Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Setaria pumila
(yellow foxtail)

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Datasheet

Setaria pumila (yellow foxtail)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Setaria pumila
  • Preferred Common Name
  • yellow foxtail
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
S. pumila inflorescences and leaf, showing long hairs near base.
TitleInflorescences and leaf
CaptionS. pumila inflorescences and leaf, showing long hairs near base.
Copyright©FAO Rome. In: A Weed Identification Guide for Ethiopia, Stroud and Parker, 1989
S. pumila inflorescences and leaf, showing long hairs near base.
Inflorescences and leafS. pumila inflorescences and leaf, showing long hairs near base.©FAO Rome. In: A Weed Identification Guide for Ethiopia, Stroud and Parker, 1989

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult. (1817)

Preferred Common Name

  • yellow foxtail

Other Scientific Names

  • Chaetochloa glauca (L.) Scribn. (1897)
  • Chamaeraphis glauca (L.) O. Ktze. (1981)
  • Ixophorus glaucus (L.) Nash (1895)
  • Panicum flavescens Moench. (1794)
  • Panicum glaucum L. (1753)
  • Panicum glaucum Nees (1841)
  • Panicum holcoides Jacq. (1920)
  • Panicum lutescens Weig. (1992)
  • Panicum pallide-fuscum Schummach. (1827)
  • Panicum penicillatum Nees (1843)
  • Panicum pumilum Poir. (1816)
  • Panicum rubiginosum Steud. (1854)
  • Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br. (1810)
  • Setaria erythraeae Mattei (1910)
  • Setaria flava Merr. (1906)
  • Setaria glauca (L.) P. Beauv. (1812)
  • Setaria glauca Hack (1884)
  • Setaria humifusa Dumort. (1823)
  • Setaria imberbis Dur. (1894)
  • Setaria lutescens (Weig.) F.T. Hubb. (1916)
  • Setaria pallide-fusca (Schumach.) Stapf & Hubbard (1930)
  • Setaria penicillata Chiov. (1908)
  • Setaria rubiginosa (Steud.) Miq. (1857)
  • Setaria sciuroidea C. Mull. (1861)
  • Setaria ustilata de Wit (1941)

International Common Names

  • English: cat's tail grass (Fiji); mongoose grass (Fiji); pale pigeon grass (Australia); Queensland pigeon grass (Australia)
  • French: queue de chat
  • Portuguese: milha amarela; milha glauca

Local Common Names

  • Argentina: cola de zorro amarilla
  • Austria: gelbe borstenhirse
  • Bangladesh: halud shiallja
  • Canada: setaire glauque
  • Colombia: cola de zorro; gusanillo; limpia frascos
  • Cuba: rabito peludo
  • Denmark: blagron skaermaks
  • Dominican Republic: rabo de zorra
  • Egypt: deil el-faar; faar; safeea; shar el-far
  • Finland: sinertavapantaheina
  • Germany: Fuchshirse; Gelbe Fuchswanz; Gilbfennich; Graugrune Bortenhirse
  • Hungary: fako muhar
  • India: banara; banari; kuradakorigaddi; nerkka-kora
  • Indonesia: ekor andjing; uler-uleran
  • Iran: asb vash
  • Iraq: dukhain
  • Israel: ziphan khalhal
  • Italy: pabio; panico glauco; pnicastrella; setaria
  • Japan: kin-enokoro; kotsubukinenokoro
  • Madagascar: ahipody; taindalitra
  • Mauritius: millet sauvage
  • Myanmar: sat
  • Netherlands: Zeegroene naaldaar
  • Norway: bla busthirse
  • Pakistan: chiria-ka-dana; kangni; lundi
  • Poland: wlosnica sina
  • Spain: almorejo glauca
  • Sri Lanka: kawalu
  • Sweden: gra kolvhirs; grahirs
  • Taiwan: chin-se-gou-wei-ysao
  • Thailand: yaa haangmaa noi
  • Turkey: sari tuylu dari; sican saci
  • Venezuela: limpia botella; rabo de zorro
  • Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro): sinjo proso; sivi muhar

EPPO code

  • SETPF (Setaria pumila)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Setaria
  •                                 Species: Setaria pumila

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 30 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BeninPresent
BotswanaPresent
Burkina FasoPresent
CameroonPresent
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent, Localized
Côte d'IvoirePresent, Localized
EgyptPresent
EritreaPresent
EswatiniPresent
EthiopiaPresent, Localized
GambiaPresent
GhanaPresent
GuineaPresent
Guinea-BissauPresent
KenyaPresent, Localized
LesothoPresent
MalawiPresent
MaliPresent
MauritaniaPresent
MauritiusPresent, Localized
MozambiquePresent, Localized
NamibiaPresent
NigeriaPresent, Localized
SenegalPresent, Localized
Sierra LeonePresent
SomaliaPresent
South AfricaPresent, Localized
SudanPresent, Localized
TanzaniaPresent, Localized
-Zanzibar IslandPresent
TogoPresent
TunisiaPresent, Localized
UgandaPresent, Localized
ZambiaPresent, Localized
ZimbabwePresent, Localized

Asia

AfghanistanPresent, Widespread
BangladeshPresent
BhutanPresent
ChinaPresent, WidespreadOriginal citation: Wang (1980)
-AnhuiPresent, WidespreadOriginal citation: Wang (1980)
-FujianPresent, WidespreadOriginal citation: Wang (1980)
-GansuPresent, WidespreadOriginal citation: Wang (1980)
-GuangdongPresent, WidespreadOriginal citation: Wang (1980)
-GuangxiPresent, WidespreadOriginal citation: Wang (1980)
-GuizhouPresent, WidespreadOriginal citation: Wang (1980)
-HainanPresent, WidespreadOriginal citation: Wang (1980)
-HebeiPresent, WidespreadOriginal citation: Wang (1980)
-HeilongjiangPresent, WidespreadOriginal citation: Wang (1980)
-HenanPresent, WidespreadOriginal citation: Wang (1980)
-HubeiPresent, WidespreadOriginal citation: Wang (1980)
-HunanPresent, WidespreadOriginal citation: Wang (1980)
-Inner MongoliaPresent, WidespreadOriginal citation: Wang (1980)
-JiangsuPresent, WidespreadOriginal citation: Wang (1980)
-JiangxiPresent, WidespreadOriginal citation: Wang (1980)
-JilinPresent, WidespreadOriginal citation: Wang (1980)
-LiaoningPresent, WidespreadOriginal citation: Wang (1980)
-NingxiaPresent, WidespreadOriginal citation: Wang (1980)
-QinghaiPresent, WidespreadOriginal citation: Wang (1980)
-ShaanxiPresent, WidespreadOriginal citation: Wang (1980)
-ShandongPresent, WidespreadOriginal citation: Wang (1980)
-ShanxiPresent, WidespreadOriginal citation: Wang (1980)
-SichuanPresent, WidespreadOriginal citation: Wang (1980)
-TibetPresent, WidespreadOriginal citation: Wang (1980)
-XinjiangPresent, WidespreadOriginal citation: Wang (1980)
-YunnanPresent, WidespreadOriginal citation: Wang (1980)
-ZhejiangPresent, WidespreadOriginal citation: Wang (1980)
Hong KongPresent
IndiaPresent, Localized
-Arunachal PradeshPresent
-AssamPresent
-BiharPresent
-HaryanaPresent
-Jammu and KashmirPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-ManipurPresent
-MeghalayaPresent
-MizoramPresent
-NagalandPresent
-OdishaPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-TripuraPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresent, Localized
-Irian JayaPresent
-JavaPresent
-Maluku IslandsPresent
-SulawesiPresent
-SumatraPresent
IranPresent
IraqPresent, Widespread
IsraelPresent, Widespread
JapanPresent, Localized
-HokkaidoPresent
-HonshuPresent
-KyushuPresent
-Ryukyu IslandsPresent
-ShikokuPresent
JordanPresent
LebanonPresent
MongoliaPresent
NepalPresent
OmanPresent
PakistanPresent, Localized
PhilippinesPresent, Localized
Saudi ArabiaPresent
South KoreaPresent, Widespread
Sri LankaPresent
ThailandPresent, Localized
TurkeyPresent
VietnamPresent

Europe

AlbaniaPresent
AustriaPresent
BelgiumPresent
BulgariaPresent
CzechoslovakiaPresent
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresent
FrancePresent
GermanyPresent
GreecePresent
HungaryPresent
MoldovaPresent
NetherlandsPresent
PolandPresent
PortugalPresent, Widespread
-AzoresPresent
RomaniaPresent
RussiaPresent, Localized
-Central RussiaPresent
-Eastern SiberiaPresent
-Northern RussiaPresent
-Russian Far EastPresentOriginal citation: Chubar, 1991
-Southern RussiaPresent
-Western SiberiaPresent
SerbiaPresent
SpainPresent
-Balearic IslandsPresent
SwitzerlandPresent
UkrainePresent

North America

CanadaPresent
-British ColumbiaPresent
-ManitobaPresent
-New BrunswickPresent
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresent
-Nova ScotiaPresent
-OntarioPresent
-Prince Edward IslandPresent
-QuebecPresent
-SaskatchewanPresent
Costa RicaPresent
Dominican RepublicPresent
JamaicaPresent
MexicoPresent, Widespread
United StatesPresent, Widespread
-AlabamaPresent
-ArizonaPresent
-ArkansasPresent
-CaliforniaPresent
-ColoradoPresent
-ConnecticutPresent
-DelawarePresent
-FloridaPresent
-GeorgiaPresent
-HawaiiPresent
-IdahoPresent
-IllinoisPresent
-IndianaPresent
-IowaPresent
-KansasPresent
-KentuckyPresent
-LouisianaPresent
-MainePresent
-MarylandPresent
-MassachusettsPresent
-MichiganPresent
-MinnesotaPresent
-MississippiPresent
-MissouriPresent
-MontanaPresent
-NebraskaPresent
-NevadaPresent
-New HampshirePresent
-New JerseyPresent
-New MexicoPresent
-New YorkPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-North DakotaPresent
-OhioPresent
-OklahomaPresent
-OregonPresent
-PennsylvaniaPresent
-Rhode IslandPresent
-South CarolinaPresent
-South DakotaPresent
-TennesseePresent
-TexasPresent
-UtahPresent
-VermontPresent
-VirginiaPresent
-WashingtonPresent
-West VirginiaPresent
-WisconsinPresent
-WyomingPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, Localized
-New South WalesPresentOriginal citation: Auld and Medd (1987)
-QueenslandPresentOriginal citation: Auld and Medd (1987)
-South AustraliaPresentOriginal citation: Auld and Medd (1987)
-VictoriaPresentOriginal citation: Auld and Medd (1987)
-Western AustraliaPresentOriginal citation: Auld and Medd (1987)
FijiPresent, Localized
New ZealandPresent
SamoaPresent
TongaPresent

South America

BrazilPresent
-AmazonasPresent
-BahiaPresent
-CearaPresent
-Espirito SantoPresent
-ParaPresent
ChilePresent
ColombiaPresent
EcuadorPresent, Widespread
PeruPresent
VenezuelaPresent

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Cercospora setariae Pathogen
Cochliobolus setariae Pathogen
Tilletia setariae Pathogen
Ustilago neglecta Pathogen

References

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Auld BA, Medd RW, 1992. Weeds: An Illustrated Botanical Guide to the Weeds of Australia. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press

Baskin CC, Baskin JM, El-Moursey SA, 1996. Seasonal changes in germination responses of buried seeds of the weedy summer annual grass Setaria glauca. Weed Research (Oxford), 36(4):319-324; 21 ref

Bohannan DR, Jordan TN, 1995. Effects of ultra-low volume application on herbicide efficacy using oil diluents as carriers. Weed Technology, 9(4):682-688; 32 ref

Bor NL, 1979. The Grasses of Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan (excluding Bambuseae). Dehra Dun, India: R. P. S. Galot, International Book Distributors

Bubar CJ, Morrison IN, 1984. Growth responses of green and yellow foxtail (Setaria viridis and S. lutescens) to shade. Weed Science, 32(6):774-780; 16 ref

Cartia G, 1987. Results of soil solarization in Sicily. Difesa delle Piante, 10(1):189-194; 6 ref

Chaudhary SA, Parker C, Kasasian L, 1981. Weeds of Central, Southern and Eastern Arabian Peninsula. Tropical Pest Management, 27(2):181-190

Clayton WD, 1972. Gramineae. In: Hutchinson J, Dalziel JM, Hepper FN, 1972. Flora of West Tropical Africa. Vol 3. Part 2. London, UK: Crown Agents, 349-512

Clayton WD, 1979. Notes on Setaria (Gramineae). Kew Bulletin, 33:501-509

Clayton WD, 1980. Setaria. In: Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Moore DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA, eds. Flora Europaea, Volume 5. Alismataceae to Orchidaceae Monocotyledones. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 263-264

Clayton WD, 1989. Gramineae. XXIV. Paniceae R. Br. In: Launert E, Pope GV, eds. Flora Zambesiaca, Volume 10, Part 3. London, UK: Flora Zambesiaca Management Committee

Clayton WD, Renvoize SA, 1982. Flora of Tropical East Africa. Graminea (Part 3). Rotterdam, The Netherlands: A.A. Balkema, 448 pp

Creamer NG, Bennett MA, Stinner BR, Cardina J, Regnier EE, 1996. Mechanisms of weed suppression in cover crop-based production systems. HortScience, 31(3):410-413; 22 ref

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Forcella F, Wilson RG, Dekker J, Kremer RJ, Cardina J, Anderson RL, Alm D, Renner KA, Harvey RG, Clay S, Buhler DD, 1997. Weed seed bank emergence across the Corn Belt. Weed Science, 45(1):67-76

Gamor FD, Komendar VI, 1986. Influence of eco-coenotic factors on the occurrence of weeds in crops of the trans-Carpathians. Biologicheskie Nauki, No. 5:72-76; 11 ref

GBIF, 2018. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. http://www.gbif.org/species

Hafliger E, Scholz H, 1980. Grass weeds I. Weeds of the subfamily Panicoideae. Basle, Switzerland: Ciba-Geigy Ltd

Hassawy GS, Tammimi SA, Al-Lizzi H, 1968. Weeds in Iraq. Baghdad, Iraq: College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad

Holm LG, Doll J, Holm E, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, 1997. World Weeds: Natural Histories and Distribution. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc

Holm LG, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, Plucknett DL, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 391 pp

Kaul MK, 1986. Weed Flora of Kashmir Valley. Jodhpur, India: Scientific Publishers, 422 pp

Keeney FN, Noveroske RL, Flaim TD, 1988. Influence of adjuvants on the postemergence phytotoxicity of haloxyfop methyl herbicide on Setaria spp. ACS Symposium Series, American Chemical Society, No. 371:102-110; 19 ref

Khan M, Donald WW, Prato T, 1996. Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) management can substitute for diclofop for foxtail (Setaria spp.) control. Weed Science, 44(2):362-372; 23 ref

Kostermans AJGH, Wirjahardja S, Dekker RJ, 1987. The weeds: description, ecology and control. Weeds of rice in Indonesia [edited by Soerjani, M.; Kostermans, A.J.G.H.; Tjitrosoepomo, G.] Jakarta, Indonesia; Balai Pustaka, 24-565

Lebershtein II, Shokh NA, 1987. Chemical weed control in maize. Zashchita Rastenii, No.3:20-21

Lorenzi HJ, Jeffery LS(Editors), 1987. Weeds of the United States and their control. New York, USA; Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Ltd., 355 pp

Martin LD, Smith AE, 1994. Allelopathic potential of some warm-season grasses. Crop Protection, 13(5):388-392; 18 ref

Melkania NP, 1988. Studies on germination of Setaria glauca Beauv. New Botanist, 15(1):29-32; 7 ref

Morin C, Gasquez J, 1981. New data on triazine-resistant weeds: grasses. Compte Rendu de la 11e Conference du COLUMA, 1:275-283

Morita H, 1997. Handbook of Arable Weeds of Japan. Tokyo, Japan: Kumiai Chemical Industry Co. Ltd., 128 pp

Nalewaja JD, Praczyk T, Matysiak R, 1995. Surfactants and oil adjuvants with nicosulfuron. Weed Technology, 9(4):689-695; 8 ref

Nandal DP, Singh CM, 1994. Effect of weed control on direct seeded puddled rice. Haryana Agricultural University Journal of Research, 24(4):154-157; 2 ref

Numata M, Yoshizawa N, 1975. Weed flora of Japan. Japan Association for the Advancement of Phyto-Regulators. Tokyo, Japan: Zenkoku Noson Kyoiku Kyokai

Parker C, 1992. Weeds of Bhutan. Weeds of Bhutan., vi + 236 pp

Peterson DE, Nalewaja JD, 1985. Ustilago neglecta in yellow foxtail. Proceedings, North Central Weed Control Conference., Vol.40:5-6

Prado Rde, Romera E, Menéndez J, Tena M, 1992. Differential mechanism of resistance to atrazine in Setaria adhaerens and Setaria glauca.. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, 57(3b):1067-1074; 7 ref

Rafey A, Prasad K, 1995. Influence of weed-management practices in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) intercropped with upland rice (Oryza sativa). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 65(4):281-282; 1 ref

Rajsekhar Dutta, Gogoi AK, 1994. Integrated weed control in direct-seeded upland rice (Oryza sativa). Indian Journal of Agronomy, 39(4):639-641; 4 ref

Shukla U, 1996. The Grasses of North-Eastern India. Jodhpur, India: Scientific Publishers, 325 pp

Singh B, 1988. Effect of weed control methods on performance of rice varieties under upland rainfed conditions of Nagaland. Indian Journal of Weed Science, 20(2):51-54; 2 ref

SpeciesLink, 2018. INCT-Herbário Virtual da Flora e dos Fungos. http://www.splink.org.br/

Steel MG, Cavers PB, Lee SM, 1983. The biology of Canadian weeds. 59. Setaria glauca (L.) Beauv. and S. verticillata (L.) Beauv. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 63(3):711-725

Stroud A, Parker C, 1989. A Weed Identification Guide for Ethiopia. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization

Tackholm V, 1974. Students' Flora of Egypt. 2nd edition. Cairo, Egypt: University of Cairo

Terry PJ, Michieka RW, 1987. Common Weeds of East Africa. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Tiwari JP, Kurchania SP, 1990. Survey and management of weeds in soybean (Glycine max) ecosystem in Madhya Pradesh. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 60(10):672-676; 3 ref

Tselev NN, 1983. Grasses of the Soviet Union. Part II. New Delhi, India: Oxonian Press Pvt Ltd

Vezina L, 1992. Influence of sowing date on the competitive effects of Setaria pumila and Echinochloa crus-galli on barley and spring wheat. Weed Research, 32(1):57-65; 9 ref

Wang RongLin, Wendel JF, Dekker JH, 1995. Weedy adaptation in Setaria spp. II. Genetic diversity and population genetic structure in S. glauca, S. geniculata, and S. faberii (Poaceae). American Journal of Botany, 82(8):1031-1039; 26 ref

Wang ZR, 1990. Farmland Weeds in China. Beijing, China: Agricultural Publishing House

Wells MJ, Balsinhas AA, Joffe H, Engelbrecht VM, Harding G, Stirton CH, 1986. A catalogue of problem plants in South Africa. Memoirs of the botanical survey of South Africa No 53. Pretoria, South Africa: Botanical Research Institute

Distribution References

Anon, 1975. Weed flora of Japan (illustrated by colour). In: Weed flora of Japan (illustrated by colour). [ed. by Numata M, Yoshizawa N]. Tokyo, Japan: Japan Association for the Advancement of Phyto-Regulators. 415 pp.

Anon, 1987. Weeds of the United States and their control. New York, USA: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Ltd. 355 pp.

Asad Ullah, Abdur Rashid, 2013. A checklist of the weeds growing in the maize crop at Mankial valley Hindukush range, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 19 (4), 481-492. http://www.wssp.org.pk/vol-19-4-2013/11.%20PJWSR-54-2013-19-4-481-492.pdf

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chaudhary S A, Parker C, Kasasian L, 1981. Weeds of central, southern and eastern Arabian Peninsula. Tropical Pest Management. 27 (2), 181-190.

Clayton W D, Renvoize S A, 1982. Flora of Tropical East Africa. Gramineae (Part 3). Rotterdam, Netherlands: A.A. Balkema. 448pp.

Clayton WD, 1972. Gramineae. In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, 3 (2) [ed. by Hutchinson J, Dalziel JM, Hepper FN]. London, UK: Crown Agents. 349-512.

Clayton WD, 1980. Setaria. In: Flora Europaea. Alismataceae to Orchidaceae Monocotyledones, 5 [ed. by Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Moore DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA]. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 263-264.

Clayton WD, 1989. Gramineae. XXIV. Paniceae R. Br. In: Flora Zambesiaca, 10 (3) [ed. by Launert E, Pope GV]. London, UK: Flora Zambesiaca Management Committee.

EPPO, 2021. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

Gabuin T G, Abdul S D, Sawa F B, 2014. Preliminary observations on weeds of maize (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) fields in Bauchi. Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science. 9 (11), 385-388. http://www.arpnjournals.com/jabs/research_papers/rp_2014/jabs_1114_690.pdf

Gamor F D, Komendar V I, 1986. Influence of eco-coenotic factors on the occurrence of weeds in crops of the trans-Carpathians. Biologicheskie Nauki. 72-76.

GBIF, 2018. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. In: Global Biodiversity Information Facility. http://www.gbif.org/species

Getachew Gashaw, Tesfaye Alemu, Kassahun Tesfaye, 2014. Morphological, physiological and biochemical studies on Pyricularia grisea isolates causing blast disease on finger millet in Ethiopia. Journal of Applied Biosciences. 6059-6071. http://m.elewa.org/JABS/2014/74/3.pdf

HASSAWY G S, TAMMIMI S A, AL-IZZI H, 1968. Weeds in Iraq. Technical Bulletin. Ministry of Agriculture. 256 pp.

Holm L, Doll J, Holm E, Pancho J, Herberger J, 1997. World weeds: natural histories and distribution. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons. xv + 1129 pp.

Holm L, Pancho J V, Herberger J P, Plucknett D L, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, Chichester (), Brisbane, Toronto, UK: John Wiley and Sons. xlix + 391 pp.

Ihsan Ullah, Wazir S M, Ayesha Farooq, Khan S U, Zahid Hussain, 2011. Identification of common weeds and its distribution pattern in wheat fields of FR Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 17 (4), 407-416. http://www.wssp.org.pk/174-12.pdf

Kaul M K, 1986. Weed flora of Kashmir Valley. Jodhpur, India: Scientific Publishers. 422pp.

Khan R U, Wazir S M, Muhammad Subhan, Saad Ullah, Hidayat Ullah, Aysha Farooq, Farheen Jaffar, Shazia, Shah I A, Mustafa Kamal, 2012. Weed flora of sugarcane in district Bannu, Khyber Pakhtunkhawa, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 18 (4), 541-552. http://www.wssp.org.pk/article.htm

Kostermans A J G H, Wirjahardja S, Dekker R J, 1987. The weeds: description, ecology and control. In: Weeds of rice in Indonesia. [ed. by Soerjani M, Kostermans AJGH, Tjitrosoepomo G]. Jakarta, Indonesia: Balai Pustaka. 24-565.

Lebershteĭn I I, Shokh N A, 1987. Chemical weed control in maize. Zashchita Rasteniĭ. 20-21.

Manole T, Chireceanu C, Teodoru A, 2017. Current status of Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte, 1868 (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) in Romania. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica. 143-148. http://www.acta-zoologica-bulgarica.eu/downloads/acta-zoologica-bulgarica/2017/supplement-9-143-148.pdf

Melkania N P, 1988. Studies on germination of Setaria glauca Beauv. New Botanist. 15 (1), 29-32.

Morita H, 1997. Handbook of Arable Weeds of Japan., Tokyo, Japan: Kumiai Chemical Industry Co Ltd. 128 pp.

Nandal D P, Singh C M, 1994. Effect of weed control on direct seeded puddled rice. Haryana Agricultural University Journal of Research. 24 (4), 154-157.

Parker C, 1992. Weeds of Bhutan. Thimphu, Bhutan: National Plant Protection Centre. vi + 236 pp.

Rafey A, Prasad K, 1995. Influence of weed-management practices in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) intercropped with upland rice (Oryza sativa). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 65 (4), 281-282.

Rajsekhar Dutta, Gogoi A K, 1994. Integrated weed control in direct-seeded upland rice (Oryza sativa). Indian Journal of Agronomy. 39 (4), 639-641.

Shah S M, Asad Ullah, Fazal Hadi, 2014. Ecological characteristics of weed flora in the wheat crop of Mastuj valley, district Chitral, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Weed Science Research. 20 (4), 479-487. http://www.wssp.org.pk/vol-20-4-2014/6.%20PJWSR-22-2014.pdf

Shukla U, 1996. The Grasses of North-Eastern India., Jodhpur, India: Scientific Publishers. 325 pp.

Singh B, 1988. Effect of weed control methods on performance of rice varieties under upland rainfed conditions of Nagaland. Indian Journal of Weed Science. 20 (2), 51-54.

SpeciesLink, 2018. (INCT-Herbário Virtual da Flora e dos Fungos)., http://www.splink.org.br/

Steel M G, Cavers P B, Lee S M, 1983. The biology of Canadian weeds. 59. Setaria glauca (L.) Beauv. and S. verticillata (L.) Beauv. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 63 (3), 711-725.

Stroud A, Parker C, 1989. A weed identification guide for Ethiopia. In: A weed identification guide for Ethiopia. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization. 278 pp.

Tackholm V, 1974. Students' Flora of Egypt., Cairo, Egypt: University of Cairo.

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