Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Sesamia inferens
(purple stem borer)

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Datasheet

Sesamia inferens (purple stem borer)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 04 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Sesamia inferens
  • Preferred Common Name
  • purple stem borer
  • Taxonomic Tree

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Robust moth with pale yellow brown body, head and thorax have a thick brown hair tuft. Wingspan: male, 16-20 mm; female, 20-31 mm.
TitleAdult
CaptionRobust moth with pale yellow brown body, head and thorax have a thick brown hair tuft. Wingspan: male, 16-20 mm; female, 20-31 mm.
CopyrightIRRI
Robust moth with pale yellow brown body, head and thorax have a thick brown hair tuft. Wingspan: male, 16-20 mm; female, 20-31 mm.
AdultRobust moth with pale yellow brown body, head and thorax have a thick brown hair tuft. Wingspan: male, 16-20 mm; female, 20-31 mm.IRRI
Oviposition in one to three rows, over 100 eggs per site, between leaf sheath and stem.
TitleEggs
CaptionOviposition in one to three rows, over 100 eggs per site, between leaf sheath and stem.
CopyrightIRRI
Oviposition in one to three rows, over 100 eggs per site, between leaf sheath and stem.
EggsOviposition in one to three rows, over 100 eggs per site, between leaf sheath and stem.IRRI
Larva pale yellow with pale to purple tinge; head reddish brown; length 20-26 mm.
TitleLarva
CaptionLarva pale yellow with pale to purple tinge; head reddish brown; length 20-26 mm.
CopyrightIRRI
Larva pale yellow with pale to purple tinge; head reddish brown; length 20-26 mm.
LarvaLarva pale yellow with pale to purple tinge; head reddish brown; length 20-26 mm.IRRI
Male pupae 12 x 3 mm, female 18 x 4 mm.
TitlePupa
CaptionMale pupae 12 x 3 mm, female 18 x 4 mm.
CopyrightIRRI
Male pupae 12 x 3 mm, female 18 x 4 mm.
PupaMale pupae 12 x 3 mm, female 18 x 4 mm.IRRI
Feeding at base of panicles often causes the panicle to be cut, leading to a wilted panicle called a whitehead.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionFeeding at base of panicles often causes the panicle to be cut, leading to a wilted panicle called a whitehead.
CopyrightIRRI
Feeding at base of panicles often causes the panicle to be cut, leading to a wilted panicle called a whitehead.
SymptomsFeeding at base of panicles often causes the panicle to be cut, leading to a wilted panicle called a whitehead.IRRI

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Sesamia inferens (Walker)

Preferred Common Name

  • purple stem borer

Other Scientific Names

  • Leucania albiciliata
  • Leucania inferens
  • Leucania proscripta Walker
  • Nonagria albiciliata
  • Nonagria gracilis Butler
  • Nonagria inferens Walker
  • Nonagria innocens Butler
  • Sesamia albiciliata Snellen
  • Sesamia tranquilaris Butler

International Common Names

  • English: Asiatic pink stem borer; gramineous stem borer (Pakistan); pink borer (Japan); pink rice borer; pink rice stem borer (Thailand); pink stem borer; purple borer (Indonesia); purplish stem borer (Japan); ragi stem borer; violet stem borer
  • Spanish: barrenador del arroz; barrenador rosado
  • French: noctuelle du riz; noctuelle rose

Local Common Names

  • Bangladesh: golapi majrapoka
  • Germany: Violetter Reis-Stengelbohrer; Violetter Stengelbohrer
  • Japan: dai-meityu; ine-yoto
  • Netherlands: paarsroode rijstboorder; paarsrooder borer

EPPO code

  • SESAIN (Sesamia inferens)

Taxonomic Tree

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Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshWidespreadAPPPC, 1987; EPPO, 2014
BhutanPresentRajesh et al., 1994
Brunei DarussalamWidespreadUK CAB International, 1967; Waterhouse, 1993
CambodiaPresentUK CAB International, 1967; Waterhouse, 1993; EPPO, 2014
ChinaPresentEPPO, 2014
-AnhuiPresentEPPO, 2014
-GuangdongPresentUK CAB International, 1967; EPPO, 2014
-HenanPresentUK CAB International, 1967; EPPO, 2014
-Hong KongPresentUK CAB International, 1967; EPPO, 2014
-HubeiPresentUK CAB International, 1967; EPPO, 2014
-HunanPresentEPPO, 2014
-JiangsuPresentUK CAB International, 1967; EPPO, 2014
-JiangxiPresentUK CAB International, 1967; EPPO, 2014
-ShanghaiPresentJiang et al., 2005
-ZhejiangPresentUK CAB International, 1967; EPPO, 2014
IndiaPresentEPPO, 2014; Beant and Kular, 2015
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentUK CAB International, 1967; EPPO, 2014
-Andhra PradeshPresentUK CAB International, 1967; EPPO, 2014
-AssamPresentPujari et al., 2008
-BiharPresentUK CAB International, 1967; EPPO, 2014
-HaryanaPresentRishi et al., 2004
-Indian PunjabPresentUK CAB International, 1967; EPPO, 2014
-KarnatakaPresentEPPO, 2014
-Madhya PradeshPresentUK CAB International, 1967; EPPO, 2014
-MaharashtraPresentUK CAB International, 1967; EPPO, 2014
-OdishaPresentUK CAB International, 1967; EPPO, 2014
-SikkimPresentUK CAB International, 1967; EPPO, 2014
-Tamil NaduPresentEPPO, 2014
-Uttar PradeshPresentUK CAB International, 1967; EPPO, 2014
-West BengalPresentUK CAB International, 1967; EPPO, 2014
IndonesiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-Irian JayaPresentUK CAB International, 1967; EPPO, 2014
-JavaPresentUK CAB International, 1967; EPPO, 2014
-KalimantanPresentUK CAB International, 1967; EPPO, 2014
-Nusa TenggaraPresentEPPO, 2014
-SulawesiPresentUK CAB International, 1967; EPPO, 2014
-SumatraPresentUK CAB International, 1967; EPPO, 2014
JapanPresentEPPO, 2014
-HokkaidoWidespreadKuwayama, 1954
-HonshuPresentUK CAB International, 1967; EPPO, 2014
-KyushuPresentUK CAB International, 1967; EPPO, 2014
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentUK CAB International, 1967; Rajesh et al., 1994; EPPO, 2014
-ShikokuPresentUK CAB International, 1967; EPPO, 2014
Korea, DPRPresentUK CAB International, 1967; APPPC, 1987; EPPO, 2014
Korea, Republic ofPresentUK CAB International, 1967; APPPC, 1987; EPPO, 2014
LaosRestricted distributionWaterhouse, 1993; EPPO, 2014
MalaysiaPresentEPPO, 2014
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentUK CAB International, 1967; EPPO, 2014
-SabahPresentUK CAB International, 1967; EPPO, 2014
-SarawakPresentUK CAB International, 1967; EPPO, 2014
MyanmarPresentUK CAB International, 1967; APPPC, 1987; Waterhouse, 1993; EPPO, 2014
NepalPresentRajesh et al., 1994
PakistanPresentUK CAB International, 1967; EPPO, 2014
PhilippinesPresentUK CAB International, 1967; Waterhouse, 1993; EPPO, 2014
SingaporePresentUK CAB International, 1967; EPPO, 2014
Sri LankaPresentUK CAB International, 1967; EPPO, 2014
TaiwanPresentUK CAB International, 1967; EPPO, 2014
ThailandPresentUK CAB International, 1967; APPPC, 1987; Waterhouse, 1993; EPPO, 2014
VietnamPresentUK CAB International, 1967; APPPC, 1987; Waterhouse, 1993; EPPO, 2014

North America

USARestricted distributionEPPO, 2014
-HawaiiPresentEPPO, 2014

Oceania

GuamPresentEPPO, 2014
Papua New GuineaPresentUK CAB International, 1967; APPPC, 1987; EPPO, 2014
Solomon IslandsPresentUK CAB International, 1967; APPPC, 1987; EPPO, 2014

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Inflorescence / wilt
Stems / dead heart
Stems / internal feeding
Stems / wilt
Whole plant / dead heart

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Amyotea malabarica Predator
Andrallus spinidens Predator
Apanteles Parasite Larvae
Argiope Predator
Argiope catenulata Predator Adults
Bacillus subtilis Pathogen Larvae
Bacillus thuringiensis
Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki Pathogen Larvae
Beauveria amorpha Pathogen Larvae
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen Nymphs
Beauveria brongniartii Pathogen
Bracon gelechiae Parasite Larvae
Chlaenius posticalis Predator Eggs/Larvae
Cotesia flavipes Parasite Larvae Japan; Malaysia; Sarawak rice; sugarcane
Cotesia ruficrus Parasite Larvae
cytoplasmic polyhedrosis viruses Pathogen Larvae
Diadegma terebrans Parasite
Enicospilus sakaguchii Parasite
Eriborus giganteus Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Eriborus sinicus Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Euborellia annulata Predator Larvae/Pupae Philippines rice
Eurytoma verticillata Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Fusarium oxysporum Pathogen Larvae
Granulosis virus Pathogen Larvae
Itoplectis naranyae Parasite Larvae/Pupae
Lixophaga diatraeae Parasite Larvae Taiwan
Metarhizium anisopliae Pathogen Larvae
Myosoma chinensis Parasite Larvae Malaysia; Sarawak rice
Nucleopolyhedrosis virus Pathogen Larvae
Paecilomyces farinosus Pathogen
Paederus fuscipes Predator Eggs/Larvae
Parallorhogas pyralophagus Parasite Larvae
Pimpla pluto Parasite
Stenobracon nicevillei Parasite Larvae
Sturmiopsis inferens Parasite Larvae Taiwan sugarcane
Sturmiopsis parasitica Parasite Larvae
Telenomus busseolae Parasite Eggs
Tetrastichus howardi Parasite Pupae Malaysia; Sarawak rice
Tetrastichus inferens Parasite Taiwan
Tetrastichus israeli Parasite
Trathala flavoorbitalis Parasite
Trichogramma chilonis Parasite Eggs China; Guangdong; India; Bihar sugarcane
Trichogramma japonicum Parasite Eggs India; Bihar sugarcane
Trichogramma minutum Parasite Eggs
Trichospilus diatraeae Parasite Taiwan
Tropobracon schoenobii Parasite Larvae
Vulgichneumon taiwanensis Parasite
Xanthopimpla stemmator Parasite Pupae

References

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APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA)

Bandong JP, Litsinger JA, 1979. Evaluation of granular insecticides for rainfed wetland rice in the Philippines. International Rice Research Newsletter, 4(2):15

Beant Singh, Kular JS, 2015. Notes on the bionomics of the Pink stem borer Sesamia inferens Walker (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae): an upcoming pest of wheat in India. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 50(2):239-259. http://www.akademiai.com/doi/pdf/10.1556/038.50.2015.2.9

Bhatt JC, Garg DK, Tandon JP, 1984. Rices with multiple disease and insect resistance in hilly regions of Uttar Pradesh. International Rice Research Newsletter, 9(1):11

Bp SH, Lee JO, Lee BH, 1969. Studies on ecology and control of the purplish stem borer (Sesamia inferens Walker) in Korea. Korean Journal of Plant Protection, 7:27-32

Catling HD, Islam Z, 1999. Pests of deepwater rice and their management. Integrated Pest Management Reviews, 4(3):193-229; 7 pp. of ref

Chang TT, Ou SH, Pathak MD, Ling KC, Kauffman HE, 1975. The search for disease and insect resistance in rice germplasm. In: Crop Genetic Research for Today and Tomorrow. Los Ba┬▒os, Philippines: International Rice Research Institute, 183-200

Chen LW, Ouyang XY, Lu XL, 1987. Application of the sex pheromone of Sesamia inferens (Walker) to forecasting the pest. Insect Knowledge, 24(1):8-10

Duale AH, Nwanze KF, 1999. Incidence and distribution in sorghum of the spotted stem borer Chilo partellus and associated natural enemies in farmers' fields in Andhra Pradesh and Maharashtra states. International Journal of Pest Management, 45(1):3-7; 25 ref

Duan XL, Li XG, Xue QZ, Abo-el SM, Xu DP, Wu R, 1996. Transgenic rice plants harboring an introduced potato proteinase inhibitor II gene are insect resistant. Nature- Biotechnology 14(4):494-498

Easwaramoorthy S, Srikanth J, Santhalakshmi G, Kurup NK, 1996. Life history and prey acceptance of commonly occurring spiders in sugarcane ecosystem. Journal of Biological Control, 10(1/2):39-47; 10 ref

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Garg DK, 1984. Reaction of rice cultivars to pink stem borer (PSB). International Rice Research Newsletter, 9(6):7

Heinrichs EA, 1994. Biology and management of rice insects. New Delhi, India: Wiley Eastern Limited, x + 779 pp

Holloway JD, 1989. The moths of Borneo: family Noctuidae, trifine subfamilies: Noctuinae, Heliothinae, Hadeninae, Acronictinae, Amphipyrinae, Agaristinae. Malayan Nature Journal, 42(2-3):57-228

Islam Z, 1991. Seasonal history of rice yellow stem borer, Scirpophaga incertulas (Walker) (Pyralidae: Lepidoptera), in Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Zoology, 19(2):213-221

Jiang YaoPei, Duan HuiPing, Li Jun, Yuan LianGuo, Wang ZuGuo, Gong CaiGen, Fei QiZhong, 2005. Current situation and control countermeasures of eventful rice diseases and pests in Shanghai suburbs. Acta Agriculturae Shanghai, 21(1):78-81

Kamran MA, Raros ES, 1971. Introduction, laboratory propagation, and field releases of Sturmiopsis inferens in the Philippines. Journal of Economic Entomology, 64:1277-1280

Kapur AP, 1967. Taxonomy of the rice stem borers. In: The Major Insect Pests of the Rice Plant. Maryland, USA: Johns Hopkins Press, 3-43

Khan ZR, Litsinger JA, Barrion AT, Villanueva FFD, Fernandez NJ, Taylo LD, 1991. World bibliography of rice stem borers 1794-1990. Manila, Philippines; International Rice Research Institute, 415 pp

Kok LT, Varghese G, 1966. The four major lepidopterous rice stem borers in Malaya. The Malaysian Agricultural Journal, 45:275-288

Krishnamurti B, Usman S, 1952. The ragi stem borer, Sesamia inferens Walker. Bulletin of the Department of Agriculture Mysore Entomology Series No. 15

Kumar S, Kaul BK, Kumar S, 1997. Natural enemies of rice stem borers in Kangra valley of Himachal Pradesh. Journal of Biological Control 11(1-2):69-71

Kuwayama S, 1954. Investigations on the insect pests of the rice plant in Hokkaido and their control. Hokkaido National Agricultural Experiment Station, Report No. 46, 101-106

Litsinger JA, 1993. A farming systems approach to insect pest management for upland and lowland rice farmers in tropical Asia. In: Altieri MA, ed. Crop Protection Strategies for Subsistence Farmers. Westview Studies in Insect Biology. Boulder, CO, USA: Westview Press, 45-101

Maebara H, 1955. Spatial distribution of last instar larvae of purplish stem borer (Sesamia inferens Walker) hibernating in an upland rice field. Bulletin of Kogoshima University Faculty of Agriculture, 4:38-41

Nesbitt BF, Beevor PS, Hall DR, Lester R, Dyck VA, 1976. Identification of the female sex pheromone of the purple stem borer moth, Sesamia inferens. Insect Biochemistry, 6(1):105-107

Nickel JL, 1964. Biological control of rice stem borers: a feasibility study. IRRI Technical Bulletin 2

Patel RK, Verma R, 1980. Sex dimorphism in pink stem borer, Sesamia inferens Walk. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Science and Culture, 46(5):195-196

Pathak MD, 1971. Resistance to insect pests in rice varieties. Oryza, 8:135-144

Pujari D, Bora DK, Patgiri P, Saurabh Sarma, 2008. Relative abundance of different stem borer species in Ahu and Sali rice in Jorhat, Assam. Oryza, 45(1):44-47

Rajesh Kumar, Mahla JC, Vinod Kumar, 1994. Effect of gunnybag treatment with insecticides and plant extracts against insect pests of stored rice. Annals of Biology (Ludhiana), 10(1):51-54

Reissig WH, Heinrichs EA, Litsinger JA, Moody K, Fiedler L, Mew TW, Barrion AT, 1986. Illustrated guide to integrated pest management in rice in tropical Asia. Laguna, Philippines; International Rice Research Institute, xi + 411pp

Rishi Kumar, Sucheta, Khokhar KS, 2004. Relative abundance of noctuids (Lepidoptera) associated with cotton and other crops in Haryana. Journal of Cotton Research and Development, 18(1):99-101

Rothschild GHL, 1971. The biology and ecology of rice stem borers in Sarawak (Malaysian Borneo). Journal of Applied Ecology, 8:287-322

Sethunathan N, Caballa S, Pathak MD, 1971. Absorption and translocation of diazinon by rice plants from submerged soils and paddy water and the persistence of residues in plant tissues. Journal of Economic Entomology, 64:571-576

Shafique M, Anwar M, 1986. Effect of transplanting time on borer attack and yield of rice cultivars. Proceedings of Pakistan Congress of Zoology, 6:89-92

Sun JZ, Zhang JX, Shen XS, 1993. The flight capabilities of rice stem borer moths Tryporyza incertulas, Chilo suppressalis and Sesamia inferens. Acta Entomologica Sinica, 36(3):315-322

UK CAB International, 1967. Sesamia inferens. [Distribution map]. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, December. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, Map 237

Varma A, Tandan BK, Varma A, 1996. Pathogenicity of three entomogenous fungi against pests of sugarcane. Journal of Biological Control 10(1-2):87-91

Wang ZN, Wang ZN, 1996. Three entomonenous fungi from Taiwan and their pathogenicity to some insects. Report of the Taiwan Sugar Research Institute, No. 154

Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp

Williams JR, 1953. The larvae and pupae of some important Lepidoptera. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 43:691-701

Xu DePing, Xue QingZhong, McElroy D, Mawal Y, Hilder VA, Wu R, 1996. Constitutive expression of a cowpea trypsin inhibitor gene, CpTi, in transgenic rice plants confers resistance to two major rice insect pests. Molecular Breeding, 2(2):167-173; 28 ref

Zhu PC, Kong FL, Wang ZH, 1987. Sex pheromone components of purple stem borer Sesamia inferens (Walker). Journal of Chemical Ecology, 13(5):983-989

Distribution Maps

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