Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Setaria pumila
(yellow foxtail)

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Datasheet

Setaria pumila (yellow foxtail)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Setaria pumila
  • Preferred Common Name
  • yellow foxtail
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
S. pumila inflorescences and leaf, showing long hairs near base.
TitleInflorescences and leaf
CaptionS. pumila inflorescences and leaf, showing long hairs near base.
Copyright©FAO Rome. In: A Weed Identification Guide for Ethiopia, Stroud and Parker, 1989
S. pumila inflorescences and leaf, showing long hairs near base.
Inflorescences and leafS. pumila inflorescences and leaf, showing long hairs near base.©FAO Rome. In: A Weed Identification Guide for Ethiopia, Stroud and Parker, 1989

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Setaria pumila (Poir.) Roem. & Schult. (1817)

Preferred Common Name

  • yellow foxtail

Other Scientific Names

  • Chaetochloa glauca (L.) Scribn. (1897)
  • Chamaeraphis glauca (L.) O. Ktze. (1981)
  • Ixophorus glaucus (L.) Nash (1895)
  • Panicum flavescens Moench. (1794)
  • Panicum glaucum L. (1753)
  • Panicum glaucum Nees (1841)
  • Panicum holcoides Jacq. (1920)
  • Panicum lutescens Weig. (1992)
  • Panicum pallide-fuscum Schummach. (1827)
  • Panicum penicillatum Nees (1843)
  • Panicum pumilum Poir. (1816)
  • Panicum rubiginosum Steud. (1854)
  • Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.Br. (1810)
  • Setaria erythraeae Mattei (1910)
  • Setaria flava Merr. (1906)
  • Setaria glauca (L.) P. Beauv. (1812)
  • Setaria glauca Hack (1884)
  • Setaria humifusa Dumort. (1823)
  • Setaria imberbis Dur. (1894)
  • Setaria lutescens (Weig.) F.T. Hubb. (1916)
  • Setaria pallide-fusca (Schumach.) Stapf & Hubbard (1930)
  • Setaria penicillata Chiov. (1908)
  • Setaria rubiginosa (Steud.) Miq. (1857)
  • Setaria sciuroidea C. Mull. (1861)
  • Setaria ustilata de Wit (1941)

International Common Names

  • English: cat's tail grass (Fiji); mongoose grass (Fiji); pale pigeon grass (Australia); Queensland pigeon grass (Australia)
  • French: queue de chat
  • Portuguese: milha amarela; milha glauca

Local Common Names

  • Argentina: cola de zorro amarilla
  • Austria: gelbe borstenhirse
  • Bangladesh: halud shiallja
  • Canada: setaire glauque
  • Colombia: cola de zorro; gusanillo; limpia frascos
  • Cuba: rabito peludo
  • Denmark: blagron skaermaks
  • Dominican Republic: rabo de zorra
  • Egypt: deil el-faar; faar; safeea; shar el-far
  • Finland: sinertavapantaheina
  • Germany: Fuchshirse; Gelbe Fuchswanz; Gilbfennich; Graugrune Bortenhirse
  • Hungary: fako muhar
  • India: banara; banari; kuradakorigaddi; nerkka-kora
  • Indonesia: ekor andjing; uler-uleran
  • Iran: asb vash
  • Iraq: dukhain
  • Israel: ziphan khalhal
  • Italy: pabio; panico glauco; pnicastrella; setaria
  • Japan: kin-enokoro; kotsubukinenokoro
  • Madagascar: ahipody; taindalitra
  • Mauritius: millet sauvage
  • Myanmar: sat
  • Netherlands: Zeegroene naaldaar
  • Norway: bla busthirse
  • Pakistan: chiria-ka-dana; kangni; lundi
  • Poland: wlosnica sina
  • Spain: almorejo glauca
  • Sri Lanka: kawalu
  • Sweden: gra kolvhirs; grahirs
  • Taiwan: chin-se-gou-wei-ysao
  • Thailand: yaa haangmaa noi
  • Turkey: sari tuylu dari; sican saci
  • Venezuela: limpia botella; rabo de zorro
  • Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro): sinjo proso; sivi muhar

EPPO code

  • SETPF (Setaria pumila)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Setaria
  •                                 Species: Setaria pumila

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BeninPresentClayton (1972)
BotswanaPresentClayton (1989)
Burkina FasoPresentClayton (1972)
CameroonPresentClayton (1972)
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1979); EPPO (2020)
Côte d'IvoirePresent, LocalizedClayton (1972); Holm et al. (1979); EPPO (2020)
EgyptPresentTackholm (1974)
EritreaPresentStroud and Parker (1989)
EswatiniPresentWells et al. (1986)
EthiopiaPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1979); EPPO (2020)
GambiaPresentClayton (1972)
GhanaPresentClayton (1972)
GuineaPresentClayton (1972)
Guinea-BissauPresentClayton (1972)
KenyaPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1979); Clayton and Renvoize (1982); EPPO (2020)
LesothoPresentWells et al. (1986)
MalawiPresentClayton (1989)
MaliPresentClayton (1972)
MauritaniaPresentClayton (1972)
MauritiusPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1979); EPPO (2020)
MozambiquePresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1979); Clayton (1989); EPPO (2020)
NamibiaPresentWells et al. (1986)
NigeriaPresent, LocalizedClayton (1972); Holm et al. (1979); EPPO (2020)
SenegalPresent, LocalizedClayton (1972); Holm et al. (1979); EPPO (2020)
Sierra LeonePresentClayton (1972)
SomaliaPresentTerry and Michieka (1987)
South AfricaPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1979); EPPO (2020)
SudanPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1979); EPPO (2020)
TanzaniaPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1979); Clayton and Renvoize (1982); EPPO (2020)
-Zanzibar IslandPresentClayton and Renvoize (1982)
TogoPresentClayton (1972)
TunisiaPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1979); EPPO (2020)
UgandaPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1979); Clayton and Renvoize (1982); EPPO (2020)
ZambiaPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1979); Clayton (1989); EPPO (2020)
ZimbabwePresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1979); Clayton (1989); EPPO (2020)

Asia

AfghanistanPresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1979)
BangladeshPresentHolm et al. (1997)
BhutanPresentParker (1992)
ChinaPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Wang (1980)
-AnhuiPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Wang (1980)
-FujianPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Wang (1980)
-GansuPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Wang (1980)
-GuangdongPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Wang (1980)
-GuangxiPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Wang (1980)
-GuizhouPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Wang (1980)
-HainanPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Wang (1980)
-HebeiPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Wang (1980)
-HeilongjiangPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Wang (1980)
-HenanPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Wang (1980)
-HubeiPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Wang (1980)
-HunanPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Wang (1980)
-Inner MongoliaPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Wang (1980)
-JiangsuPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Wang (1980)
-JiangxiPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Wang (1980)
-JilinPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Wang (1980)
-LiaoningPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Wang (1980)
-NingxiaPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Wang (1980)
-QinghaiPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Wang (1980)
-ShaanxiPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Wang (1980)
-ShandongPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Wang (1980)
-ShanxiPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Wang (1980)
-SichuanPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Wang (1980)
-TibetPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Wang (1980)
-XinjiangPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Wang (1980)
-YunnanPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Wang (1980)
-ZhejiangPresent, WidespreadCABI (Undated)Original citation: Wang (1980)
Hong KongPresentHolm et al. (1979)
IndiaPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1979); EPPO (2020)
-Arunachal PradeshPresentShukla (1996)
-AssamPresentRajsekhar Dutta and Gogoi (1994); Shukla (1996)
-BiharPresentRafey and Prasad (1995)
-HaryanaPresentNandal and Singh (1994)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentKaul (1986)
-Madhya PradeshPresentTiwari and Kurchania (1990); Shukla (1996)
-MaharashtraPresentShukla (1996)
-ManipurPresentShukla (1996)
-MeghalayaPresentShukla (1996)
-MizoramPresentShukla (1996)
-NagalandPresentSingh (1988); Shukla (1996)
-OdishaPresentShukla (1996)
-Tamil NaduPresentShukla (1996)
-TripuraPresentShukla (1996)
-Uttar PradeshPresentMelkania (1988)
-West BengalPresentShukla (1996)
IndonesiaPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1979); Kostermans et al. (1987); EPPO (2020)
-Irian JayaPresentKostermans et al. (1987)
-JavaPresentKostermans et al. (1987)
-Maluku IslandsPresentKostermans et al. (1987)
-SulawesiPresentKostermans et al. (1987)
-SumatraPresentKostermans et al. (1987)
IranPresentHolm et al. (1997)
IraqPresent, WidespreadHASSAWY et al. (1968)
IsraelPresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1997)
JapanPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1979); Morita (1997); EPPO (2020)
-HokkaidoPresentNumata and Yoshizawa (1975)
-HonshuPresentNumata and Yoshizawa (1975)
-KyushuPresentNumata and Yoshizawa (1975)
-Ryukyu IslandsPresentNumata and Yoshizawa (1975)
-ShikokuPresentNumata and Yoshizawa (1975)
JordanPresentHolm et al. (1979)
LebanonPresentHolm et al. (1979)
MongoliaPresentTselev (1983)
NepalPresentHolm et al. (1979)
OmanPresentChaudhary et al. (1981)
PakistanPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1979); EPPO (2020)
PhilippinesPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1979); EPPO (2020)
Saudi ArabiaPresentChaudhary et al. (1981)
South KoreaPresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1997)
Sri LankaPresentHolm et al. (1997)
ThailandPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1979); EPPO (2020)
TurkeyPresentClayton (1980)
VietnamPresentHolm et al. (1997)

Europe

AlbaniaPresentClayton (1980)
AustriaPresentHolm et al. (1979)
BelgiumPresentClayton (1980)
BulgariaPresentClayton (1980)
CzechoslovakiaPresentClayton (1980)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresentHolm et al. (1979); Clayton (1980)
FrancePresentClayton (1980)
GermanyPresentHolm et al. (1979)
GreecePresentClayton (1980)
HungaryPresentHolm et al. (1979); Clayton (1980)
MoldovaPresentLebershteĭn and Shokh (1987)
NetherlandsPresentClayton (1980)
PolandPresentHolm et al. (1979)
PortugalPresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1979); Clayton (1980)
-AzoresPresentClayton (1980)
RomaniaPresentClayton (1980)
RussiaPresent, LocalizedClayton (1980); EPPO (2020)
-Central RussiaPresentClayton (1980)
-Eastern SiberiaPresentClayton (1980)
-Northern RussiaPresentClayton (1980)
-Russian Far EastPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Chubar, 1991
-Southern RussiaPresentClayton (1980)
-Western SiberiaPresentClayton (1980)
SpainPresentClayton (1980)
-Balearic IslandsPresentClayton (1980)
SwitzerlandPresentClayton (1980)
UkrainePresentGamor and Komendar (1986)

North America

CanadaPresentHolm et al. (1979)
-British ColumbiaPresentSteel et al. (1983)
-ManitobaPresentSteel et al. (1983)
-New BrunswickPresentSteel et al. (1983)
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresentSteel et al. (1983)
-Nova ScotiaPresentSteel et al. (1983)
-OntarioPresentSteel et al. (1983)
-Prince Edward IslandPresentSteel et al. (1983)
-QuebecPresentSteel et al. (1983)
-SaskatchewanPresentSteel et al. (1983)
Costa RicaPresentHolm et al. (1979)
Dominican RepublicPresentHolm et al. (1997)
JamaicaPresentHolm et al. (1979)
MexicoPresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1979)
United StatesPresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1979)
-AlabamaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-ArizonaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-ArkansasPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-CaliforniaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-ColoradoPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-ConnecticutPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-DelawarePresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-FloridaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-GeorgiaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-HawaiiPresentHolm et al. (1979)
-IdahoPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-IllinoisPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-IndianaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-IowaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-KansasPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-KentuckyPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-LouisianaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-MainePresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-MarylandPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-MassachusettsPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-MichiganPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-MinnesotaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-MississippiPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-MissouriPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-MontanaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-NebraskaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-NevadaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-New HampshirePresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-New JerseyPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-New MexicoPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-New YorkPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-North CarolinaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-North DakotaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-OhioPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-OklahomaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-OregonPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-PennsylvaniaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-Rhode IslandPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-South CarolinaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-South DakotaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-TennesseePresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-TexasPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-UtahPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-VermontPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-VirginiaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-WashingtonPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-West VirginiaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-WisconsinPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-WyomingPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1979); EPPO (2020)
-New South WalesPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Auld and Medd (1987)
-QueenslandPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Auld and Medd (1987)
-South AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Auld and Medd (1987)
-VictoriaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Auld and Medd (1987)
-Western AustraliaPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Auld and Medd (1987)
FijiPresent, LocalizedHolm et al. (1979); EPPO (2020)
New ZealandPresentHolm et al. (1979)
SamoaPresentHolm et al. (1997)
TongaPresentHolm et al. (1997)

South America

BrazilPresentSpeciesLink (2018); GBIF (2018)
-AmazonasPresentSpeciesLink (2018)
-BahiaPresentSpeciesLink (2018)
-CearaPresentSpeciesLink (2018)
-Espirito SantoPresentSpeciesLink (2018)
-ParaPresentSpeciesLink (2018)
ChilePresentHolm et al. (1979)
ColombiaPresentHolm et al. (1979)
EcuadorPresent, WidespreadHolm et al. (1997)
PeruPresentHolm et al. (1979)
VenezuelaPresentHolm et al. (1979)

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Cercospora setariae Pathogen
Cochliobolus setariae Pathogen
Tilletia setariae Pathogen
Ustilago neglecta Pathogen

References

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Auld BA, Medd RW, 1992. Weeds: An Illustrated Botanical Guide to the Weeds of Australia. Melbourne, Australia: Inkata Press

Baskin CC, Baskin JM, El-Moursey SA, 1996. Seasonal changes in germination responses of buried seeds of the weedy summer annual grass Setaria glauca. Weed Research (Oxford), 36(4):319-324; 21 ref

Bohannan DR, Jordan TN, 1995. Effects of ultra-low volume application on herbicide efficacy using oil diluents as carriers. Weed Technology, 9(4):682-688; 32 ref

Bor NL, 1979. The Grasses of Burma, Ceylon, India and Pakistan (excluding Bambuseae). Dehra Dun, India: R. P. S. Galot, International Book Distributors

Bubar CJ, Morrison IN, 1984. Growth responses of green and yellow foxtail (Setaria viridis and S. lutescens) to shade. Weed Science, 32(6):774-780; 16 ref

Cartia G, 1987. Results of soil solarization in Sicily. Difesa delle Piante, 10(1):189-194; 6 ref

Chaudhary SA, Parker C, Kasasian L, 1981. Weeds of Central, Southern and Eastern Arabian Peninsula. Tropical Pest Management, 27(2):181-190

Clayton WD, 1972. Gramineae. In: Hutchinson J, Dalziel JM, Hepper FN, 1972. Flora of West Tropical Africa. Vol 3. Part 2. London, UK: Crown Agents, 349-512

Clayton WD, 1979. Notes on Setaria (Gramineae). Kew Bulletin, 33:501-509

Clayton WD, 1980. Setaria. In: Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Moore DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA, eds. Flora Europaea, Volume 5. Alismataceae to Orchidaceae Monocotyledones. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 263-264

Clayton WD, 1989. Gramineae. XXIV. Paniceae R. Br. In: Launert E, Pope GV, eds. Flora Zambesiaca, Volume 10, Part 3. London, UK: Flora Zambesiaca Management Committee

Clayton WD, Renvoize SA, 1982. Flora of Tropical East Africa. Graminea (Part 3). Rotterdam, The Netherlands: A.A. Balkema, 448 pp

Creamer NG, Bennett MA, Stinner BR, Cardina J, Regnier EE, 1996. Mechanisms of weed suppression in cover crop-based production systems. HortScience, 31(3):410-413; 22 ref

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Forcella F, Wilson RG, Dekker J, Kremer RJ, Cardina J, Anderson RL, Alm D, Renner KA, Harvey RG, Clay S, Buhler DD, 1997. Weed seed bank emergence across the Corn Belt. Weed Science, 45(1):67-76

Gamor FD, Komendar VI, 1986. Influence of eco-coenotic factors on the occurrence of weeds in crops of the trans-Carpathians. Biologicheskie Nauki, No. 5:72-76; 11 ref

GBIF, 2018. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. http://www.gbif.org/species

Hafliger E, Scholz H, 1980. Grass weeds I. Weeds of the subfamily Panicoideae. Basle, Switzerland: Ciba-Geigy Ltd

Hassawy GS, Tammimi SA, Al-Lizzi H, 1968. Weeds in Iraq. Baghdad, Iraq: College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad

Holm LG, Doll J, Holm E, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, 1997. World Weeds: Natural Histories and Distribution. New York, USA: John Wiley & Sons Inc

Holm LG, Pancho JV, Herberger JP, Plucknett DL, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 391 pp

Kaul MK, 1986. Weed Flora of Kashmir Valley. Jodhpur, India: Scientific Publishers, 422 pp

Keeney FN, Noveroske RL, Flaim TD, 1988. Influence of adjuvants on the postemergence phytotoxicity of haloxyfop methyl herbicide on Setaria spp. ACS Symposium Series, American Chemical Society, No. 371:102-110; 19 ref

Khan M, Donald WW, Prato T, 1996. Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum) management can substitute for diclofop for foxtail (Setaria spp.) control. Weed Science, 44(2):362-372; 23 ref

Kostermans AJGH, Wirjahardja S, Dekker RJ, 1987. The weeds: description, ecology and control. Weeds of rice in Indonesia [edited by Soerjani, M.; Kostermans, A.J.G.H.; Tjitrosoepomo, G.] Jakarta, Indonesia; Balai Pustaka, 24-565

Lebershtein II, Shokh NA, 1987. Chemical weed control in maize. Zashchita Rastenii, No.3:20-21

Lorenzi HJ, Jeffery LS(Editors), 1987. Weeds of the United States and their control. New York, USA; Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Ltd., 355 pp

Martin LD, Smith AE, 1994. Allelopathic potential of some warm-season grasses. Crop Protection, 13(5):388-392; 18 ref

Melkania NP, 1988. Studies on germination of Setaria glauca Beauv. New Botanist, 15(1):29-32; 7 ref

Morin C, Gasquez J, 1981. New data on triazine-resistant weeds: grasses. Compte Rendu de la 11e Conference du COLUMA, 1:275-283

Morita H, 1997. Handbook of Arable Weeds of Japan. Tokyo, Japan: Kumiai Chemical Industry Co. Ltd., 128 pp

Nalewaja JD, Praczyk T, Matysiak R, 1995. Surfactants and oil adjuvants with nicosulfuron. Weed Technology, 9(4):689-695; 8 ref

Nandal DP, Singh CM, 1994. Effect of weed control on direct seeded puddled rice. Haryana Agricultural University Journal of Research, 24(4):154-157; 2 ref

Numata M, Yoshizawa N, 1975. Weed flora of Japan. Japan Association for the Advancement of Phyto-Regulators. Tokyo, Japan: Zenkoku Noson Kyoiku Kyokai

Parker C, 1992. Weeds of Bhutan. Weeds of Bhutan., vi + 236 pp

Peterson DE, Nalewaja JD, 1985. Ustilago neglecta in yellow foxtail. Proceedings, North Central Weed Control Conference., Vol.40:5-6

Prado Rde, Romera E, Menéndez J, Tena M, 1992. Differential mechanism of resistance to atrazine in Setaria adhaerens and Setaria glauca.. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, 57(3b):1067-1074; 7 ref

Rafey A, Prasad K, 1995. Influence of weed-management practices in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) intercropped with upland rice (Oryza sativa). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 65(4):281-282; 1 ref

Rajsekhar Dutta, Gogoi AK, 1994. Integrated weed control in direct-seeded upland rice (Oryza sativa). Indian Journal of Agronomy, 39(4):639-641; 4 ref

Shukla U, 1996. The Grasses of North-Eastern India. Jodhpur, India: Scientific Publishers, 325 pp

Singh B, 1988. Effect of weed control methods on performance of rice varieties under upland rainfed conditions of Nagaland. Indian Journal of Weed Science, 20(2):51-54; 2 ref

SpeciesLink, 2018. INCT-Herbário Virtual da Flora e dos Fungos. http://www.splink.org.br/

Steel MG, Cavers PB, Lee SM, 1983. The biology of Canadian weeds. 59. Setaria glauca (L.) Beauv. and S. verticillata (L.) Beauv. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 63(3):711-725

Stroud A, Parker C, 1989. A Weed Identification Guide for Ethiopia. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization

Tackholm V, 1974. Students' Flora of Egypt. 2nd edition. Cairo, Egypt: University of Cairo

Terry PJ, Michieka RW, 1987. Common Weeds of East Africa. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations

Tiwari JP, Kurchania SP, 1990. Survey and management of weeds in soybean (Glycine max) ecosystem in Madhya Pradesh. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 60(10):672-676; 3 ref

Tselev NN, 1983. Grasses of the Soviet Union. Part II. New Delhi, India: Oxonian Press Pvt Ltd

Vezina L, 1992. Influence of sowing date on the competitive effects of Setaria pumila and Echinochloa crus-galli on barley and spring wheat. Weed Research, 32(1):57-65; 9 ref

Wang RongLin, Wendel JF, Dekker JH, 1995. Weedy adaptation in Setaria spp. II. Genetic diversity and population genetic structure in S. glauca, S. geniculata, and S. faberii (Poaceae). American Journal of Botany, 82(8):1031-1039; 26 ref

Wang ZR, 1990. Farmland Weeds in China. Beijing, China: Agricultural Publishing House

Wells MJ, Balsinhas AA, Joffe H, Engelbrecht VM, Harding G, Stirton CH, 1986. A catalogue of problem plants in South Africa. Memoirs of the botanical survey of South Africa No 53. Pretoria, South Africa: Botanical Research Institute

Distribution References

Anon, 1975. Weed flora of Japan (illustrated by colour). In: Weed flora of Japan (illustrated by colour). [ed. by Numata M, Yoshizawa N]. Tokyo, Japan: Japan Association for the Advancement of Phyto-Regulators. 415 pp.

Anon, 1987. Weeds of the United States and their control. [ed. by Lorenzi H J, Jeffery L S]. New York, USA: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Ltd. 355 pp.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Chaudhary S A, Parker C, Kasasian L, 1981. Weeds of central, southern and eastern Arabian Peninsula. Tropical Pest Management. 27 (2), 181-190.

Clayton W D, Renvoize S A, 1982. Flora of Tropical East Africa. Gramineae (Part 3). Rotterdam, Netherlands: A.A. Balkema. 448pp.

Clayton WD, 1972. Gramineae. In: Flora of West Tropical Africa, 3 (2) [ed. by Hutchinson J, Dalziel JM, Hepper FN]. London, UK: Crown Agents. 349-512.

Clayton WD, 1980. Setaria. In: Flora Europaea. Alismataceae to Orchidaceae Monocotyledones, 5 [ed. by Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Moore DM, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA]. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. 263-264.

Clayton WD, 1989. Gramineae. XXIV. Paniceae R. Br. In: Flora Zambesiaca, 10 (3) [ed. by Launert E, Pope GV]. London, UK: Flora Zambesiaca Management Committee.

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO.

Gamor F D, Komendar V I, 1986. Influence of eco-coenotic factors on the occurrence of weeds in crops of the trans-Carpathians. Biologicheskie Nauki. 72-76.

GBIF, 2018. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. In: Global Biodiversity Information Facility. http://www.gbif.org/species

HASSAWY G S, TAMMIMI S A, AL-IZZI H, 1968. Weeds in Iraq. Technical Bulletin. Ministry of Agriculture. 256 pp.

Holm L, Doll J, Holm E, Pancho J, Herberger J, 1997. World weeds: natural histories and distribution. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons. xv + 1129 pp.

Holm L, Pancho J V, Herberger J P, Plucknett D L, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, Chichester (), Brisbane, Toronto, UK: John Wiley and Sons. xlix + 391 pp.

Kaul M K, 1986. Weed flora of Kashmir Valley. Jodhpur, India: Scientific Publishers. 422pp.

Kostermans A J G H, Wirjahardja S, Dekker R J, 1987. The weeds: description, ecology and control. In: Weeds of rice in Indonesia. [ed. by Soerjani M, Kostermans AJGH, Tjitrosoepomo G]. Jakarta, Indonesia: Balai Pustaka. 24-565.

Lebershteĭn I I, Shokh N A, 1987. Chemical weed control in maize. Zashchita Rasteniĭ. 20-21.

Melkania N P, 1988. Studies on germination of Setaria glauca Beauv. New Botanist. 15 (1), 29-32.

Morita H, 1997. Handbook of Arable Weeds of Japan., Tokyo, Japan: Kumiai Chemical Industry Co Ltd. 128 pp.

Nandal D P, Singh C M, 1994. Effect of weed control on direct seeded puddled rice. Haryana Agricultural University Journal of Research. 24 (4), 154-157.

Parker C, 1992. Weeds of Bhutan. Thimphu, Bhutan: National Plant Protection Centre. vi + 236 pp.

Rafey A, Prasad K, 1995. Influence of weed-management practices in pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan) intercropped with upland rice (Oryza sativa). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 65 (4), 281-282.

Rajsekhar Dutta, Gogoi A K, 1994. Integrated weed control in direct-seeded upland rice (Oryza sativa). Indian Journal of Agronomy. 39 (4), 639-641.

Shukla U, 1996. The Grasses of North-Eastern India., Jodhpur, India: Scientific Publishers. 325 pp.

Singh B, 1988. Effect of weed control methods on performance of rice varieties under upland rainfed conditions of Nagaland. Indian Journal of Weed Science. 20 (2), 51-54.

SpeciesLink, 2018. (INCT-Herbário Virtual da Flora e dos Fungos)., http://www.splink.org.br/

Steel M G, Cavers P B, Lee S M, 1983. The biology of Canadian weeds. 59. Setaria glauca (L.) Beauv. and S. verticillata (L.) Beauv. Canadian Journal of Plant Science. 63 (3), 711-725.

Stroud A, Parker C, 1989. A weed identification guide for Ethiopia. In: A weed identification guide for Ethiopia. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization. 278 pp.

Tackholm V, 1974. Students' Flora of Egypt., Cairo, Egypt: University of Cairo.

Terry P J, Michieka R W, 1987. Magugu ya Afrika Mashariki. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. xiii + 194 pp.

Tiwari J P, Kurchania S P, 1990. Survey and management of weeds in soybean (Glycine max) ecosystem in Madhya Pradesh. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 60 (10), 672-676.

Tselev NN, 1983. Grasses of the Soviet Union. Part II., New Delhi, India: Oxonian Press Pvt Ltd.

Wells M J, Balsinhas A A, Joffe H, Engelbrecht V M, Harding G, Stirton C H, 1986. A catalogue of problem plants in southern Africa incorporating the national weed list of South Africa. Memoirs, Botanical Survey of South Africa. v + 658pp.

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