresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)S. verticillata s.s.only; Original citation: Hitchcock (1951)
-FloridaPresentIntroducedUSA, USDA-NRCS (2008)S. adhaerens only
-HawaiiPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1979)
-IdahoPresentIntroducedUSA, USDA-NRCS (2008)S. verticillata s.s.only
-IllinoisPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)S. verticillata s.s.only; Original citation: Hitchcock (1951)
-IndianaPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)S. verticillata s.s.only; Original citation: Hitchcock (1951)
-IowaPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)S. verticillata s.s.only; Original citation: Hitchcock (1951)
-KentuckyPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)S. verticillata s.s.only; Original citation: Hitchcock (1951)
-LouisianaPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)Original citation: Hitchcock (1951)
-MainePresentIntroducedUSA, USDA-NRCS (2008)S. verticillata s.s.only
-MarylandPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)S. verticillata s.s.only; Original citation: Hitchcock (1951)
-MassachusettsPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)S. verticillata s.s.only; Original citation: Hitchcock (1951)
-MichiganPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)S. verticillata s.s.only; Original citation: Hitchcock (1951)
-MinnesotaPresentIntroducedUSA, USDA-NRCS (2008)S. verticillata s.s.only
-MississippiPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)S. adhaerens only; Original citation: Hitchcock (1951)
-MontanaPresentIntroducedUSA, USDA-NRCS (2008)S. verticillata s.s.only
-NebraskaPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)S. verticillata s.s.only; Original citation: Hitchcock (1951)
-New HampshirePresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)S. verticillata s.s.only; Original citation: Hitchcock (1951)
-New JerseyPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)S. verticillata s.s.only; Original citation: Hitchcock (1951)
-New MexicoPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)S. adhaerens and S. verticillata s.s; Original citation: Hitchcock (1951)
-New YorkPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)S. verticillata s.s.only; Original citation: Hitchcock (1951)
-North CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSA, USDA-NRCS (2008)S. verticillata s.s.only
-North DakotaPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)S. verticillata s.s.only; Original citation: Hitchcock (1951)
-OhioPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)S. verticillata s.s.only; Original citation: Hitchcock (1951)
-OklahomaPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)S. verticillata s.s.only; Original citation: Hitchcock (1951)
-OregonPresentIntroducedUSA, USDA-NRCS (2008)S. adhaerens and S. verticillata s.s
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)S. adhaerens and S. verticillata s.s; Original citation: Hitchcock (1951)
-Rhode IslandPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)S. verticillata s.s.only; Original citation: Hitchcock (1951)
-South CarolinaPresentIntroducedUSA, USDA-NRCS (2008)S. verticillata s.s.only
-South DakotaPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)S. verticillata s.s.only; Original citation: Hitchcock (1951)
-TennesseePresentIntroducedUSA, USDA-NRCS (2008)S. verticillata s.s.only
-TexasPresentIntroducedUSA, USDA-NRCS (2008)S. adhaerens and S. verticillata s.s
-UtahPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)S. verticillata s.s.only; Original citation: Hitchcock (1951)
-VermontPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)S. verticillata s.s.only; Original citation: Hitchcock (1951)
-VirginiaPresentIntroducedUSA, USDA-NRCS (2008)S. verticillata s.s.only
-WashingtonPresentIntroducedUSA, USDA-NRCS (2008)S. verticillata s.s.only
-West VirginiaPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)S. verticillata s.s.only; Original citation: Hitchcock (1951)
-WisconsinPresentIntroducedCABI (Undated)S. verticillata s.s.only; Original citation: Hitchcock (1951)
-WyomingPresentIntroducedUSA, USDA-NRCS (2008)S. verticillata s.s.only

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroducedInvasiveAuld and Medd (1987)
-New South WalesPresentIntroducedAuld and Medd (1987)
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedAuld and Medd (1987); PIER (2008)
-South AustraliaPresentIntroducedAuld and Medd (1987)
-VictoriaPresentIntroducedAuld and Medd (1987)
Federated States of MicronesiaPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2008)
French PolynesiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Marquesas IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2008)
GuamPresentIntroducedPIER (2008)
KiribatiPresentIntroducedPIER (2008)
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2008)
New ZealandPresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1979)
Norfolk IslandPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2008)
PitcairnPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2008)
United States Minor Outlying Islands
-Johnston AtollPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2008)
-Midway IslandsPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2008)
-Wake IslandPresentIntroducedInvasivePIER (2008)

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1979)
BrazilPresentIntroducedLorenzi (1982)
-BahiaPresentIntroducedLorenzi (1982)
-CearaPresentIntroducedLorenzi (1982)
-Espirito SantoPresentIntroducedLorenzi (1982)
-GoiasPresentIntroducedLorenzi (1982)
-MaranhaoPresentIntroducedLorenzi (1982)
-Mato Grosso do SulPresentIntroducedLorenzi (1982)
-Minas GeraisPresentIntroducedLorenzi (1982)
-ParaPresentIntroducedLorenzi (1982)
-ParaibaPresentIntroducedLorenzi (1982)
-ParanaPresentIntroducedLorenzi (1982)
-PernambucoPresentIntroducedLorenzi (1982)
-PiauiPresentIntroducedLorenzi (1982)
-Rio de JaneiroPresentIntroducedLorenzi (1982)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentIntroducedLorenzi (1982)
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroducedLorenzi (1982)
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedLorenzi (1982)
-SergipePresentIntroducedLorenzi (1982)
ChilePresentIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1979)
EcuadorPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2008)
PeruPresent, WidespreadIntroducedInvasiveHolm et al. (1979)
UruguayPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2008)
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedMissouri Botanical Garden (2008)

History of Introduction and Spread

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S. verticillata is believed to have been introduced to both North and South America as early as 1821 (Steel et al., 1983). In the USA, the diploid form has a much more limited distribution, in the southern states only, but whether this is attributable to a later introduction, or to its climatic limitation, is not clear.

Risk of Introduction

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There must now be relatively few territories in which S. verticillata does not already occur. The risk of introduction into such areas must be high, owing to the ready distribution as seed, whether as a contaminant in crop seed or crop products, or clinging to clothing, hides, skins or bags.

Habitat

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S. verticillata is a plant of disturbed areas, especially in annual and perennial crops, but also along roadsides and in waste places over a wide ecological range between northern and southern temperate areas including the sub-tropics and tropics, where it also occurs at high altitude, e.g. in East Africa. It is a species mainly of disturbed ground and is not reported as a problem in natural vegetation. While it has been reported to prefer shady damp sites, it is rarely found in wetlands (PIER, 2008).

In Hawaii, Wagner et al. (1999) report that it is "naturalized and common in dry, disturbed areas, including coastal sites, along roadsides, urban areas, agricultural land, and kiawe forest, 0-820 m."

 

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Principal habitat Natural
Rail / roadsides Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Urban / peri-urban areas Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Secondary/tolerated habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural
Natural grasslands Secondary/tolerated habitat Productive/non-natural
Riverbanks Secondary/tolerated habitat Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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In addition to the crops listed, S. verticillata can occur in almost any annual or perennial crop in the tropics and sub-tropics.

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Several studies confirm that the tropical S. adhaerens is diploid (2n=18) while the temperate S. verticillata s.s. is usually tetraploid (2n=36) (Danin and Scholtz, 1997; Benabdelmouna et al., 2001b). Benabdelmouna et al. (2001a,b) also show that S. adhaerens has genome B while the tetraploid S. verticillata s.s. has genomes A (as in S. viridis) and B. In addition, S. verticillata has also been reported to be hexaploid (2n=54) (Bala and Sachdeva, 1990), though S. verticillata var. ambigua is tetraploid. Haroun (1997) reported 2n=18 for Egyptian material.

Missouri Botanical Garden (2008) includes long lists of forms, varieties and subspecies for both S. verticillata and S. adhaerens, indicating great genetic variation. Dekker (2003) reports low intrapopulation genetic diversity and huge genetic diversity between populations compared to similar plant species.

Reproductive Biology

S. verticillata is a self pollinated annual grass, reproducing solely by seed, and forming long-lived, heterogeneous seed pools in the soil. The seeds are dormant when shed but lose this dormancy over a period of about 7 months (Kohout and Loudova, 1981). Temperatures of 25-35°C are most favourable for germination (minimum 15°C, maximum 40°C), which occurs equally in light and dark (Vasconcelos et al., 1984), or may be promoted to some extent in light (Salimi and Termeh, 2002). Viability in the soil decreases after 18 months (Vasconcelos et al., 1984), declining to 20% viability after 3 years (Uremus and Uygur, 2002) and 2% after 7 years (Uremus and Uygur, 2005). In temperate areas, germination occurs early in the summer as temperatures become suitable. There is no evidence for sensitivity to day-length.

Physiology and Phenology

S. verticillata is an annual grass with a C4 physiology. 

Environmental Requirements

S. verticillata has a very wide range, both native and introduced, although it is generally considered to be more of a temperate species than the closely related, and often confused, S. adhaerens, which is considered to have more of a tropical climatic tolerance. However, a study of their distribution shows that both are present in tropical, sub-tropical and temperate areas, thus any distinction in environmental requirements are variable. However, it is less well adapted to shade than related species of Setaria and is normally found in full sunlight. S. verticillata is adapted to a wide range of soil types of low and high fertility, ranging from pH 6.1 to pH 8.0. It thrives under irrigated conditions but does not infest flooded rice.

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Tolerated Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Ds - Continental climate with dry summer Tolerated Continental climate with dry summer (Warm average temp. > 10°C, coldest month < 0°C, dry summers)

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
55 45

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 10 30
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 35
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 0

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall5003000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • impeded

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile
  • shallow

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Claviceps fusiformis Pathogen
Sclerospora graminicola Pathogen
Spathosternum prasiniferum
Trichodorus mirzai Parasite

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Although the seeds eventually separate from the inflorescence, dispersal is very often assisted by the complete inflorescence being carried on animal fur, or even on hairy insects such as the cetoniid beetle Trichius fasciatus, (Vigni and Melati, 1999). Due to the retrorsely barbed bristles on the fruit, it is also easily attached to clothing including socks and trousers, and thus often brought into gardens by accident. It is thus feasible that the movement of livestock may lead to local introduction with seeds attached to hair, or even via traded wool.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Animal production Yes Yes
Crop production Yes Yes
Disturbance Yes
Forage Yes Yes
Harvesting fur, wool or hairPossibly Yes Yes
Seed trade Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessions Yes Yes
Containers and packaging - non-wood Yes Yes
Hides, trophies and feathers Yes Yes
LivestockAttached to fur/wool Yes

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Economic Impact

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Holm et al. (1979) record S. verticillata as a serious or principal weed in Hawaii, Israel, Lebanon, Kenya, Peru, South Africa, Spain, Tanzania, Turkey, Tunisia and Zambia. It is one of the three most serious weeds of maize in Israel and Spain (Holm et al., 1977), and is among the most prevalent weeds of lucerne in Macedonia (Kostov and Pacaoski, 2006). It is present in more than 25% of cotton fields in parts of Turkey (Gözcü and Uludag, 2005), was the most abundant grass weed in sunflower in Botswana (Abdullahi, 2004), and affects a wide range of crops in Yemen (Al-Kathiri, 1994). It is especially troublesome in high altitude wheat crops in eastern Africa (Holm et al., 1977). It causes significant damage to maize crops and can displace native grasses (Dekker, 2003).

As well as competing with a very wide range of tropical and temperate crops, it can cause difficulties during harvesting when the inflorescences become entangled with themselves and with the crop. It is classed by PIER (2008) as ‘invasive’ in many of the Pacific Islands and Pacific Rim countries including Australia and New Zealand.

S. verticillata can act as an alternative host for the nematodes Meloidogyne spp. and Pratylenchus pratensis, and for the viruses; Maize mosaic virus, Maize streak virus, Wheat spot mosaic virus, Barley stripe mosaic virus, Cereal chlorotic mottle virus and Wheat streak mosaic virus (Holm et al., 1977).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Negatively impacts agriculture
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Pest and disease transmission
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally

Uses

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S. verticillata has not been cultivated for human use but Austin (2006) reports archaeological evidence for it being gathered for human food in the past. In South Africa the seeds of S. verticillata are used to produce malt for beer. In Nambia, the Topnaar people harvest S. verticillata seeds and use them in making porridge (ISSG, 2012).

In the younger, vegetative stages, S. verticillata can provide palatable and nutritious forage for livestock. Holm et al. (1977) note that it may become dominant in the early stages of fallow in East Africa and provide valuable grazing before it is suppressed by perennial grasses.

Bor (1979) records that the dried inflorescences of S. verticillata have been used as a layer on top of stored grains to protect them from rats.

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed
  • Forage

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Typical S. verticillata is distinguished from all other common weedy species of Setaria (S. pumila, S. viridis) by its retrorsely barbed bristles resulting in ‘sticky’ inflorescence, while var. ambigua may still be distinguished from S. viridis by the hispid rather than hairy rachis of the spikelet.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Cultural Control

As an annual weed, S. verticillata is readily controlled by most conventional tillage implements. In Greece, Vasilakoglou et al. (2006) report successful suppression of S. verticillata by cover crop mulches of barley and rye. In this context, Dhima et al. (2006) report that it is particularly sensitive to allelopathic extracts from barley, rye and triticale.

Chemical Control

S. verticillata is susceptible to most of the herbicides used for control of annual grasses, including chlorthal dimethyl, linuron, metobromuron, prometryn, metoxuron, pendimethalin, trifluralin, vernolate, EPTC, sethoxydim, fenoxaprop, diclofop, haloxyfop, fluazifop and glyphosate. Performance of rimsulfuron and nicosulfuron is improved by the use of adjuvants (James and Rahman, 1994). It is somewhat tolerant of atrazine and simazine and long term use of these compounds has resulted in a build up of the weed in some European countries, for example, Portugal (Monteiro and Rocha, 1992), France (Pichot, 1991), Switzerland (Ammon, 1986) and Germany (Engel, 1973), while more fully triazine-resistant populations have developed in Spain (Prado et al., 1992, 2004). These populations are presumed to mostly be of the tetraploid form, but Prado et al. (2000) indicate that the natural resistance to atrazine in S. adhaerens is equivalent to that of S. verticillata. Resistance to trifluralin has also been reported in Turkey (Demirci and Nemli, 1998).

In Romania, Roibu et al. (2000) found acetochlor, metolachlor and isoxaflutole, each + atrazine, and acetochlor + glyphosate, controlled S. verticillata in maize, while in Greece, Vasilakoglou and Eleftoerohorinos (2003) concluded that flufenacet, s-metolachlor, and dimethenamid were suitable alternatives to acetochlor, alachlor, and metolachlor for this purpose. Recent work in Macedonia reports selective control by imazamox in lucerne/alfalfa (Kostov and Pacanoski, 2006).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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The distribution of the two main biotypes, diploid and tetraploid, could be of value, in conjunction with studies to determine any significant differences in their response to environmental conditions and to control methods, including their response to herbicides and tendency to acquire herbicide resistance.

References

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Abdullahi AE, 2004. Weed survey in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annus L.) fields in the Pandamatenga plains of northeastern Botswana. South African Journal of Plant and Soil, 21(1):21-24.

Al Kathiri CR, 1994. Weeds: a factor limiting crop production in Yemen. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 22(1):5-8.

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Ammon HU, 1986. Long-term weed control and costs in maize monoculture. Proceedings, EWRS symposium on economic weed control., 371-378; 25 ref.

Auld BA; Medd RW, 1987. Weeds. An illustrated botanical guide to the weeds of Australia. Melbourne, Australia; Inkata Press, 255 pp.

Austin DF, 2006. Fox-tail millets (Setaria: Poaceae) - abandoned food in two hemispheres. Economic Botany, 60(2):143-158.

Bala S; Sachdeva SK, 1990. Cytological and biochemical study of co-occurring diploid, tetraploid and hexaploid individuals of Setaria verticillata (L.) Beauv. (Poaceae). Phytologia, 68:276-292.

Benabdelmouna A; Abirached-Darmency M; Darmency H, 2001. Phylogenetic and genomic relationships in Setaria italica and its close relatives based on the molecular diversity and chromosomal organization of 5S and 18S-5.8S-25S rDNA genes. Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 103(5):668-677.

Benabdelmouna A; Shi Y; Abirached-Darmency M; Darmency H, 2001. Genomic in situ hybridization (GISH) discriminates between the A and the B genomes in diploid and tetraploid Setaria species. Genome, 44(4):685-690.

Bor NL, 1979. The Grasses of Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan (excluding Bambuseae). Dehra Dun, India: R. P. S. Galot, International Book Distributors.

Chaudhary SA; Parker C; Kasasian L, 1981. Weeds of Central, Southern and Eastern Arabian Peninsula. Tropical Pest Management, 27(2):181-190.

Clayton WD, 1972. 202. Gramineae. In: Hutchinson J, Dalziel JM and Hepper FN, eds. Flora of West Tropical Africa. Second edition. London, UK, Crown Agents, 349-512.

Clayton WD, 1980. Setaria. In: Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Moore DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA, eds. Flora Europaea, Volume 5. Alismataceae to Orchidaceae Monocotyledones. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 263-264.

Clayton WD, 1989. Gramineae. XXIV. Paniceae R. Br. In: Launert E, Pope GV, eds. Flora Zambesiaca, Volume 10, Part 3. London, UK: Flora Zambesiaca Management Committee.

Clayton WD; Renvoize SA, 1982. Flora of Tropical East Africa. Graminea (Part 3). Rotterdam, The Netherlands: A.A. Balkema, 448 pp.

Cope TA, 1982. Poaceae. In: Nasir E, Ali SI, eds. Flora of Pakistan. Kew, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens.

Danin A; Scholz H, 1997. On the occurrence of two taxa of the Setaria verticillata complex in Israel and the Sinai. Willdenowia, 27(1/2):177-179.

Dekker J, 2003. The foxtail (Setaria) species group. Weed Science, 51(5):641-656.

Demirci M; Nemli Y, 1998. In vitro studies on detection of trifluralin resistance in Setaria verticillata (L.) P.B. (In vitro testlerle trifluraline karsi Setaria verticillata (L.) P.B.'nin dayanikliliginin saptanmasina yönelik bazi Çalismalar.) In: Proceedings Second Turkish Weed Science Congress, Bornova, Izmir, Turkey, 1-4 September 1997 [ed. by Nemli, Y.\Demirkan, H.]. Bornova, Turkey: Ege Universitesi Basimevi, 73-80.

Dhima KV; Vasilakoglou IB; Eleftherohorinos IG; Lithourgidis AS, 2006. Allelopathic potential of winter cereals and their cover crop mulch effect on grass weed suppression and corn development. Crop Science, 46(1):345-352.

Douglas BJ; Thomas AG; Morrison IN; Maw MG, 1985. The biology of Canadian weeds. 70. Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 65(3):669-690; [2 fig.]; 6 pp. of ref.

Engel; , 1973. The effect on the biocoenosis of the mass increase in amaranth and wild millet species in maize and vegetable crops. Gesunde Pflanzen, 25(5):88, 90-94

Faruqi SA; Quraish HB; Inamuddin M, 1987. Studies in Libyan grasses X. Chromosome number and some interesting features. Annali di Botanica, 45:75-102.

Gandhe RV; Kanchanganga Gandhe, 1999. Tilletia thirumalachari - a new smut species from Maharashtra. Indian Phytopathology, 52(3):299-301.

Gözcü D; Uludag A, 2005. Weeds and their importance in cotton fields in Kahramanmaras province of Turkey. (Kahramanmaras ili pamuk tarlalarinda görülen yabanci ot Türleri ve önemi.) Türkiye Herboloji Dergisi, 8(1):7-15.

Hafliger E; Scholz H, 1980. Grass weeds I. Weeds of the subfamily Panicoideae. Basle, Switzerland: Ciba-Geigy Ltd.

Haroun SA, 1997. Cytogenetic investigation of Setaria verticillata L. and Eragrostis aegyptiaca Willd. from Egypt. Cytologia, 62(4):405-410.

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ISSG, 2012. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Auckland, New Zealand: University of Auckland. http://www.issg.org/database

Jain KL; Dange SRS; Sirdhana BS, 1981. Occurrence of a physiological form of Sclerospora graminicola (Sacc.) Schroet. on Setaria verticillata Beauv. in Rajasthan. Agricultural Science Digest, 1(4):217-218

James TK; Rahman A, 1994. Effect of adjuvants and stage of growth on the efficacy of three sulfonylurea herbicides to grass weeds. Proceedings of the forty seventh New Zealand plant protection conference, Waitangi, New Zealand, 9-11 August 1994., 11-16; 10 ref.

Kaul MK, 1986. Weed Flora of Kashmir Valley. Jodhpur, India: Scientific Publishers, 422 pp.

Kohout V; Loudová H, 1981. Differences in dormancy of weed seeds of the genera Echinochloa and Setaria.. Sborník úVTIZ, Ochrana Rostlin, 17(2):145-150; 3 ref.

Kostov T; Pacanoski Z, 2006. Postemergence weed control in seedling alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) with imazamox. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research, 12(4):299-306. http://wssp.org.pk/

Lepsí M; Lepsí P, 2012. Records of interesting and new plants in the South Bohemian flora XVIII. (Nálezy zajímavých a nových druhu v kvetene jizní cásti Cech XVIII.) Sborník Jihoceského Muzea v Ceských Budejovicích, Prírodní Vedy, 52:34-48. http://www.muzeumcb.cz

Lima A; Duclos J, 2001. Host, mating type and fertility of Magnaporthe grisea in Santiago Island, Cape Verde archipelago. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 40(2):119-124; 16 ref.

Lorenzi H, 1982. Weeds of Brazil, terrestrial and aquatic, parasitic, poisonous and medicinal. (Plantas daninhas de Brasil, terrestres, aquaticas, parasitas, toxicas e medicinais.) Nova Odessa, Brazil: H. Lorenzi, 425 pp.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2008. Tropicos database. St Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Monteiro I; Rocha F, 1992. Study of a survey of weed biotypes resistant to atrazine. Proceedings of the 1992 Congress of the Spanish Weed Science Society., 315-319; 9 ref.

Noltie HJ, 2000. Flora of Bhutan including a record of plants from Sikkim and Darjeeling. Volume 3 Part 2. The Grasses of Bhutan. Edinburgh, UK: Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh and Royal Government of Bhutan.

Pichot A, 1991. The evolution of weeds and their control in Beauce for the last 50 years. Comptes Rendus de l'Académie d'Agriculture de France, 77(2):117-127.

PIER, 2008. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. USA: Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Poirier-Hamon S; Pernes J, 1986. Chromosomal instability in the somatic tissues of descendants of an interspecific hybrid of Setaria verticillata S. italica. (Instabilité chromosomique dans les tissus somatiques des descendants d'un hybride interspécifique Setaria verticillata (P. Beauv.) Setaria italica (P. Beauv.).) Comptes Rendus de l'Académie des Sciences, III (Sciences de la Vie), 302(9):319-324.

Prado RAde; Franco AR, 2004. Cross-resistance and herbicide metabolism in grass weeds in Europe: biochemical and physiological aspects. Weed Science [Symposium on metabolic mechanisms conferring resistance to herbicides.], 52(3):441-447.

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Prado Rde; Romero E; Menéndez J; Tena M, 1992. Mechanism of resistance to atrazine in Setaria verticillata and Setaria faberi.. IXe Colloque international sur la biologie des mauvaises herbes, 16-18 September 1992, Dijon, France., 457-463; 5 ref.

Rathi AS; Panwar MS, 1993. Setaria verticillata - a new host record of Claviceps fusiformis Loveless. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 23(3):332.

Roibu C; Sarpe N; Andru M; Motiu D; Sarpe I, 2000. Efficacy of various herbicides when applied in no-tillage maize and spring barley in Romania. Mededelingen - Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, Universiteit Gent [Proceedings, 52nd International Symposium on Crop Protection, Gent, Belgium, 9 May 2000, Part I.], 65(2a):99-106.

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Siverio A; Sobrino E; Rodríguez H; Arévalo JR, 2011. Weeds of golf courses on the island of Tenerife. (Malas hierbas de los campos de golf de la isla de Tenerife.) In: Plantas invasoras resistencias a herbicidas y detección de malas hierbas. XIII Congreso de la Sociedad Española de Malherbología, La Laguna, Spain, 22-24 November 2011 [ed. by Arévalo JR, Fernández S, López F, Recasens J, Sobrino E]. Madrid, Spain: Sociedad Española de Malherbología (Spanish Weed Science Society), 83-86.

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Vasilakoglou IB; Eleftherohorinos IG, 2003. Persistence, efficacy, and selectivity of amide herbicides in corn. Weed Technology, 17(2):381-388.

Vigni Ili; Melati MR, 1999. Examples of seed dispersal by entomochory. Acta Botanica Gallica, 146(2):145-156.

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Üremis I; Uygur FN, 2002. Variation of viability rates of some weed seeds in different depths of the soil by times. (Toprak içerisinde farkli derinlikte bulundurulan bazi yabanci ot tohumlarinin canlilik oranlarinin zaman içerisinde degisimi.) Türkiye Herboloji Dergisi, 5(1):23-34.

Distribution References

Anon, 1987. Weeds. An illustrated botanical guide to the weeds of Australia. [ed. by Auld B A, Medd R W]. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press. 255 pp.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status inferred from regional distribution. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated b. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chaudhary S A, Parker C, Kasasian L, 1981. Weeds of central, southern and eastern Arabian Peninsula. Tropical Pest Management. 27 (2), 181-190.

Clayton WD, 1972. 202. Gramineae. In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, [ed. by Hutchinson J, Dalziel JM, Hepper FN]. London, UK: Crown Agents. 349-512.

Clayton WD, 1980. Setaria. In: Flora Europaea. Alismataceae to Orchidaceae Monocotyledones, 5 [ed. by Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Moore DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA]. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 263-264.

Clayton WD, 1989. Gramineae. XXIV. Paniceae R. Br. In: Flora Zambesiaca, 10 (3) [ed. by Launert E, Pope GV]. London, UK: Flora Zambesiaca Management Committee.

Cope T, 1982. Poaceae. In: Flora of Pakistan, 461-462.

Faruqi SA, Quraish HB, Inamuddin M, 1987. Studies in Libyan grasses X. Chromosome number and some interesting features. In: Annali di Botanica, 45 75-102.

Gandhe R V, Kanchanganga Gandhe, 1999. Tilletia thirumalachari - a new smut species from Maharashtra. Indian Phytopathology. 52 (3), 299-301.

Hafliger E, Scholz H, 1980. Grass weeds I. Weeds of the subfamily Panicoideae. In: Grass weeds I. Weeds of the subfamily Panicoideae. Basle, Switzerland: Ciba-Geigy Ltd. xxiv + 142 + 25 pp.

Holm L, Pancho J V, Herberger J P, Plucknett D L, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, Chichester (), Brisbane, Toronto, UK: John Wiley and Sons. xlix + 391 pp.

ISSG, 2012. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD)., Auckland, New Zealand: University of Auckland. http://www.issg.org/database

Jain K L, Dange S R S, Sirdhana B S, 1981. Occurrence of a physiological form of Sclerospora graminicola (Sacc.) Schroet. on Setaria verticillata Beauv. in Rajasthan. Agricultural Science Digest. 1 (4), 217-218.

Kaul M K, 1986. Weed flora of Kashmir Valley. Jodhpur, India: Scientific Publishers. 422pp.

Lepší M, Lepší P, 2012. Records of interesting and new plants in the South Bohemian flora XVIII. (Nálezy zajímavých a nových druhů v květeně jižní části Čech XVIII.). Sborník Jihočeského Muzea v Českých Budějovicích, Přírodní Vědy. 34-48. http://www.muzeumcb.cz

Lima A, Duclos J, 2001. Host, mating type and fertility of Magnaporthe grisea in Santiago Island, Cape Verde archipelago. Phytopathologia Mediterranea. 40 (2), 119-124.

Lorenzi H, 1982. Plantas daninhas de Brasil, terrestres, aquaticas, parasitas, toxicas e medicinais. Nova Odessa, Brazil: H. Lorenzi. 425 pp.

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2008. Tropicos database. In: Tropicos database, St. Louis, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

Noltie HJ, 2000. Flora of Bhutan including a record of plants from Sikkim and Darjeeling. In: The Grasses of Bhutan, 3 (2) Edinburgh, UK: Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh and Royal Government of Bhutan.

PIER, 2008. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk, USA: Institute of Pacific Islands Forestry. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Rathi A S, Panwar M S, 1993. Setaria verticillata - a new host record of Claviceps fusiformis Loveless. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology. 23 (3), 332.

Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh, 2008. Flora Europaea, Database of European Plants (ESFEDS). In: Flora Europaea, Database of European Plants (ESFEDS), Edinburgh, UK: Royal Botanic Garden Edinburgh. http://rbg-web2.rbge.org.uk/FE/fe.html

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