Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Setaria faberi
(giant foxtail)

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Datasheet

Setaria faberi (giant foxtail)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Setaria faberi
  • Preferred Common Name
  • giant foxtail
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Monocotyledonae

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
S. faberi showing panicle, Kansas City, USA.
TitlePanicle
CaptionS. faberi showing panicle, Kansas City, USA.
Copyright©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK
S. faberi showing panicle, Kansas City, USA.
PanicleS. faberi showing panicle, Kansas City, USA.©Chris Parker/Bristol, UK

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Setaria faberi Herrm. (1910)

Preferred Common Name

  • giant foxtail

Other Scientific Names

  • Setaria macrocarpa Lucznik (1937)

International Common Names

  • Spanish: cola de zorra gigante
  • French: sétaire géante

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Borstenhirse, Fabers; Borstenhirse, Grosse
  • Japan: akinoenokorogusa

EPPO code

  • SETFA (Setaria faberi)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Monocotyledonae
  •                     Order: Cyperales
  •                         Family: Poaceae
  •                             Genus: Setaria
  •                                 Species: Setaria faberi

Description

Top of page A tufted annual grass, robust, up to 1.5 m high. Inflorescence up to 20 cm long, usually nodding. Spikelets 3 mm with 3-6 bristles, 3-10 mm long. Upper glume three-quarters of the length of smooth upper lemma. Seeds usually green (from Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987). S. faberi is a tetraploid with chromosome number (2n) = 36 (Wang et al., 1995).

Distribution

Top of page S. faberi is a native of China, introduced to many other regions and especially important in the eastern USA.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Asia

ChinaPresentWang RongLin et al. (1995)
-HeilongjiangPresentWang RongLin et al. (1995)
JapanPresentHolm et al. (1979)
South KoreaPresentKim et al. (1996)

Europe

BelarusPresent, LocalizedTret'yakov (1988)
CzechiaPresentWang RongLin et al. (1995)
FrancePresentMorin and Gasquez (1981)
LithuaniaPresentGudzhinskas (1991)
RussiaPresentWang RongLin et al. (1995)
-Russian Far EastPresentWang RongLin et al. (1995)
SpainPresentRecasens and Conesa (1995)

North America

CanadaPresentHolm et al. (1979)
-OntarioPresentWang RongLin et al. (1995)
United StatesPresentHolm et al. (1979)
-AlabamaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-ArkansasPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-ConnecticutPresent, WidespreadLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-DelawarePresent, WidespreadLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-GeorgiaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-IllinoisPresent, WidespreadLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-IndianaPresent, WidespreadLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-IowaPresent, WidespreadLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-KansasPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-KentuckyPresent, WidespreadLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-LouisianaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-MarylandPresent, WidespreadLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-MinnesotaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-MississippiPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-MissouriPresent, WidespreadLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-NebraskaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-New JerseyPresent, WidespreadLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-New YorkPresent, WidespreadLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-North CarolinaPresent, WidespreadLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-OhioPresent, WidespreadLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-OklahomaPresentLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-PennsylvaniaPresent, WidespreadLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-Rhode IslandPresent, WidespreadLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-South CarolinaPresent, WidespreadLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-TennesseePresent, WidespreadLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-VirginiaPresent, WidespreadLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)
-West VirginiaPresent, WidespreadLorenzi and Jeffery (1987)

Habitat

Top of page A weed of annual and perennial crops and waste places.

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Biology and Ecology

Top of page S. faberi is an annual weed reproducing by seeds. The seeds are dormant when shed, this dormancy being lost after several months, but more rapidly with exposure to moist, cold conditions. A light requirement and secondary dormancy may be induced by prolonged burial (Taylorson, 1972; Kim et al., 1996). Germination is high at 20°C, lower at 30°C (Fausey and Renner, 1997).

Impact

Top of page S. faberi is one of the most important weeds of the USA maize belt and the subject of intensive research, and development of population models (Forcella et al., 1995).

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

Top of page S. faberi is not unlike S. viridis and S. pumila but more robust with nodding spikes and different spikelet structure. It is most likely to be confused with large forms of S. viridis (vars. major, robusta-purpurea and robusta-alba) but S. faberi has larger spikelets (over 2.5 mm), more bristles, and softly hairy rather than scabrous leaf surfaces. See Schreiber and Oliver (1971) for a detailed comparison with these. See also datasheet for S. viridis.

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

S. faberi is controlled by most standard herbicides for annual grasses, but is somewhat tolerant of triazines. More complete triazine resistance has now developed in France, the USA and Spain. Resistance to sethoxydim, fluazifop and diclofop has been reported in the USA (Wiederholt and Stoltenberg, 1993).

References

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Fausey JC; Renner KA, 1997. Germination, emergence, and growth of giant foxtail (Setaria faberi) and fall panicum (Panicum dichotomiflorum). Weed Science, 45(3):423-425; 11 ref.

Forcella F; Barbour JC; Oriade CA; King RP; Buhler DD, 1995. Weed emergence modeling for a bioeconomic weed/crop management expert system. Clean water - clean environment - 21st century: team agriculture - working to protect water resources. Volume 1: pesticides. Proceedings Kansas City, Missouri, USA, 5-8 March, 1995., 73-76; 11 ref.

Gudzhinskas ZA, 1991. Supplement to the adventive flora of the Kaliningrad region. Gramineae. Botanicheskii Zhurnal, 76(10):1441-1446; 22 ref.

Holm LG; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DL, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 391 pp.

Kim JS; Kim TJ; Cho KY, 1996. Studies on germination characteristics and differential responses to herbicides in Setaria spp. Korean Journal of Weed Science, 16(3):187-193; 15 ref.

Lorenzi HJ; Jeffery LS(Editors), 1987. Weeds of the United States and their control. New York, USA; Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Ltd., 355 pp.

Morin C; Gasquez J, 1981. New data on triazine-resistant weeds: grasses. Compte Rendu de la 11e Conference du COLUMA, 1:275-283

Recasens J; Conesa JA, 1995. New adventitious weeds in the irrigated crops of Catalonia. Proceedings of the 1995 Congress of the Spanish Weed Science Society, Huesca, Spain. Madrid, Spain: Sociedad Espanola de Malherbologia, 59-65.

Schreiber MM; Oliver LR, 1971. Two new varieties of Setaria viridis. Weed Science, 19:424-427.

Taylorson RB, 1972. Phytochrome controlled changes in dormancy and germination of buried weed seeds. Weed Science, 20:417-422.

Tret'yakov DI, 1988. New adventitious plant species in the Belorussian flora. Botanicheskii Zhurnal, 73(6):903-910; 38 ref.

Wang RongLin; Wendel JF; Dekker JH, 1995. Weedy adaptation in Setaria spp. II. Genetic diversity and population genetic structure in S. glauca, S. geniculata, and S. faberii (Poaceae). American Journal of Botany, 82(8):1031-1039; 26 ref.

Wiederholt RJ; Stoltenberg DE, 1993. Resistance of giant foxtail (Setaria faberi Herrm.) and large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.) biotypes to acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase inhibitors. Resistant Pest Management, 5(2):17-18.

Distribution References

Anon, 1987. Weeds of the United States and their control. [ed. by Lorenzi H J, Jeffery L S]. New York, USA: Van Nostrand Reinhold Co. Ltd. 355 pp.

Gudzhinskas Z A, 1991. Supplement to the adventive flora of the Kaliningrad region. Gramineae. Botanicheskiĭ Zhurnal. 76 (10), 1441-1446.

Holm L, Pancho J V, Herberger J P, Plucknett D L, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, Chichester (), Brisbane, Toronto, UK: John Wiley and Sons. xlix + 391 pp.

Kim J S, Kim T J, Cho K Y, 1996. Studies on germination characteristics and differential responses to herbicides in Setaria spp. Korean Journal of Weed Science. 16 (3), 187-193.

Morin C, Gasquez J, 1981. New data on triazine-resistant weeds: grasses. (Donnees nouvelles sur les adventices resistantes aux triazines: cas des graminees.). In: Compte Rendu de la 11e Conference du COLUMA. [Compte Rendu de la 11e Conference du COLUMA.], 275-283.

Recasens J, Conesa J A, 1995. New adventitious weeds in the irrigated crops of Catalonia. (Nuevas malas hierbas alóctonas en los cultivos de regadío de Cataluña.). In: Proceedings of the 1995 Congress of the Spanish Weed Science Society, Huesca, Spain, 14-16 November 1995. [Proceedings of the 1995 Congress of the Spanish Weed Science Society, Huesca, Spain, 14-16 November 1995.], Madrid, Spain: Sociedad Española de Malherbología. 59-65.

Tret'yakov D I, 1988. New adventitious plant species in the Belorussian flora. Botanicheskiĭ Zhurnal. 73 (6), 903-910.

Wang RongLin, Wendel J F, Dekker J H, 1995. Weedy adaptation in Setaria spp. II. Genetic diversity and population genetic structure in S. glauca, S. geniculata, and S. faberii (Poaceae). American Journal of Botany. 82 (8), 1031-1039. DOI:10.2307/2446233

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