Setaria faberi (giant foxtail)
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Setaria faberi Herrm. (1910)
Preferred Common Name
- giant foxtail
Other Scientific Names
- Setaria macrocarpa Lucznik (1937)
International Common Names
- Spanish: cola de zorra gigante
- French: sétaire géante
Local Common Names
- Germany: Borstenhirse, Fabers; Borstenhirse, Grosse
- Japan: akinoenokorogusa
- SETFA (Setaria faberi)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Plantae
- Phylum: Spermatophyta
- Subphylum: Angiospermae
- Class: Monocotyledonae
- Order: Cyperales
- Family: Poaceae
- Genus: Setaria
- Species: Setaria faberi
DescriptionTop of page A tufted annual grass, robust, up to 1.5 m high. Inflorescence up to 20 cm long, usually nodding. Spikelets 3 mm with 3-6 bristles, 3-10 mm long. Upper glume three-quarters of the length of smooth upper lemma. Seeds usually green (from Lorenzi and Jeffery, 1987). S. faberi is a tetraploid with chromosome number (2n) = 36 (Wang et al., 1995).
DistributionTop of page S. faberi is a native of China, introduced to many other regions and especially important in the eastern USA.
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
HabitatTop of page A weed of annual and perennial crops and waste places.
Habitat ListTop of page
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Glycine max (soyabean)||Fabaceae||Main|
|Helianthus annuus (sunflower)||Asteraceae||Other|
|Medicago sativa (lucerne)||Fabaceae||Main|
|Prunus persica (peach)||Rosaceae||Other|
|Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)||Solanaceae||Other|
|Solanum tuberosum (potato)||Solanaceae||Main|
|Vitis vinifera (grapevine)||Vitaceae||Other|
|Zea mays (maize)||Poaceae||Main|
Biology and EcologyTop of page S. faberi is an annual weed reproducing by seeds. The seeds are dormant when shed, this dormancy being lost after several months, but more rapidly with exposure to moist, cold conditions. A light requirement and secondary dormancy may be induced by prolonged burial (Taylorson, 1972; Kim et al., 1996). Germination is high at 20°C, lower at 30°C (Fausey and Renner, 1997).
ImpactTop of page S. faberi is one of the most important weeds of the USA maize belt and the subject of intensive research, and development of population models (Forcella et al., 1995).
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page S. faberi is not unlike S. viridis and S. pumila but more robust with nodding spikes and different spikelet structure. It is most likely to be confused with large forms of S. viridis (vars. major, robusta-purpurea and robusta-alba) but S. faberi has larger spikelets (over 2.5 mm), more bristles, and softly hairy rather than scabrous leaf surfaces. See Schreiber and Oliver (1971) for a detailed comparison with these. See also datasheet for S. viridis.
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.S. faberi is controlled by most standard herbicides for annual grasses, but is somewhat tolerant of triazines. More complete triazine resistance has now developed in France, the USA and Spain. Resistance to sethoxydim, fluazifop and diclofop has been reported in the USA (Wiederholt and Stoltenberg, 1993).
ReferencesTop of page
Forcella F; Barbour JC; Oriade CA; King RP; Buhler DD, 1995. Weed emergence modeling for a bioeconomic weed/crop management expert system. Clean water - clean environment - 21st century: team agriculture - working to protect water resources. Volume 1: pesticides. Proceedings Kansas City, Missouri, USA, 5-8 March, 1995., 73-76; 11 ref.
Recasens J; Conesa JA, 1995. New adventitious weeds in the irrigated crops of Catalonia. Proceedings of the 1995 Congress of the Spanish Weed Science Society, Huesca, Spain. Madrid, Spain: Sociedad Espanola de Malherbologia, 59-65.
Schreiber MM; Oliver LR, 1971. Two new varieties of Setaria viridis. Weed Science, 19:424-427.
Taylorson RB, 1972. Phytochrome controlled changes in dormancy and germination of buried weed seeds. Weed Science, 20:417-422.
Wang RongLin; Wendel JF; Dekker JH, 1995. Weedy adaptation in Setaria spp. II. Genetic diversity and population genetic structure in S. glauca, S. geniculata, and S. faberii (Poaceae). American Journal of Botany, 82(8):1031-1039; 26 ref.
Wiederholt RJ; Stoltenberg DE, 1993. Resistance of giant foxtail (Setaria faberi Herrm.) and large crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop.) biotypes to acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase inhibitors. Resistant Pest Management, 5(2):17-18.
Morin C, Gasquez J, 1981. New data on triazine-resistant weeds: grasses. (Donnees nouvelles sur les adventices resistantes aux triazines: cas des graminees.). In: Compte Rendu de la 11e Conference du COLUMA. [Compte Rendu de la 11e Conference du COLUMA.], 275-283.
Recasens J, Conesa J A, 1995. New adventitious weeds in the irrigated crops of Catalonia. (Nuevas malas hierbas alóctonas en los cultivos de regadío de Cataluña.). In: Proceedings of the 1995 Congress of the Spanish Weed Science Society, Huesca, Spain, 14-16 November 1995. [Proceedings of the 1995 Congress of the Spanish Weed Science Society, Huesca, Spain, 14-16 November 1995.], Madrid, Spain: Sociedad Española de Malherbología. 59-65.
Wang RongLin, Wendel J F, Dekker J H, 1995. Weedy adaptation in Setaria spp. II. Genetic diversity and population genetic structure in S. glauca, S. geniculata, and S. faberii (Poaceae). American Journal of Botany. 82 (8), 1031-1039. DOI:10.2307/2446233
Distribution MapsTop of page
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