Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Selenaspidus articulatus
(West Indian red scale)

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Datasheet

Selenaspidus articulatus (West Indian red scale)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2021
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Selenaspidus articulatus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • West Indian red scale
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleScales on leaves
Caption
Copyright©AgrEvo
Scales on leaves©AgrEvo

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Selenaspidus articulatus (Morgan)

Preferred Common Name

  • West Indian red scale

Other Scientific Names

  • Aspidiotus (Selanaspidus) articulatus Morgan, Cockerell, 1897
  • Aspidiotus (Selenaspidus) articulatus v. simplex de Charmoy, 1899
  • Aspidiotus articulatus Morgan, 1889
  • Aspidiotus rufescens Lindinger, 1932
  • Aspidiotus simplex Ferris, 1941
  • Pseudaonidia articulatus (Morgan) Marlatt, 1908
  • Selenaspis articulatus (Morgan) Ferris, 1903

International Common Names

  • English: rufous scale
  • Spanish: guagua roja antillana (Antilles)

Local Common Names

  • Colombia: coccinilla roja; escama clara de los cítricos y del café
  • Germany: Schildlaus, Westindische Citrus-; Schildlaus, Westindische Zitrus-

EPPO code

  • SELSAR (Selenaspidus articulatus)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Coccoidea
  •                                 Family: Diaspididae
  •                                     Genus: Selenaspidus
  •                                         Species: Selenaspidus articulatus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 17 Dec 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AngolaPresent
BeninPresent
CameroonPresent
Côte d'IvoirePresent
EritreaPresent
EthiopiaPresent
GhanaPresent
GuineaPresent
KenyaPresent
MadagascarPresent
MaliPresent
MauritiusPresent
MozambiquePresent
NigerPresent
NigeriaPresent
RéunionPresent
São Tomé and PríncipePresent
Sierra LeonePresent
SomaliaPresent
South AfricaPresent
SudanPresent
TanzaniaPresent
TogoPresent
UgandaPresent
ZambiaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

PhilippinesPresent
Sri LankaPresent
TaiwanPresent

Europe

CroatiaPresent2008

North America

Antigua and BarbudaPresent
BahamasPresent
BarbadosPresent
BelizePresent
BermudaPresent
Costa RicaPresent
CubaPresent
DominicaPresent
Dominican RepublicPresent
El SalvadorPresent
GrenadaPresent
GuadeloupePresent
GuatemalaPresent
HaitiPresent
HondurasPresent
JamaicaPresent
MartiniquePresent
MexicoPresent
MontserratPresent
NicaraguaPresent
PanamaPresent
Puerto RicoPresent
Saint LuciaPresent
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresent
Trinidad and TobagoPresent
United StatesPresent, Localized
-AlabamaPresent, Few occurrences
-CaliforniaAbsent, Eradicated
-FloridaPresent, Few occurrences

Oceania

FijiPresent
Solomon IslandsPresent

South America

BoliviaPresent
BrazilPresent
-ParanaPresent
-Rio de JaneiroPresentOriginal citation: Perruso & Cassino, 1997
-Rio Grande do NortePresent
-Sao PauloPresentOriginal citation: Santos et al., 1995
ColombiaPresent
EcuadorPresent
GuyanaPresent
PeruPresent, Widespread
SurinamePresent
VenezuelaPresent

Growth Stages

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Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / external feeding
Growing point / external feeding
Leaves / external feeding
Stems / external feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aphytis aberrans Parasite Adults
Aphytis chrysomphali Parasite Adults
Aphytis holoxanthus Parasite
Aphytis lingnanensis Parasite Peru Citrus
Aphytis roseni Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs Peru Citrus
Aschersonia aleyrodis Pathogen
Azya luteipes Predator
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen
Chilocorus cacti Predator Peru Citrus
Coccidophilus citricola Predator
Encarsia fasciata Parasite Arthropods|Nymphs Peru Citrus
Encarsia lounsburyi Parasite Adults
Habrolepis rouxi Parasite Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Hyperaspis Predator
Nephus Predator
Orius Predator
Pentilia egena Predator
Pentilia insidiosa Predator
Rhyzobius lophanthae Predator Adults; Arthropods|Nymphs
Rodolia cardinalis Predator

References

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Agudelo F, Falcon LA, 1977. Some naturally occurring insect pathogens in Colombia. Turrialba, 27(4):423-424

Albuquerque FAde, Pattaro FC, Borges LM, Lima RS, Zabini AV, 2002. Insects associated to Barbados cherry (Malpighia glabra L.) in the region of Maringá, PR. (Insetos associados à cultura da aceroleira (Malpighia glabra L.) na região de Maringá, Estado do Paraná.) Acta Scientiarum, 24(5):1245-1249.

Almeida, L. F. V., Peronti, A. L. B. G., Martinelli, N. M., Wolff, V. R. S., 2018. A survey of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) in citrus orchards in São Paulo, Brazil. Florida Entomologist, 101(3), 353-363. doi: 10.1653/024.101.0324

Bartra P CE, 1974. Biology of Selenaspidus articulatus Morgan and its principal biological control agents. Revista Peruana de Entomologia, 17(1):60-68

Beingolea G O, 1994. Role of Aphytis roseni DeBach & Gordh in the biological control of the rufous scale, Selenaspidus articulatus (Morgan). Advances in the study of Aphytis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) [edited by Rosen, D.] Andover, UK; Intercept Limited, 105-118

Beingolea G, 1969a. Notas sobre la biologfa de Selenaspidus articulatus Morgan, queresa redonda de los cftricos. Review of Peruvian Entomology, 19:119-129.

Beingolea G, 1969b. Biological control of citrus pests in Peru. Proceedings of the first International Citrus Symposium. Riverside, California, USA, 2:839-848.

Beingolea G, 1977. Culmina con éxito proyecto de biológico de la queresa redonda de los cftricos Selenaspidus articulatus Morgan en el Per·, Noticiero Entomológico, Soc. Entomol del Per·, 1.

Beingolea G, 1991. Nota sobre el control biológico en el Per·: avances, perspectivas, apliccación y limitaciones III. Mesa Redonda de Control Biológico. Proceedings of the 12th International Plant Protection Congress, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: (SRNT-OIBC/FAO-UN).

Beingolea G, Salazar JT, Murat, I, 1969. Le rehabilitación de un huerto de cftricos, como ejemplo de la factibilidad de aplicar sistemas de control integrado de las plagas de los cftricos, como ejemplo de la factibilidad de aplicar sistemas de control integrado de las plagas de los cftricos en el Per·. Review of Peruvian Entomology, 13: 3-45.

CAN, 1994. Comunidad Andina de Naciones. Inventario de Plagas y Enfermedades de Importancia Económica que afectan a la Agricultura Subregional: Decisión 328, July 1994.

Clavijo AS, 1977. Scale insects (Homoptera: Coccoidea) on nursery plants in the region of Maracay, Aragua State, Venezuela. Revista de la Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad Central de Venezuela., 9(2):113-122

DEKLE, G. W. , 1965. Arthropods of Florida and neighboring land areas. Volume 3. Florida armored scale insects.. Gainesville, Fla., Fla. Dep. Agric. Div. Plant Ind., v+] 265 pp..

Dekle, G. W., 1976. In: Florida armored scale insects. 3vii + 345 pp..

Ebeling W, 1959. Subtropical Fruit Pests. Los Angeles, USA: University of California.

Ferris, G. F., 1938. Atlas of the Scale Insects of North America. Series II, SII-la, 2a:137-268.

García, M., Denno, B. D., Miller, D. R., Miller, G. L., Ben Dov, Y., Hardy, N. B., 2016. ScaleNet: A literature-based model of scale insect biology and systematics. http://scalenet.info

Greathead DJ, 1976. An East African parasite (Aphytis roseni DeBach and Gordh, Aphelinidae) for the control of Selenaspidus articulatus Morgen (Diaspididae) in Peru. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal, 41(4):349

Hicks, C. B., 2018. Distribution status of Selenaspidus articulatus (Morgan) in the United States. Raleigh, USA: United States Department of Agriculture, 8 pp.

Ibarra-Nunez G, 1990. Arthropods associated with coffee trees in a mixed plantation in Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico. I. Variety and abundance. Folia Entomologica Mexicana, No. 79:207-231

Kondo, T., Muñoz, J. A., 2016. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) associated with avocado crop, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae) in Valle del Cauca and neighboring departments of Colombia. Insecta Mundi, (No.0465), 1-24. http://centerforsystematicentomology.org/default.asp?action=insectamundi&id=insecta_new&year=2016

Martins, D. dos S., Culik, M. P., Wolff, V. R. dos S., 2004. New record of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) as pests of papaya in Brazil. Neotropical Entomology, 33(5), 655-657. doi: 10.1590/S1519-566X2004000500018

McKenzie, H. L., 1956. Bulletin of the California Insect Survey. The armored scale insects of Caifornia. Berkely, USA: University of California Press 5, 222 pp.

Mercado-Mesa, M., Álvarez-Osorio, V. M., Alveiro Quiroz, J., Muriel, S. B., 2018. Phytophagous insects in tamarind crop with emphasis on those causing fruit damage in the nearby Western of Antioquia. Revista - Facultad Nacional de Agronomía Medellín, 71(3), 8553-8562. doi: 10.15446/rfnam.v71n3.69705

Milek, T. M., Šimala, M., Korić, B., 2009. The scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of imported fruits in Croatia. In: Zbornik predavanj in referatov 9. Slovenskega Posvetovanja o Varstvu Rastlin, Nova Gorica, Slovenije, 4-5 marec 2009 [Zbornik predavanj in referatov 9. Slovenskega Posvetovanja o Varstvu Rastlin, Nova Gorica, Slovenije, 4-5 marec 2009], [ed. by Maček, J.]. Ljubljana, Slovenia: Društvo za Varstvo Rastlin Slovenije. 385-388.

Nakahara, S., 1982. Checklist of the armored scales (Homoptera: Diaspididae) of the conterminous United States. USA: US Government Printing Office, 110 pp.

Nakahara, S., Miller, C. E., 1981. A list of the Coccoidea species (Homoptera) of Puerto Rico., 83(1), 28-39.

Perruso JC, Cassino PCR, 1993. Population fluctuations of Selenaspidus articulatus Morg. (Hemiptera: Diaspididae) on Citrus sinensis L. in Rio de Janeiro state. Anais da Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil, 22(2):401-404

Prinsloo GL, Neser OC, 1994. The Aphytis fauna of the Afrotropical region. Advances in the study of Aphytis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) [edited by Rosen, D. (Editor)] Andover, UK; Intercept Limited, 280-302

Santos AC dos, Gravena S, 1995. Control of rufous scale Selenaspidus articulatus Morgan (Homoptera: Diaspididae) with mineral oil and dimethoate. Anais da Sociedade Entomologica do Brasil, 24(2):411-414

Squire FA, 1972. Biological control. Entomological problems in Bolivia. PANS., 18:263.

Suris M, Hernandez N, Varona I, 1989. Analysis of a sampling procedure for Selenaspidus articulatus Morg. (Homoptera: Diaspididae) in Citrus. Revista de Proteccion Vegetal, 4(1):1-8

Waltman, K. G., 2008. The armored scale insects of Alabama (Hemiptera: Diaspididae). MS Thesis. Auburn, USA: Auburn University.

Waltman, K. G., Ray, C. H., Jr., Williams, M. L., 2016. The armored scale insects (Hemiptera Diaspididae) of Alabama, USA., 99229-231. http://www.redia.it/images/stories/pdf2016/32%20Waltman%20corr%201__.pdf

Williams DJ, Watson GW, 1988. The Scale Insects of the Tropical South Pacific Region. Part 1. The Armoured Scales (Diaspididae). Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Distribution References

Agudelo F, Falcon L A, 1977. Some naturally occurring insect pathogens in Colombia. Turrialba. 27 (4), 423-424.

Albuquerque F A de, Pattaro F C, Borges L M, Lima R S, Zabini A V, 2002. Insects associated to Barbados cherry (Malpighia glabra L.) in the region of Maringá, PR. (Insetos associados à cultura da aceroleira (Malpighia glabra L.) na região de Maringá, Estado do Paraná.). Acta Scientiarum. 24 (5), 1245-1249.

Almeida L F V, Peronti A L B G, Martinelli N M, Wolff V R S, 2018. A survey of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) in citrus orchards in São Paulo, Brazil. Florida Entomologist. 101 (3), 353-363. DOI:10.1653/024.101.0324

Bartra P C E, 1974. Biology of Selenaspidus articulatus Morgan and its principal biological control agents. (Biologia de Selenaspidus articulatus Morgan y sus principales controladores biologicos.). Revista Peruana de Entomologia. 17 (1), 60-68.

Beingolea G O, 1994. Role of Aphytis roseni DeBach & Gordh in the biological control of the rufous scale, Selenaspidus articulatus (Morgan). In: Advances in the study of Aphytis (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae). [ed. by Rosen D]. Andover, UK: Intercept Limited. 105-118.

Beingolea G, 1977. (Culmina con éxito proyecto de biológico de la queresa redonda de los cftricos Selenaspidus articulatus Morgan en el Per·). In: Noticiero Entomológico, Soc. Entomol del Per·, 1.

Beingolea G, 1991. (Nota sobre el control biológico en el Per·: avances, perspectivas, apliccación y limitaciones III). In: Mesa Redonda de Control Biológico [Proceedings of the 12th International Plant Protection Congress], Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: (SRNT-OIBC/FAO-UN).

Beingolea G, Salazar JT, Murat I, 1969. (Le rehabilitación de un huerto de cftricos, como ejemplo de la factibilidad de aplicar sistemas de control integrado de las plagas de los cftricos, como ejemplo de la factibilidad de aplicar sistemas de control integrado de las plagas de los cftricos en el Per·). In: Review of Peruvian Entomology, 13 3-45.

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CAN, 1994. (Comunidad Andina de Naciones). In: Inventario de Plagas y Enfermedades de Importancia Económica que afectan a la Agricultura Subregional: Decisión 328, July 1994,

Clavijo A S, 1977. Scale insects (Homoptera: Coccoidea) on nursery plants in the region of Maracay, Aragua State, Venezuela. (Escamas (Homoptera: Coccoidea) en plantas de viveros en la zona de Maracay, Estado Aragua, Venezuela.). Revista de la Facultad de Agronomia, Universidad Central de Venezuela. 9 (2), 113-122.

Dekle G W, 1976. Florida armored scale insects. In: Arthropods of Florida and Neighbouring Land Areas, 3 vii + 345 pp.

Ebeling W, 1959. Subtropical Fruit Pests., Los Angeles, USA: University of California.

Ferris G F, 1938. Atlas of the Scale Insects of North America. Series II. Atlas of the Scale Insects of North America. Series II. 137-268.

Greathead D J, 1976. An East African parasite (Aphytis roseni DeBach and Gordh, Aphelinidae) for the control of Selenaspidus articulatus Morgen (Diaspididae) in Peru. East African Agricultural and Forestry Journal. 41 (4), 349.

Hicks CB, 2018. Distribution status of Selenaspidus articulatus (Morgan) in the United States., Raleigh, USA: United States Department of Agriculture. 8 pp.

Ibarra-Nuñez G, 1990. Arthropods associated with coffee trees in a mixed plantation in Soconusco, Chiapas, Mexico. I. Variety and abundance. (Los artracute˜opodos asociados a cafetos en un cafetal mixto del Soconusco, Chiapas, México. I. Variedad y abundancia.). Folia Entomológica Mexicana. 207-231.

Kondo T, Muñoz J A, 2016. Scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) associated with avocado crop, Persea americana Mill. (Lauraceae) in Valle del Cauca and neighboring departments of Colombia. Insecta Mundi. 1-24. http://centerforsystematicentomology.org/default.asp?action=insectamundi&id=insecta_new&year=2016

Martins D dos S, Culik M P, Wolff V R dos S, 2004. New record of scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) as pests of papaya in Brazil. Neotropical Entomology. 33 (5), 655-657. DOI:10.1590/S1519-566X2004000500018

McKenzie HL, 1956. The armored scale insects of Caifornia. In: Bulletin of the California Insect Survey, 5 Berkely, USA: University of California Press. 222 pp.

Mercado-Mesa M, Álvarez-Osorio V M, Alveiro Quiroz J, Muriel S B, 2018. Phytophagous insects in tamarind crop with emphasis on those causing fruit damage in the nearby Western of Antioquia. Revista - Facultad Nacional de Agronomía Medellín. 71 (3), 8553-8562. DOI:10.15446/rfnam.v71n3.69705

Milek T M, Šimala M, Korić B, 2009. The scale insects (Hemiptera: Coccoidea) of imported fruits in Croatia. In: Zbornik predavanj in referatov 9. Slovenskega Posvetovanja o Varstvu Rastlin, Nova Gorica, Slovenije, 4-5 marec 2009 [Zbornik predavanj in referatov 9. Slovenskega Posvetovanja o Varstvu Rastlin, Nova Gorica, Slovenije, 4-5 marec 2009.], [ed. by Maček J]. Ljubljana, Slovenia: Društvo za Varstvo Rastlin Slovenije. 385-388.

Nakahara S, 1982. Checklist of the armored scales (Homoptera: Diaspididae) of the conterminous United States., USA: US Government Printing Office. 110 pp.

NHM, 1891. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1894. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1920. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1921. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1922. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1925. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1931. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1932. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1940. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1948. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1953. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1956. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1964. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1966. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1971. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1972. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1973. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1977. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1980. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1981. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1983. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1985. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

NHM, 1988. Specimen record from the collection in the Natural History Museum (London, UK)., London, UK: Natural History Museum (London).

Prinsloo G L, Neser O C, 1994. The Aphytis fauna of the Afrotropical region. In: Advances in the study of Aphytis ]. [ed. by Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae) [ Rosen D (Editor]. Andover, UK: Intercept Limited. 280-302.

Seebens H, Blackburn T M, Dyer E E, Genovesi P, Hulme P E, Jeschke J M, Pagad S, Pyšek P, Winter M, Arianoutsou M, Bacher S, Blasius B, Brundu G, Capinha C, Celesti-Grapow L, Dawson W, Dullinger S, Fuentes N, Jäger H, Kartesz J, Kenis M, Kreft H, Kühn I, Lenzner B, Liebhold A, Mosena A (et al), 2017. No saturation in the accumulation of alien species worldwide. Nature Communications. 8 (2), 14435. http://www.nature.com/articles/ncomms14435

Squire F A, 1972. Biological control. PANS. 263.

Surís M, Hernández N, Varona I, 1989. Analysis of a sampling procedure for Selenaspidus articulatus Morg. (Homoptera: Diaspididae) in Citrus. (Análisis de un procedimiento de muestreo para Selenaspidus articulatus Morg. (Homoptera: Diaspididae) en cítricos.). Revista de Protección Vegetal. 4 (1), 1-8.

UK, CAB International, 1981. Selenaspidus articulatus. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Wallingford, UK: CAB International. Map 419. DOI:10.1079/DMPP20056600419

Waltman KG, 2008. The armored scale insects of Alabama (Hemiptera: Diaspididae). MS Thesis., Auburn, USA: Auburn University.

Williams D J, Watson G W, 1988. The scale insects of the tropical South Pacific Region. Part 1. The armoured scales (Diaspididae). Wallingford, UK: CAB International. 290pp.

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