Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Sesamia nonagrioides
(Mediterranean corn stalk borer)

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Datasheet

Sesamia nonagrioides (Mediterranean corn stalk borer)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Sesamia nonagrioides
  • Preferred Common Name
  • Mediterranean corn stalk borer
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleS. nonagrioides; adult (museum set specimen)
Caption
Copyright©David Agassiz
S. nonagrioides; adult (museum set specimen)©David Agassiz

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefebvre)

Preferred Common Name

  • Mediterranean corn stalk borer

Other Scientific Names

  • Sesamia botanephaga Tams and Bowden
  • Sesamia vuteria nec Stoll.

International Common Names

  • English: pink maize stalk borer
  • French: noctuelle du maïs

Local Common Names

  • France: noctuelle du mais; sesamie du mais

EPPO code

  • SESANO (Sesamia nonagrioides)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Noctuidae
  •                             Genus: Sesamia
  •                                 Species: Sesamia nonagrioides

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Nov 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

BeninPresent
BotswanaPresent
BurundiPresent
Cabo VerdePresent
CameroonPresent
Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent
Congo, Republic of thePresent
Côte d'IvoirePresent
EgyptPresent
EthiopiaPresent
GabonPresenthttps://www.gbif.org/occurrence/1415812606
GhanaPresent
KenyaPresent
MaliPresent
MoroccoPresent
NigeriaPresent
RwandaPresent
SudanPresent
TanzaniaPresent
TogoPresent
UgandaPresent
ZambiaPresent

Asia

IranPresent
IsraelPresent
SyriaPresent
TurkeyPresent

Europe

CyprusPresent
FrancePresent, Localized
GreecePresent
ItalyPresent, Localized
-SardiniaPresent
PortugalPresent
-AzoresPresentOn Strelitzia reginae.
-MadeiraPresent
SpainPresent
-Balearic IslandsPresentOccurrence record 2283460717, observed in 2017.
-Canary IslandsPresent

Growth Stages

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Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / frass visible
Fruit / internal feeding
Growing point / dead heart
Growing point / external feeding
Growing point / frass visible
Growing point / internal feeding; boring
Inflorescence / discoloration panicle
Inflorescence / frass visible
Inflorescence / internal feeding
Roots / internal feeding
Seeds / empty grains
Seeds / frass visible
Stems / dead heart
Stems / internal feeding
Stems / visible frass
Stems / witches broom
Whole plant / dead heart
Whole plant / frass visible
Whole plant / internal feeding
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Bacillus thuringiensis
Cotesia sesamiae Parasite Larvae Cape Verde maize
Descampsina sesamiae Parasite Larvae
Diadegma terebrans Parasite
Exorista segregata Parasite Larvae
Lydella thompsoni Parasite Larvae France maize; sorghum
Masicera sphingivora Parasite Larvae
Paecilomyces farinosus Pathogen
Paecilomyces fumosoroseus Pathogen
Pediobius furvus Parasite Pupae Cape Verde maize
Pediobius imbreus Parasite
Pseudogonia rufifrons Parasite Larvae
Pseudoperichaeta nigrolineata Parasite
Sturmiopsis parasitica Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Telenomus busseolae Parasite Eggs

References

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Albajes R; Konstantopoulou M; Etchepare O; Eizaguirre M; FrTrot B; Sans A; Krokos F; AmTline A; Mazomenos B, 2002. Mating disruption of the corn borer Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) using sprayable formulations of pheromone. Crop Protection, 21(3):217-225; 26 ref.

Anglade P, 1972. Les Sesamias. In: Balachowsky AS, ed. Entomologie appliquée a l'agriculture. Tome II LépidoptFres, Vol. 2. Paris, France: Masson, 1389-1398.

Babilis NA; Mazomenos BE, 1992. Mating behaviour of the corn stalk borer Sesamia nonagrioides. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 65(3):199-204

Badolato R, 1976. Comparative characters for Sesamia nonagrioides (Lef., 1827) and S. cretica Led., 1857, in their various developmental stages. (Lep. Noctuidae). Grpllsia, 32:265-277

Berjon J; Maison P, 1971. Importants dégats sur solanées maraichFres provoqués par la Sésamie et la pyrale du mais. Phytoma, 23:33-34.

BuFs R; Eizaguirre M; Toubon JF; Albages R, 1996. Population genetic structure and ecological differences among nine populations of Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from the western Mediterranean Basin. Canadian Entomologist, 128(5):849-858; 32 ref.

Cartea ME; Malvar RA; Revilla P; Ordas A; Alvarez A, 1994. Seasonal occurrence and response of maize inbred lines to pink stem borer in the northwest of Spain. Maydica, 39(3):191-196

Carter DJ, 1984. Pest Lepidoptera of Europe. Series Entomologica, Vol. 31. Dordrecht, Netherlands: Dr W Junk.

Ciampolini M; Zangheri S, 1975. Sesamia nonagrioides (Lef.) and Peridroma saucia Hb. (Lep. Noctuidae) injurious to flower crops. Bollettino di Zoologia Agraria e di Bachicoltura, 13:37-47

CIE, 1979. Distribution Maps of Pests, Map No. 399 (revised). Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Daniali M, 1986. Role of cultural practices in control of the sugar cane stem borer in the region of Haft-Tappeh; Khoozestan. Entomologie et Phytopathologie Appliquees, 53(1-2):Pe 11-28; en 3-4

Delrio G; Verdinelli M; Serra G, 2004. Monitoring of pest and beneficial insect populations in summer sown Bt-maize. Bulletin-OILB/SROP, 27(3): 43-48.

Eizaguirre M; Albajes R; Galichet PF, 1990. A note on the presence in Catalonia of a parasitic system bound to the tachinid fly Lydella thompsoni Herting, a parasitoid of corn borers. Investigacion Agraria, Produccion y Proteccion Vegetales, 5(2):345-348

Fantinou AA; Karandinos MG; Tsitsipis JA, 1995. Diapause induction in the Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) effect of photoperiod and temperature. Environmental Entomology, 24(6):1458-1466; 28 ref.

Farinos GP; Poza M de la; Gonzalez Nunez M; Hernandez Crespo P; Ortego F; Castanera P, 2004. Research programme to monitor corn borer resistance to Bt-maize in Spain. Bulletin OILB/SROP, 27(3): 73-77.

Farinos GP; Poza M de la; Hernandez Crespo P; Ortego F; Castanera P, 2004. Resistance monitoring of field populations of the corn borers Sesamia nonagrioides and Ostrinia nubilalis after 5 years of Bt maize cultivation in Spain. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 110(1): 23-30.

Fazeli MJ, 1992. Biology and control of Sesamia nonagrioides botanephaga in the Fars Province. Applied Entomology and Phytopathology, 59(1-2):13-14

Figueiredo D; Ara·jo J, 1996. Mortality factors of Sesamia nonagrioides Lef. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidea) in Portugal. I. Parasitoids. Boleti^acute~n de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 22(2):251-260; 18 ref.

Gadenne C; Dufour MC; Rossignol F; BTcard JM; Couillaud F, 1997. Occurrence of non-stationary larval moults during diapause in the corn-stalk borer, Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Insect Physiology, 43(5):425-431; 34 ref.

Gemsi GR; Kamali K, 1992. Biology, host range and damage of corn stem borer in Khuzestan. Applied Entomology and Phytopathology, 59(1-2):31-33

Getu E; Overholt WA; Kairu E, 2001. Distribution and species composition of stemborers and their natural enemies in maize and sorghum in Ethiopia. Insect Science and its Application, 21(4):353-359.

Giacometti R, 1995. Rearing of Sesamia nonagrioides Lefevre on a meridic diet (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). Redia, 78(1):19-27; 16 ref.

Gillyboeuf N; Anglade P; Lavenseau L; Peypelut L, 1994. Cold hardiness and overwintering strategy of the pink maize stalk borer, Sesamia nonagrioides Lef. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Oecologia, 99(3/4):366-373

Harten A van; Monteiro Neves A; Mendes Brito J, 1990. Import, rearing, release and recovery of parasitoids and predators of pests in the Cape Verde Islands from April 1983 to December 1987. Investigacao Agraria, Cape Verde, 3(2):39-49

Hilal A, 1985. Study of the technological alterations of sugarcane due to the attacks of Sesamia nonagrioides (LEF.) (Lep.; Noctuidae). Actes de l'Institut Agronomique et Veterinaire Hassan II, 5(1-2):37-42

Hilal A, 1992. Modelling the flight of the first generation of the maize stalk borer, Sesamia nonagrioides (Lep. Noctuidae). Al Awamia, No. 75:3-10

Hilal A, 1992. The effect of extreme temperatures on the development and mortality of the maize stalk borer, Sesamia nonagrioides Lef. (Lep. Noctuidae). Al Awamia, No. 75:155-168

Idraw MW; Al-Jouri E, 2007. Monitoring the effect of some insecticides for corn stem borer control, at Deir Ez-Zor region, Syria. Arab Universities Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 15(2):301-312. http://www.Geocities.com/Journalaaru

Kavut H, 1987. Some biological findings relating to the control of maize stalk borer (Sesamia nonagrioides Lef. Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) causing damage in maize fields in the pgean Region. Turkiye I. Entomoloji Kongresi Bildirileri, 13-16 Ekim 1987, Ege Universitesi, Bornova, Izmir. Bornova/Izmir, Turkey: Ege Universitesi Ataturk Kultur Merkezi, 157-166

Krambias A; Zyngas JP; Shiakides T, 1973. Outbreaks and new records. Plant Protection Bulletin, FAO, 21:64-67.

Krokos FD; Ameline A; Bau J; Sans A; Konstantopoulou M; FrTrot B; Guerrero A; Eizaguirre M; Malosse C; Etchepare O; Albajes R; Mazomenos BE, 2002. Comparative studies of female sex pheromone components and male response of the corn stalk borer Sesamia nonagrioides in three different populations. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 28(7):1463-1472; 19 ref.

Lopez C; Eizaguirre M; Albajes R, 2003. Courtship and mating behaviour of the Mediterranean corn borer, Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 1(1): 43-51.

Lopez C; Sans A; Eizaguirre M, 1999. Influence of the maize plant on mating of Sesamia nonagrioides LefFbvre (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Investigación Agraria, Producción y Protección Vegetales, 14(3):415-422; 10 ref.

Lopez E; Eizaguiire M; Albajes R, 1995. Diapause detection and monitoring in the Mediterranean corn stalk borer. Physiological Entomology, 20:330-336.

Malvar RA; Butron A; Revilla P; Ordas A, 2004. Resistance to the pink stem borer, Sesamia nonagrioides, in maize. Recent Research Developments in Plant Science, 2: 1-32.

Malvar RA; Cartea ME; Revilla P; Ordas A; Alvarez A; Mansilla JP, 1993. Sources of resistance to pink stem borer and European corn borer in maize. Maydica, 38(4):313-319

Meijerman L; Ulenberg SA, 1996. Identification of African stem borer larvae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae, Pyralidae) based on morphology. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 86(5):567-578; 25 ref.

Monetti L; Malvar RA; Ordas A; Cordero Rivera A, 2003. Parasitoids incidence and diversity on maize stem borers Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre and Ostrinia nubilalis Hubner in NW Spain. Maydica, 48(2): 133-139.

Moyal P; Tokro P; Bayram A; Savopoulou-Soultani M; Conti E; Eizaguirre M; Rü Ble; Avand-Faghih A; Frérot B; Andreadis S, 2011. Origin and taxonomic status of the Palearctic population of the stem borer Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefèbvre) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society, 103(4):904-922. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/journal/10.1111/(ISSN)1095-8312

Naibo B; Algans JL; Brasseur A, 1996. The maize Sesamia: injuriousness and means of control. Phytoma, No. 486:23-24; 4 ref.

Ntanos DA; Koutroubas SD, 2000. Evaluation of rice for resistance to pink stem borer (Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebre). Field Crops Research, 66(1):63-71; 19 ref.

Nye IWB, 1960. The insect pests of graminaceous crops in East Africa. Colonial Research Studies, No. 31. London, UK: HMSO.

Oliveira L; Tavares J, 1981. Contribution to a study of Sesamia nonagrioides Lef. (Lep., Noctuidae) on a crop of Strelitzia reginp Ait. (Scit., Musaceae) on the Ilha de S. Miguel -- Azores. Arquipelago, Ciencias da Natureza, No. 2:165-176

Perdiguer A; Gimeno F; Aguilar L; Eizaguirre M; Riba M; Sans A, 1992. Studies of sexual confusion in Sesamia nonagrioides. Investigacion Agraria, Produccion y Proteccion Vegetales, 7(2):253-260

Polaszek A, 1998. African cereal stem borers: economic importance, taxonomy, natural enemies and control. African cereal stem borers: economic importance, taxonomy, natural enemies and control., x + 530 pp.; 42 pp. of ref.

Porcelli F; Parenzan P, 1993. Damage by Opogona sacchari and Sesamia nonagrioides to Strelitzia in southern Italy. Informatore Fitopatologico, 43(12):21-24; 13 ref.

Pucci C; Forcina A, 1984. Morphological differences between the eggs of Sesamia cretica (Led.) and S. nonagrioides (Lef.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). International Journal of Insect Morphology and Embryology, 13(3):249-253

Quaranta F; Mazzon V; Melloni S; Pilo C, 2005. Summer sowing of early maize in central Italy. Informatore Agrario, 61(19): 59-62.

Sampson MA; Kumar R, 1986. Parasitism of Descampsina sesamip (Mensil) on Sesamia species in sugar-cane in southern Ghana. Insect Science and its Application, 7(4):543-546

Sannino L; Espinosa B; Campese B, 2004. Melon: a new host of Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefebvre). Informatore Fitopatologico, 54(10): 32-34.

Sans A; Riba M; Eizaguirre M; Lopez C, 1997. Electroantennogram, wind tunnel and field responses of male Mediterranean corn borer, Sesamia nonagrioides, to several blends of its sex pheromone components. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 82(2):121-127; 23 ref.

Santiago R; Souto XC; Sotelo J; Butron A; Malvar RA, 2003. Relationship between maize stem structural characteristics and resistance to pink stem borer (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) attack. Journal of Economic Entomology, 96(5): 1563-1570.

Sertkaya E; Kornosor S, 1994. Distribution and natural parasitism of Platytelenomus busseolae (Gahan) (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae), the egg parasitoid of corn stalk borer Sesamia nonagrioides Lef. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Cukurova. Turkiye III. Biyolojik Mucadele Kongresi Bildirileeri, 25-28 Ocak 1994, Ege Universitesi Ziraat Fakultesi, Bitki Koruma Bolumu. Izmir Bornova, Turkey: Ege Universitesi Basimevi, 565-574

Tams WHT; Bowden J, 1953. A revision of the African species of Sesamia Guenée and related genera (Agrotidae-Lepidoptera). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 43:645-678.

Tarasco E, 2001. Damaging insects in asparagus. Informatore Agrario, 57(50):36-38.

Tsitsipis JA; Gliatis A; Mazomenos BE, 1984. Seasonal appearance of the corn stalk borer, Sesamia nonagrioides, in central Greece. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 49(3a):667-674

Uygun N; Kayapinar A, 1993. A new pest on banana: Corn stalk borer, Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre (Lep., Noctuidae) in South Anatolia. Tu^umlaut~rkiye Entomoloji Dergisi, 17(1):33-40; 8 ref.

Velasco P; Revilla P; Cartea ME; Ordas A; Malvar RA, 2004. Resistance of early maturing sweet corn varieties to damage caused by Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 97(4): 1432-1437.

Vlieger JJde, 2001. Development of a sprayable slow-release formulation for the sex pheromone of the Mediterranean Corn Borer, Sesamia nonagrioides. Bulletin OILB/SROP, 24(2):101-106; 2 ref.

Wysoki M; Melamed-Madjar V, 1986. Sesamia nonagrioides on persimmon in Israel. Phytoparasitica, 14(4):320

Distribution References

Badr M A, Al-Gamal M M, Hussain H R, 1992. Chetotaxy of the last larval instar of three stem-borers, Sesamia cretica Led., Sesamia nonagrioides (Lef.) and Sesamia wiltshirei Rungs (Lepidoptera-Noctuidae) as known to exist in Egypt. Egyptian Journal of Agricultural Research. 70 (3), 789-796.

Borges PAV, Gabriel R, Arroz AM, Costa A, Cunha R, Elias R, Silva L, 2018. Specimen record in the Azorean Biodiversity Portal, Universidade dos Açores. Occurrence dataset https://doi.org/10.15468/j0iceo., GBIF. https://www.gbif.org

Buès R, Eizaguirre M, Toubon J F, Albages R, 1996. Population genetic structure and ecological differences among nine populations of Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) from the western Mediterranean Basin. Canadian Entomologist. 128 (5), 849-858.

Buyckx E J B, 1962. Publ. Inst. nat. Etude agron. Congo. [ed. by Buyckx E J B]. Brussels. 708 pp.

Camargo A M, Andow D A, Castañera P, Farinós G P, 2018. First detection of a Sesamia nonagrioides resistance allele to Bt maize in Europe. Scientific Reports. 8 (1), 3977. DOI:10.1038/s41598-018-21943-4

Delrio G, Verdinelli M, Serra G, 2004. Monitoring of pest and beneficial insect populations in summer sown Bt maize. Bulletin OILB/SROP. 27 (3), 43-48.

Esfandiari M, Mehravar N, Motamedi H, Memari H R, Rajaei H, 2015. Phylogeography of Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Iran inferred from mitochondrial DNA. Acta Zoologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricae. 61 (4), 341-359. DOI:10.17109/AZH.61.4.341.2015

Eskİ A, Çakıcı F Ö, Güllü M, Muratoğlu H, Demİrbağ Z, Demİr İ, 2015. Identification and pathogenicity of bacteria in the Mediterranean corn borer Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Turkish Journal of Biology. 39 (1), 31-48. http://journals.tubitak.gov.tr/biology/index.php

Fabiano F, 2017. New data on the lepidopteran fauna of Montecristo island (Lepidoptera). (Nuovi dati sulla lepidotterofauna dell'isola di Montecristo (Lepidoptera).). Onychium. 143-158. http://www.onychium.it/sites/default/files/articoli/Fabiano_2017_Onychium13.pdf

Farinós G P, Andreadis S S, Poza M de la, Mironidis G K, Ortego F, Savopoulou-Soultani M, Castañera P, 2011. Comparative assessment of the field-susceptibility of Sesamia nonagrioides to the Cry1Ab toxin in areas with different adoption rates of Bt maize and in Bt-free areas. Crop Protection. 30 (7), 902-906. DOI:10.1016/j.cropro.2011.03.011

Farinós G P, Poza M de la, Ortego F, Castañera P, 2012. Susceptibility to the Cry1F toxin of field populations of Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Mediterranean maize cultivation regions. Journal of Economic Entomology. 105 (1), 214-221. DOI:10.1603/EC11213

Folcher L, Jarry M, Weissenberger A, Eychenne N, Delos M, Regnault-Roger C, 2009. Biocontrol of Ostrinia nubilalis and Sesamia nonagrioides by Bt maize in South Western France: search of biological indicators by a model-based approach for managing mycotoxin risks. IOBC/WPRS Bulletin. 487-490. http://www.iobc-wprs.org/pub/bulletins/bulletin_2009_45_table_of_contents_abstracts.pdf

Gemsi G R, Kamali K, 1992. Biology, host range and damage of corn stem borer in Khuzestan. Applied Entomology and Phytopathology. 59 (1-2), 31-33.

Getu E, Overholt W A, Kairu E, 2001. Distribution and species composition of stemborers and their natural enemies in maize and sorghum in Ethiopia. Insect Science and its Application. 21 (4), 353-359.

Goftishu M, Assefa Y, Niba A, Fininsa C, Nyamukondiwa C, Capdevielle-Dulac C, Ru B P L, 2019. Phylogeography and population structure of the Mediterranean corn borer, Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), across its geographic range. Journal of Economic Entomology. 112 (1), 396-406. DOI:10.1093/jee/toy323

Harten A van, 1987. Biological pest control in the Cape Verde Islands. (Biologische Schädlingsbekämpfung auf den Kapverdischen Inseln.). Courier Forschungsinstituts Senckenberg. 29-39.

Hilal A, 1992. Modelling the flight of the first generation of the maize stalk borer, Sesamia nonagrioides (Lep. Noctuidae). (Modélisation du vol de la première génération de la sesamie du maïs, Sesamia nonagrioides (Lep. Noctuidae).). Al Awamia. 3-10.

Idraw M W, Al-Jouri E, 2007. Monitoring the effect of some insecticides for corn stem borer control, at Deir Ez-Zor region, Syria. Arab Universities Journal of Agricultural Sciences. 15 (2), 301-312.

Jansen H G, Levy Z A, Delgado F X, 1990. Integrated pest control in the Cape Verde Islands. In: Proceedings: Integrated Pest Management in Tropical and Subtropical Cropping Systems '89 [Proceedings: Integrated Pest Management in Tropical and Subtropical Cropping Systems '89], Frankfurt, Germany: Deutsche Landwirtschafts-Gesellschaft. 39-44.

Kapazoglou A, Andreadis S S, Drossou V, Madesis P, Savopoulou-Soultani M, Tsaftaris A S, 2014. Cadherin characterization and cytochrome oxidase (COI) HRM analysis in different geographical populations of the Mediterranean corn borer, Sesamia nonagrioides. Journal of Agricultural Science (Toronto). 6 (1), 173-193. http://ccsenet.org/journal/index.php/jas/article/view/27407/18998

Krambias A, Zyngas JP, Shiakides T, 1973. Outbreaks and new records. In: Plant Protection Bulletin, FAO, 21 64-67.

Leandro M J, Oliveira M, Melo C, Mexia A, 2003. Survey of the insect population on a Protea plantation in the Southwest of Portugal. Acta Horticulturae. 67-74.

Margaritopoulos J T, Gotosopoulos B, Mamuris Z, Skouras P J, Voudouris K C, Bacandritsos N, Fantinou A A, Tsitsipis J A, 2007. Genetic variation among Mediterranean populations of Sesamia nonagrioides (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) as revealed by RFLP mtDNA analysis. Bulletin of Entomological Research. 97 (3), 299-308. DOI:10.1017/S000748530700507X

Melamed-Madjar V, 1990. Status of Chilo agamemnon Bles. in Israel and the probable reasons for the decrease in its populations. In: Insect Science and its Application, 11 (4-5) 541-545.

Oliveira L, Tavares J, 1981. Contribution to a study of Sesamia nonagrioides Lef. (Lep., Noctuidae) on a crop of Strelitzia reginae Ait. (Scit., Musaceae) on the Ilha de S. Miguel -- Azores. (Contribuicao ao estudo de Sesamia nonagrioides Lef. (Lep., Noctuidae) na cultura de Strelitzia reginae Ait. (Scit., Musaceae) na Ilha de S. Miguel -- Acores.). Arquipelago, Ciencias da Natureza. 165-176.

Özpınar A, Polat B, Șahİn A K, Özpınar S, 2014. Hibernation and the adult population development of Mediterranean corn borer, Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre 1827 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) on the corn plant in Çanakkale province. (Çanakkale ilinde mısır bitkisinde zararlı Mısır koçankurdu, Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre 1827 (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)'in kıșlama durumu ve ergin popülasyon gelișmesi.). Bitki Koruma Bülteni. 54 (2), 93-102. http://www.bitkikorumabulteni.gov.tr/index.php/bitki/article/view/1432/1409

Poza M de la, Farinós G P, Beroiz B, Ortego F, Hernández-Crespo P, Castañera P, 2008. Genetic structure of Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefebvre) populations in the Mediterranean area. Environmental Entomology. 37 (5), 1354-1360. DOI:10.1603/0046-225X(2008)37[1354:GSOSNL]2.0.CO;2

Sannino L, Espinosa B, Campese B, 2004. Melon: a new host of Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefebvre). (Rinvenimento su melone di Sesamia nonagrioides (Lefebvre).). Informatore Fitopatologico. 54 (10), 32-34.

Sertkaya E, Kornoșor S, 1994. Distribution and natural parasitism of Platytelenomus busseolae (Gahan) (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae), the egg parasitoid of corn stalk borer Sesamia nonagrioides Lef. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Cukurova. (Cukurova'da Sesamia nonagrioides Lefebvre (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)'in yumurta parazitoidi Platytelenomus busseolae (Gahan) (Hymenoptera: Scelionidae)'nın yaygınlığı ve doğal parazitleme oranı üzerinde arastırmalar.). In: Turkiye III. Biyolojik Mucadele Kongresi Bildirileeri, 25-28 Ocak 1994, Ege Universitesi Ziraat Fakultesi, Bitki Koruma Bolumu, Izmir. [Turkiye III. Biyolojik Mucadele Kongresi Bildirileeri, 25-28 Ocak 1994, Ege Universitesi Ziraat Fakultesi, Bitki Koruma Bolumu, Izmir.], Bornova, Turkey: Ege Universitesi Basimevi. 565-574.

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The International Barcode of Life Consortium, 2016. Specimen record from the collection in the International Barcode of Life project (iBOL) database, accessed via GBIF.org., https://www.gbif.org/

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UK, CAB International, 1979. Sesamia nonagrioides. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 399. DOI:10.1079/DMPP/20056600399

Usua E J, 1969. Description of the larvae of Sesamia penniseti Bowden and S. botanephaga Tams and Bowden (Lepidoptera:Noctuidae). Bulletin of the Entomological Society of Nigeria. 2 (1), 72-76.

Wysoki M, Melamed-Madjar V, 1986. Sesamia nonagrioides on persimmon in Israel. Phytoparasitica. 14 (4), 320.

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