Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Sechium edule
(chayote)

Rojas-Sandoval J, 2018. Sechium edule (chayote). Invasive Species Compendium. Wallingford, UK: CABI. DOI:10.1079/ISC.49493.20203482792

Toolbox

Datasheet

Sechium edule (chayote)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 30 July 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Sechium edule
  • Preferred Common Name
  • chayote
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Sechium edule is a vine native to Mexico that has been widely introduced and cultivated for human consumption. The fruits, tubers, seeds and young shoots are edible and widely commercialized. This species has escaped from cultivation and...

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Sechium edule (chayote); habit, showing scrambling  growth. Note ‘exploratory’ tendrils. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
TitleHabit
CaptionSechium edule (chayote); habit, showing scrambling growth. Note ‘exploratory’ tendrils. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Sechium edule (chayote); habit, showing scrambling  growth. Note ‘exploratory’ tendrils. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
HabitSechium edule (chayote); habit, showing scrambling growth. Note ‘exploratory’ tendrils. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Sechium edule (chayote); habit, showing scrambling  growth, engulfing some fallen branches. Note ‘exploratory’ tendrils. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
TitleHabit
CaptionSechium edule (chayote); habit, showing scrambling growth, engulfing some fallen branches. Note ‘exploratory’ tendrils. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Sechium edule (chayote); habit, showing scrambling  growth, engulfing some fallen branches. Note ‘exploratory’ tendrils. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.
HabitSechium edule (chayote); habit, showing scrambling growth, engulfing some fallen branches. Note ‘exploratory’ tendrils. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. March 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Sechium edule (chayote); habit, showing dense growth of foliage along a ditchside. Honokowai Ditch Trail, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2010.
TitleHabit
CaptionSechium edule (chayote); habit, showing dense growth of foliage along a ditchside. Honokowai Ditch Trail, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2010.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Sechium edule (chayote); habit, showing dense growth of foliage along a ditchside. Honokowai Ditch Trail, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2010.
HabitSechium edule (chayote); habit, showing dense growth of foliage along a ditchside. Honokowai Ditch Trail, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2010.©Forest & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Sechium edule (chayote); habit, showing dense growth of foliage along a ditchside. Honokowai Ditch Trail, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2010.
TitleLeaves
CaptionSechium edule (chayote); habit, showing dense growth of foliage along a ditchside. Honokowai Ditch Trail, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2010.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2010 - CC BY-4.0
Sechium edule (chayote); habit, showing dense growth of foliage along a ditchside. Honokowai Ditch Trail, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2010.
LeavesSechium edule (chayote); habit, showing dense growth of foliage along a ditchside. Honokowai Ditch Trail, Maui, Hawaii, USA. June 2010.©Forest & Kim Starr-2010 - CC BY-4.0
Sechium edule (Chayote, pipinella); leaf, shoots and tendrils. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. Mach 2007.
TitleLeaf, shoots and tendrils
CaptionSechium edule (Chayote, pipinella); leaf, shoots and tendrils. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. Mach 2007.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY-4.0
Sechium edule (Chayote, pipinella); leaf, shoots and tendrils. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. Mach 2007.
Leaf, shoots and tendrilsSechium edule (Chayote, pipinella); leaf, shoots and tendrils. Kula, Maui, Hawaii, USA. Mach 2007.©Forest & Kim Starr-2007 - CC BY-4.0
Sechium edule (chayote); flower. [No location data] March 2014.
TitleFlower
CaptionSechium edule (chayote); flower. [No location data] March 2014.
Copyright©Daniel Gensheimer (Gensheimer)/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0 DE
Sechium edule (chayote); flower. [No location data] March 2014.
FlowerSechium edule (chayote); flower. [No location data] March 2014.©Daniel Gensheimer (Gensheimer)/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 3.0 DE
Sechium edule (chayote); habit, showing leaves and fruits, in a forest in the north-central part of the island of São Tomé. The Obo Natural Park of São Tomé and Principe.  January 2019.
TitleLeaves and fruit
CaptionSechium edule (chayote); habit, showing leaves and fruits, in a forest in the north-central part of the island of São Tomé. The Obo Natural Park of São Tomé and Principe. January 2019.
Copyright©Ji-Elle/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0
Sechium edule (chayote); habit, showing leaves and fruits, in a forest in the north-central part of the island of São Tomé. The Obo Natural Park of São Tomé and Principe.  January 2019.
Leaves and fruitSechium edule (chayote); habit, showing leaves and fruits, in a forest in the north-central part of the island of São Tomé. The Obo Natural Park of São Tomé and Principe. January 2019.©Ji-Elle/via wikipedia - CC BY-SA 4.0

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw.

Preferred Common Name

  • chayote

Other Scientific Names

  • Chayota edulis (Jacq.) Jacq.
  • Sechium americanum Poir.
  • Sicyos edulis Jacq.

International Common Names

  • English: alligator-pear; cho-cho; christophene; christophine; pipinella; vegetable pear
  • Spanish: chay; chaya; chayote; chima; chocho; chuma; escobilla dulce; guispui; huisquil; talote
  • French: chayotte; chouchou; chou-chou; chouchoute; christofine; christophine; hayotte
  • Chinese: fo shou gua

Local Common Names

  • Argentina: cayota
  • Bolivia: cayota
  • Brazil: chuchu; machiche-francês; machucho; xuxú
  • Cambodia: su-suu
  • Cuba: chayote blanco; chayote francés; chayote verde; chayotera; chote
  • Dominican Republic: méliton; tayota; tayote
  • Germany: Chayote; Schuschu
  • Haiti: chayotte; concombre; mirliton
  • Honduras: chinchayote; ñame; patasté; patastilla
  • Indonesia: labu siam; waluh jepang
  • Italy: chayote
  • Laos: nooy th'ai; savëëx
  • Mexico: bisquil ; camochayote; chinchayote; cueza; güisquil; huisayote; uisquil
  • Papua New Guinea: choko; sako
  • Philippines: hayuti ; sayote
  • Puerto Rico: tallón; tallote
  • Thailand: ma-kheua-kreua; taeng-kariang
  • Vietnam: su su

EPPO code

  • SEHED (Sechium edule)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page

Sechium edule is a vine native to Mexico that has been widely introduced and cultivated for human consumption. The fruits, tubers, seeds and young shoots are edible and widely commercialized. This species has escaped from cultivation and now grows spontaneously on abandoned agricultural lands and disturbed sites near villages and roadsides. Under favorable environmental conditions, S. edule grows copiously and can form dense colonies. The climbing stems may be several meters in length and may ascent high into forest canopies, engulfing native vegetation and shading-out plants in the understory. S. edule can also suffocate and breakdown trees and shrubs that support it due to its heavy weight. Currently, it is listed as invasive in Brazil, Cuba, Puerto Rico, New Caledonia, Reunion, Bismarck Archipelago and Hawaii.

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Violales
  •                         Family: Cucurbitaceae
  •                             Genus: Sechium
  •                                 Species: Sechium edule

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page

The genus Sechium P. Browne had long been considered as monotypic with S. edule as the only species. Since the 1970s wider genus concepts have been proposed and Sechium is now comprises 11 species (World Flora Online, 2020). Of these, nine are only found in the wild, distributed from Mexico to Panama. One species S. tacaco is only cultivated in Costa Rica, and the other, S. edule is widely cultivated throughout the Americas and other regions of the world, with some native wild populations occurring in southern Mexico (Lira, 1996). The wild types of S. edule differ from cultivated types by their more robust growth and larger leaves, flowers and staminate inflorescence than those found in cultivated forms and the pulp of their fruits is bitter and usually more fibrous. S. compositum, occurring in southern Mexico and Guatemala, is considered the closest wild relative of S. edule. Many commercially grown cultivars with different fruit characters have been developed (Lira, 1996; Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005; FAO, 2007; Lira et al., 2009; PROSEA, 2018).

Description

Top of page

A monoecious, vigorous, perennial herbaceous vine with a large tuberous root. Stem climbing or sprawling, longitudinally grooved, growing 10-15 m in a single season. Tendrils large, 2- to 5-branched. Leaves simple, spirally arranged; petiole 3-25 cm long; leaf-blade broadly ovate-circular in outline, 7-25 cm in diameter, base deeply cordate, 3- to 7-angular or lobed, acute, margins obtusely dentate, scabrid hairy. Inflorescences axillary racemes with small, greenish or cream, 5-merous flowers; hypanthium saucer-shaped, with 10 pouch-like nectaries on the bottom; male racemes with peduncle 6-30 cm long, 10- to 30-flowered; stamens 5, filaments united; female flowers usually solitary on short pedicels, in same axil as male; corolla ca. 2 mm in diameter; connate style and stigmas, forming a small head. Fruit a one-seeded fleshy berry, variable, commonly pear-shaped, 7-20 cm long, somewhat ribbed, smooth or shortly spiny, dark green to almost white; fruit stalk 2-3 cm long, pendent; pulp white or greenish-white. Seed solitary, ovoid to ellipsoid, 2.5-5 cm long, compressed, white, germinating within the fruit, usually while the fruit is still attached to the plant; in some genotypes seed-coat with fibres radiating into the flesh, in others obsolescent and the flesh fibreless.

Other botanical information: Chayote cultivars do not breed true, although it has been observed that cultivars do not segregate significantly from one generation to the next because of the relative isolation of chayote plants from one another when planted in home gardens. When planted together, complete panmixy can be observed. Substantial efforts made at CATIE (Costa Rica) to describe cultivars on the basis of fruit characteristics proved to be of limited relevance because of the extraordinary variability, with continuous variation in almost all the characters. The variable fruit characters include size (7-20 cm long), weight (100-1000 g), colour (continuous range from white to dark green), shape, fruit-wall features (spines, lenticels, grooves and ridges), flavour and texture. Nevertheless, farmers 'classify' the genotypes by a combination of such fruit characteristics. Instead of speaking of cultivars, it seems best to consider those types as landraces or as primitive populations. At least 25 landraces exist in Central America. Commercially grown chayote consists of two types: a medium sized, light-green, smooth, pear-shaped fruit and a small, white, smooth, globular one. Several types can be distinguished in South-East Asia. For example, in West Java (Indonesia) the common type is dark green and almost glabrous, but more spiny and lighter green types can be found. A complete white type, less tender and spiny, is sometimes grown as a botanical curiosity.

Plant Type

Top of page
Broadleaved
Herbaceous
Perennial
Seed / spore propagated
Vegetatively propagated
Vine / climber

Distribution

Top of page

Sechium edule is native to Mexico. Although a native species, it is rarely found in the wild in Mexico and few wild populations can still be found in Veracruz, Puebla, Hidalgo and Oaxaca (Lira, 1996). This species has been widely introduced and now it can be found cultivated and naturalized across Central and South America, the Caribbean, Southern Asia, Africa, Macaronesia, Australia, New Zealand and other islands in the Pacific and the Indian Ocean, but is most important in tropical America. It can hardly be found in South Asia and is not very popular in Africa (Lira, 1996; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; DAISIE, 2018; GRIIS, 2018; PIER, 2018; PROSEA, 2018; PROTA, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018).

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 19 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

GhanaPresentIntroducedCultivated
MadagascarPresentIntroducedCultivated
MalawiPresentIntroducedCultivated
MauritiusPresentIntroducedCultivated
MayottePresentIntroducedCultivated
RéunionPresentIntroducedInvasive
SeychellesPresentIntroduced
Sierra LeonePresentIntroducedCultivated

Asia

CambodiaPresentIntroducedCultivated
ChinaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated
-GuangdongPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated
-GuangxiPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated
-YunnanPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated
Hong KongPresentIntroduced
IndiaPresentIntroducedCultivated
-ManipurPresentIntroducedCultivated
-MeghalayaPresentIntroducedCultivated
-MizoramPresentIntroducedCultivated
-NagalandPresentIntroducedCultivated
-SikkimPresentIntroducedCultivated
-West BengalPresentIntroducedCultivated
IndonesiaPresentIntroducedJava
-JavaPresentIntroduced
JapanPresentIntroduced
LaosPresentIntroducedCultivated
PhilippinesPresentIntroducedCultivated
South KoreaPresent
TaiwanPresentIntroduced
ThailandPresentIntroducedCultivated
VietnamPresentIntroducedCultivated

Europe

CroatiaPresentIntroduced
ItalyPresentIntroduced
PortugalPresentIntroducedAzores and Madeira only
-AzoresPresentIntroduced
-MadeiraPresentIntroduced
SpainPresentIntroducedCanary Islands only
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroduced

North America

BarbadosPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
BelizePresentIntroduced
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroduced
Costa RicaPresentIntroducedIntroduced and cultivated since pre-Columbian times
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasive
DominicaPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroduced
El SalvadorPresentIntroducedIntroduced and cultivated since pre-Columbian times
GuadeloupePresent, WidespreadIntroduced
GuatemalaPresentIntroducedIntroduced and cultivated since pre-Columbian times
HaitiPresentIntroduced
HondurasPresentIntroducedIntroduced and cultivated since pre-Columbian times
JamaicaPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
MartiniquePresent, WidespreadIntroduced
MexicoPresentNativeWild populations can be found in Hidalgo, Oaxaca, Puebla, Queretaro, Veracruz
Netherlands AntillesPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
NicaraguaPresentIntroducedIntroduced and cultivated since pre-Columbian times
PanamaPresentIntroducedIntroduced and cultivated since pre-Columbian times
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedInvasive
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresent, WidespreadIntroduced
Trinidad and TobagoPresentIntroduced
U.S. Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced
United StatesPresentIntroduced
-HawaiiPresentIntroducedInvasive
-LouisianaPresentIntroduced

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroduced
-QueenslandPresentIntroducedNaturalized
FijiPresentIntroducedCultivated
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedCultivated
GuamPresentIntroducedCultivated
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedInvasive
New ZealandPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated
NiuePresentIntroducedCultivated
PalauPresentIntroducedCultivated
Papua New GuineaPresentIntroducedInvasiveBismarck Archipelago

South America

ArgentinaPresentIntroduced
BoliviaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated
BrazilPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Minas GeraisPresent
-ParanaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Santa CatarinaPresentIntroducedInvasive
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedInvasive
ColombiaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated
EcuadorPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated
ParaguayPresentIntroduced
PeruPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated
VenezuelaPresentIntroducedNaturalizedCultivated

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page

The center of origin and domestication of S. edule is southern Mexico. Since pre-Columbian times, the Aztecs and Mayans cultivated and spread S. edule across Mesoamerica. The European naturalist, Francisco Hernández, who lived in Mexico between 1550-1560, wrote in his journal about the different uses of chayote. After the colonization of America, S. edule spread rapidly throughout the tropics and subtropics where it is now widely cultivated and naturalized (Lira, 1996; Bisognin, 2002).

Sechium edule was apparently introduced to the Caribbean and South America between the 18th and the 19th centuries by European explorers. The first botanical description of S. edule was in 1756 by P. Brown, using plants collected in Jamaica. Brown also pointed out that, by that time, this species was widely cultivated throughout Jamaica (Hernández and León, 1994; Lira 1996; Bisognin, 2002; Cadena-Iñiguez et al., 2007). In Puerto Rico, S. edule was first reported as naturalized in 1881 (Rojas-Sandoval and Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2015). During the 18th and the 19th centuries, S. edule was also introduced into Europe from whence it was taken to Africa, Asia and Australia. Its introduction into the United States and Hawaii dates from the late 19th century (Hernández and León, 1994, Lira 1996; Cadena-Iñiguez et al., 2007). In New Zealand, it was first reported as naturalized in 1989 (NZPCN, 2018).

Risk of Introduction

Top of page

The risk of new introductions of S. edule is very high, principally in tropical and subtropical regions where it can be cultivated. It is an important commercial vegetable and the internationally demand for this vegetable seems to be increasing (Cadena-Iñiguez et al., 2007; FAO, 2007).

Habitat

Top of page

In Mexico, S. edule grows in mountain cloud forests and evergreen or semi-evergreen forests at elevations between 500 m and 1700 m (Lira et al., 2009). In areas within and outside its native range, S. edule can be found in montane rainforests on steep hillsides, moist valleys, semi-deciduous and dry forests, moist lowlands and in disturbed sites near villages, houses, roadsides and cultivated lands (Stanley and Ross, 1989; Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005; Useful Tropical Plants, 2018; Jørgensen et al., 2014; PIER, 2018; PROTA, 2018). It is also cultivated on family plots, in backyards and small home gardens and at commercial market scale (FAO, 2007).

Habitat List

Top of page
CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedDisturbed areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial ManagedUrban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalNatural grasslands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Biology and Ecology

Top of page

Genetics

The chromosome numbers reported for the cultivated form of S. edule are 2n = 24, 26, 28 (PROSEA, 2018). This origin and centre of domestication is Mexico (Bisognin, 2002). The domesticated types have been widely cultivated across tropical and subtropical regions, but wild populations still occur in Veracruz, Puebla, Hidalgo and Oaxaca (Hernández and León, 1994; Lira, 1996; Cadena-Iñiguez et al., 2007).

Reproductive Biology

Sechium edule is a monoecious species with unisexual flowers. The staminate flowers grow in axillary racemose inflorescences that are 10 to 30 cm long. The pistillate flowers are normally on the same axilla as the staminate flowers and they are usually solitary (but occasionally also in pairs). S. edule is predominantly cross-pollinated, but is self-compatible and single plants show good fruit set with are no clear inbreeding symptoms. In addition, parthenocarpy has also been reported. Flowers are pollinated by insects, mostly by bees. In Mexico and Central America, among the most efficient pollinators are species of native bees of the genus Trigona and honeybees (Apis mellifera). Secondary pollinators include wasps of the genera Polybia, Synoeca and Parachartegus (Hernández and León, 1994; Lira 1996).

Physiology and Phenology

A daylength of a little more than 12 hours is required to initiate flowering. Flowering often starts 1-2 months after germination. Fruit development takes 1-2 months after pollination. In Mexico, wild populations of S. edule produce flowers from April to December and fruit from September to January (Lira, 1996). In cultivated lands across Central America, this species produces flowers and fruits throughout the year. It has been recorded flowering and fruiting throughout the year in Puerto Rico (Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005). In China, flowers are produced from July to September and fruits from August to October (Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018). In Queensland, Australia it flowers for most of the year, except in mid-winter (Stanley and Ross, 1989).

Activity Patterns

Sechium edule is a long-lived perennial, but in cultivation it is recommended to renew it at least every 3 years because of disease problems. The tubers do not develop until the second year, and do not develop well in perpetually wet climates. In regions with a season of arrested growth, they can reach 10 kg in weight and they resemble yam tubers. Under favourable environmental conditions, S. edule grows profusely and can form a dense foliage cover on trellises, producing hundreds of hanging fruits.

The fruit of cultivated S. edule is viviparous and the seed germinates in the ripe fruit while still on the mother plant. This characteristic does not occur in any of the wild types, in which the seeds germinate asynchronously after falling to the ground. A possible explanation for the viviparism in cultivars is that the process of domestication may have resulted in suppression of its dormancy mechanisms. The stem of the seedling grows out from the fruit apex and curves upwards and produces roots when makes contact with the ground (Hernández and León, 1994; Cadena-Iñiguez et al., 2007; PROSEA, 2018; PROTA, 2018).

Population Size and Density

Environmental Requirements

Sechium edule requires high humidity (80-85%) and well-distributed annual rainfall of at least 1500-2000 mm (but tolerates 600 mm-2600 mm), or irrigation. Growth rates and fruit set are strongly influenced by temperatures. This species thrives in areas with mean annual temperatures ranging from 15-30°C (tolerates 12-40°C). Temperatures below 12°C cause damage to the plant and small fruits, and the plant is killed by frosts. It generally grows well in areas with full sun, but some cultivars produce higher yields when grown in light shade. It is adapted to sandy and loam soils, but prefers well-drained, fertile soil with a pH in the range 5.5-7 (tolerates 4.3-8). In the tropics, it can be grown at elevations from 300 m up to 2,000 m. In Java it is abundant in the highlands between 700 and 1800 m. When planted in the lowlands, it does not produce any fruits. At higher latitudes, it grows and produces well in the lowlands, but production stops during the hottest months. It is susceptible to drought and wind (FAO, 2007; Useful Tropical Plants, 2018; PROSEA, 2018; PROTA, 2018).

Climate

Top of page
ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
BS - Steppe climate Tolerated > 430mm and < 860mm annual precipitation
Cs - Warm temperate climate with dry summer Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry summers
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Tolerated Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Tolerated Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

Top of page
Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
35 45

Air Temperature

Top of page
Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 15 30
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 40
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 12

Rainfall

Top of page
ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall6002600mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page
Bimodal
Summer
Uniform
Winter

Soil Tolerances

Top of page

Soil drainage

  • free

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page

In cultivation, S. edule is often heavily attacked by root-knot nematodes. Plants are also attacked by mosaic virus, powdery mildew (Erysiphe cichoracearum [Golovinomyces cichoracearum var. cichoracearum]), downy mildew (Pseudoperonospora cubensis), leaf spot (Mycosphaerella sp.) and different pathogenic fungi including Ascochyta phaseolorum [Boeremia exigua var. exigua] and several species of Fusarium, Macrophomina and Colletotrichum. In Trinidad a disease called web blight, caused by the fungus Thanatephorus cucumeris, has been reported. Spider mites and insects such as leaf beetles may cause some damage. The stem-boring cerambycid Adetus fuscoapicalis and gastropods of the genus Macrochlamys are also pests of economic importance. Because of nematodes and other disease problems, chayote crops are usually removed at the end of a three-year cultivation period (Cadena-Iñiguez et al., 2007; FAO, 2007; PROSEA, 2018).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page

Natural Dispersal

Sechium edule spreads by seeds. In wild types, seeds germinate asynchronously after the fruits fall to the ground. In cultivation, the seed germinates in the ripe fruit while still on the mother plant. The stem of the seedling grows out from the fruit apex and produces roots when it contacts the ground (Hernández and León, 1994; Cadena-Iñiguez et al., 2007; PROSEA, 2018; PROTA, 2018).

Intentional Introduction

Sechium edule has been intentionally introduced for human consumption across tropical and subtropical regions. The fruits, tubers, seeds and young shoots are edible. Propagation is by seed (PROSEA, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018).

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Crop productionCultivated for its fruits, tubers, seeds and young shoots Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
DisturbanceNaturalized in disturbed sites, roadsides, pastures, etc. Yes Yes I3N-Brasil (2018)
Escape from confinement or garden escapeEscaped and spontaneous in abandoned lands Yes Yes Lira (1996)
FoodFruits, tubers, seeds and young shoots are consumed by humans Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
ForageFruits used as fodder for pigs, poultry and cattle Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
Intentional releaseCultivated for its fruits, tubers, seeds and young shoots. Also as honey-producing plant Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
Medicinal useUsed in traditional medicine Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
Seed tradeSeeds available online Yes Yes

Pathway Vectors

Top of page
VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
ConsumablesFruits are commercialized worldwide Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
Debris and waste associated with human activitiesFruits Yes Yes PROSEA (2018)
MailSeeds available online Yes Yes
LivestockUsed as fodder Yes Yes PROTA (2018)

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive

Environmental Impact

Top of page

Sechium edule is a vine that has escaped from cultivation and can be found naturalized in abandoned agricultural lands and disturbed sites near villages and roadsides. Under favorable environmental conditions, it grows copiously and can form dense colonies that outcompete native plant for light, nutrients and water. The climbing stems may be several metres in length and may ascend high into the canopy, engulfing native vegetation and diminishing the light intensity and thus the photosynthetic capacity of trees and understory plants. It may also inhibit the germination and establishment of seedlings in the understory, changing the natural regeneration and composition and structure of invaded forests. S. edule can also suffocate and break down trees and shrubs that support it due to its heavy weight. It also hosts viruses and insects that affect other plants and crops (Lira, 1996; Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2005; FAO, 2007; Oviedo and Gonzalez-Oliva, 2015; Rojas-Sandoval and Acevedo-Rodríguez, 2015; ISSG, 2018; I3N-Brasil, 2018; PIER, 2018; PROSEA, 2018; PROTA, 2018).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page
Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Is a habitat generalist
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Pioneering in disturbed areas
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Gregarious
Impact outcomes
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Host damage
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Competition - strangling
  • Pest and disease transmission
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately

Uses

Top of page

Economic value

Sechium edule is an important commercial vegetable. Currently, Mexico, Costa Rica, Brazil and Dominican Republic are leading exporters and the demand for this vegetable is steadily increasing in the United States, Canada and Europe. It is also an important crop in developing countries as a cheap, easy-to-produce vegetable, both for home consumption and for city markets (Cadena-Iñiguez et al., 2007; FAO, 2007).

Social Benefit

Every part of S. edule is useful, but it is mainly grown as a fruit vegetable. It is widely cultivated for its edible fruits, tubers and young shoots. The fruits vary in flavour, according to cultivar, from bland to sweetish or starchy. The fruits are usually boiled and then prepared in a number of ways (e.g. fried, baked, creamed). They can also be made into pickles. The fruits of the bland cultivars are also used industrially as a food filler for pastes and sauces and as a substitute for apple in pies and tarts. The large flat seed has a nut like flavour and is generally cooked and served with the rest of the fruit or is removed for use alone as a table delicacy. The starchy underground tubers are cooked and eaten similarly to potatoes and are also candied.. The tender young shoots are cooked and eaten as a vegetable, and are especially rich in vitamins A and C, the B vitamins, calcium and iron. It is one of the most important greens in Papua New Guinea. Because of its low energy value, chayote is gaining importance as a dietary food in hospitals and nursing homes. Chayote fruits are also considered good baby food. Fruits, shoots and tubers are also used as fodder for pigs, poultry and cattle (Lira, 1996; FAO, 2007; Flora of Panama, 2018; PROSEA, 2018; PROTA, 2018).

The fibres from the stem have been used to make baskets and hats and as binding material in the construction of mud houses. During the 19th and early 20th centuries, Réunion had an important home industry of hats and other artefacts made from these attractive fibers, called ‘paille de chouchou’. S. edule is also a food plant for honey-producing bees (stingless bees and honey bees). It is loved by beekeepers because it flowers abundantly throughout the year (Hernández and León, 1994; Lira 1996; FAO, 2007; PROTA, 2018). . In Java the plant is used to shade fish ponds, and in the Philippines it has undergone trials for use in erosion control.

The leaves and tubers are used in traditional medicine, mostly across Latin America and the Caribbean region, but also in Asia. The leaves apparently have cardiovascular modifying as well as blood pressure lowering properties. They are also used to dissolve kidney stones. The tubers are a potent diuretic and are also applied for pulmonary ailments and relief of intestinal inflammation (Lira, 1996; FAO, 2007; PROSEA, 2018).

Uses List

Top of page

Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Fodder/animal feed

Environmental

  • Shade and shelter

Human food and beverage

  • Flour/starch
  • Fruits
  • Honey/honey flora
  • Root crop
  • Vegetable

Materials

  • Fibre

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Traditional/folklore

Prevention and Control

Top of page

Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Small infestations may be controlled by hand pulling or digging out small plants, ensuring removal of all stems, roots and tubers (I3N-Brasil, 2018).

Bibliography

Top of page
Literature
Engels JMM, 1983. Variation in Sechium edule Sw. in Central America. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science 108:706-710.
Engels JMM, 1984. Chayote: a little known Central American crop. FAO/IBPGR Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter 63:2-5.

Herklots GAC, 1972. Vegetables in South-East Asia. George Allen & Unwin, London, United Kingdom:339-342.

Newstrom LE,1985. Collection of chayote and its wild relatives. FAO/IBPGR Plant Genetic Resources Newsletter 64:14-20.

Newstrom LE, 1986. Studies on the origin and evolution of chayote. Thesis, University of California, Berkeley, United States.

Newstrom LE, 1989. Reproductive biology and evolution of the cultivated chayote (Sechium edule, Cucurbitaceae). In: Bock GH & Linhart YB eds.: The evolutionary ecology of plants. Westview Press, Boulder, San Francisco/London, United States/United Kingdom:491-509.

Whitaker TW & Davis GN, 1962. Cucurbits:botany, cultivation and utilization. Leonard Hill, London, United Kingdom.

References

Top of page

Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., 2005. Contributions from the United States National Herbarium, Washington, USA: Department of Systematic Biology - Botany, National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution 51, 483 pp.

Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., Strong, M. T., 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies, Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution.1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Baiswar, P., Chandra, S., Ngachan, S. V., 2010. Pseudoperonospora cubensis on Sechium edule in India. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 5(1), 3-4. doi: 10.1071/DN10002

Bisognin, D. A., 2002. Origin and evolution of cultivated cucurbits. Ciência Rural, 32(4), 715-723. doi: 10.1590/S0103-84782002000400028

Broome, R., Sabir, K., Carrington, S., 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. In: Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database , Barbados: University of the West Indies.http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Cadena-Iñiguez J, Arévalo-Galarza L, Avendaño-Arrazate CH, Soto-Hernández M, Ruiz-Posadas LD, Santiago-Osorio E, Acosta-Ramos M, Cisneros-Solano VM, Aguirre-Medina JF, Ochoa-Martínez D, 2007. Production, genetics, postharvest management and pharmacological characteristics of Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw. Fresh Produce, 1(1), 41-53.

DAISIE, 2018. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. In: Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe . http://www.europe-aliens.org/

FAO, 2007. EcoCrop FAO online database. Geneva, Switzerland: FAO.http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018. Flora of China. In: Flora of China St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

Flora of Panama, 2018. Flora of Panama (WFO). In: Flora of Panama (WFO) St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, MA, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria.http://www.tropicos.org/Project/FOPWFO

GRIIS, 2018. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species. http://www.griis.org/

Hernández Bermejo, J. E., León, J., 1994. Neglected crops: 1492 from a different perspective, Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO).xxii + 341 pp.

Hokche, O., Berry, P. E., Huber, O., 2008. Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela, Caracas, Venezuela: Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela.860 pp.

I3N-Brasil, 2018. I3N Brazil invasive alien species database. In: I3N Brazil invasive alien species database Florianópolis - SC, Brazil: Horus Institute for Environmental Conservation and Development.http://bd.institutohorus.org.br/www/

ISSG, 2018. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). In: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD) : Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission.http://www.issg.org/database/welcome/

Janick, J., Paull, R. E., 2008. Wallingford, UK, CAB International.xviii + 954 pp.

Jørgensen, P. M., León-Yánez, S., 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador, 1182 pp.

Jørgensen, P. M., Nee, M. H., Beck, S. G., 2014. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia, St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press.1741 pp.

Lira, R, 1996. Chayote, Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw. Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops 8. Rome, Italy: Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben/International Plant Genetic Resources Institute.

Lira, R., Téllez, O., Dávila, P., 2009. The effects of climate change on the geographic distribution of Mexican wild relatives of domesticated Cucurbitaceae. Genetic Resources and Crop Evolution, 56(5), 691-703. doi: 10.1007/s10722-008-9394-y

MacKee, H. S., 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie, Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle.164 pp.

NZPCN, 2018. New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. In: New Zealand Plant Conservation Network Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Plant Conservation Network.http://www.nzpcn.org.nz/

Oviedo Prieto R, Herrera Oliver P, Caluff MG, et al. , 2012. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2011. (Lista nacional de especies de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2011). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 6(Special Issue 1):22-96

Oviedo Prieto, R., González-Oliva, L., 2015. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2015. (Lista nacional de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2015). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba, 9(Special Issue No. 2), 1-88. http://repositorio.geotech.cu/jspui/bitstream/1234/1476/4/Lista%20nacional%20de%20plantas%20invasoras%20de%20Cuba-2015.pdf

PIER, 2018. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

PROSEA, 2018. Plant Resources of South-East Asia. Bogor, Indonesia: PROSEA Foundation.http://proseanet.org/prosea/e-prosea.php

PROTA, 2018. PROTA4U web database. In: PROTA4U web database Wageningen and Nairobi, Netherlands\Kenya: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa.https://www.prota4u.org/database/

Rojas-Sandoval, J., Acevedo-Rodríguez, P., 2015. Naturalization and invasion of alien plants in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Biological Invasions, 17(1), 149-163. doi: 10.1007/s10530-014-0712-3

Stanley, T. D., Ross, E. M., 1989. Flora of south-eastern Queensland. Volume 3, Brisbane, Australia: Queensland Department of Primary Industries.532 pp.

USDA-ARS, 2018. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory.https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Useful Tropical Plants, 2018. Useful tropical plants database. In: Useful tropical plants database : K Fern.http://tropical.theferns.info/

World Flora Online, 2020. World Flora Online. In: World Flora Online : World Flora Online Consortium.http://www.worldfloraonline.org

Wu ShanHuah, Yang, T. Y. A., Teng YungChing, Chang ChihYuan, Yang KuohCheng, Hsieh ChangFu, 2010. Insights of the latest naturalized flora of Taiwan: change in the past eight years. Taiwania, 55(2), 139-159. http://tai2.ntu.edu.tw/taiwania

Zenni, R. D., 2014. Analysis of introduction history of invasive plants in Brazil reveals patterns of association between biogeographical origin and reason for introduction. Austral Ecology, 39(4), 401-407. doi: 10.1111/aec.12097

Distribution References

Acevedo-Rodríguez P, Strong M T, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Washington, DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. 1192 pp. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Baiswar P, Chandra S, Ngachan S V, 2008. Powdery mildew on Sechium edule in India. Australasian Plant Disease Notes. 3 (1), 160-161. http://www.publish.csiro.au/view/journals/dsp_journal_fulltext.cfm?nid=208&f=DN08062

Baiswar P, Chandra S, Ngachan S V, 2010. Pseudoperonospora cubensis on Sechium edule in India. Australasian Plant Disease Notes. 5 (1), 3-4. DOI:10.1071/DN10002

Bezerra J P, Ferreira P V, Barbosa L da F, Ramos Sobrinho R, Pinho D B, Reis A, Assunção I P, Lima G S A, 2016. First report of anthracnose on chayote fruits (Sechium edule) caused by Colletotrichum brevisporum. Plant Disease. 100 (1), 217. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-07-15-0793-PDN

Broome R, Sabir K, Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. In: Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Choi I Y, Cheong S S, Joa J H, Cho S E, Shin H D, 2015. First report of powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii on Sechium edule in Korea. Plant Disease. 99 (1), 162. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-10-14-1011-PDN

DAISIE, 2018. Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. In: Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe. http://www.europe-aliens.org/

FAO, 2007. EcoCrop FAO online database. Geneva, Switzerland: FAO. http://ecocrop.fao.org/ecocrop/srv/en/home

Flora of China Editorial Committee, 2018. Flora of China. In: Flora of China. St. Louis, Missouri and Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Harvard University Herbaria. http://www.efloras.org/flora_page.aspx?flora_id=2

GRIIS, 2018. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species., http://www.griis.org/

Hernández Bermejo J E, León J, 1994. Neglected crops: 1492 from a different perspective. Rome, Italy: Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). xxii + 341 pp.

Hokche O, Berry P E, Huber O, 2008. Nuevo Catálogo de la Flora Vascular de Venezuela. Caracas, Venezuela: Fundación Instituto Botánico de Venezuela. 860 pp.

I3N-Brasil, 2018. I3N Brazil invasive alien species database. In: I3N Brazil invasive alien species database. Florianópolis - SC, Brazil: Horus Institute for Environmental Conservation and Development. http://bd.institutohorus.org.br/www/

Idárraga-Piedrahita A, Ortiz R D C, Callejas Posada R, Merello M, 2011. Flora de Antioquia. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares, vol. 2: Listado de las plantas vasculares del Departamento de Antioquia. Medellín, Colombia: Universidad de Antioquia. 939 pp.

ISSG, 2018. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). In: Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database/welcome/

Jørgensen P M, León-Yánez S, 1999. Catalogue of the vascular plants of Ecuador. 1182 pp.

Jørgensen P M, Nee M H, Beck S G, 2014. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden Press. 1741 pp.

Ko Y, Chen C Y, Liu C W, Chen S S, Maruthasalam S, Lin C H, 2008. First report of downy mildew caused by Pseudoperonospora cubensis on chayote (Sechium edule) in Taiwan. Plant Disease. 92 (12), 1706. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-92-12-1706C

Lima É F B, Souza Filho M F, 2018. Leucothrips furcatus (Thysanoptera Thripidae): a new pest of Sechium edule (Cucurbitaceae) in Brazil. Bulletin of Insectology. 71 (2), 189-191. http://www.bulletinofinsectology.org/

Lira R, 1996. Chayote, Sechium edule (Jacq.) Sw. Promoting the conservation and use of underutilized and neglected crops 8., Rome, Italy: Institute of Plant Genetics and Crop Plant Research, Gatersleben/International Plant Genetic Resources Institute.

MacKee H S, 1994. Catalogue des plantes introduites et cultivées en Nouvelle-Calédonie. Paris, France: Muséum National d'Histoire Naturelle. unpaginated.

Maharani Y, Hidayat P, Rauf A, Maryana N, 2018. New records of aphid species subfamily Aphidinae (Hemiptera: Aphididae) in West Java, Indonesia. Biodiversitas: Journal of Biological Diversity. 19 (2), 510-515. DOI:10.13057/biodiv/d190219

Missouri Botanical Garden, 2018. Tropicos database. In: Tropicos database. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/

NZPCN, 2018. New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. In: New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. Wellington, New Zealand: New Zealand Plant Conservation Network. http://www.nzpcn.org.nz/

Oviedo Prieto R, González-Oliva L, 2015. National list of invasive and potentially invasive plants in the Republic of Cuba - 2015. (Lista nacional de plantas invasoras y potencialmente invasoras en la República de Cuba - 2015). Bissea: Boletín sobre Conservación de Plantas del Jardín Botánico Nacional de Cuba. 9 (Special Issue No. 2), 1-88. http://repositorio.geotech.cu/jspui/bitstream/1234/1476/4/Lista%20nacional%20de%20plantas%20invasoras%20de%20Cuba-2015.pdf

Peru Checklist, 2018. The Catalogue of the Flowering Plants and Gymnosperms of Peru. St. Louis, Missouri, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden. http://www.tropicos.org/Project/PEC

PIER, 2018. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii. http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

PROSEA, 2018. Plant Resources of South-East Asia., Bogor, Indonesia: PROSEA Foundation. http://proseanet.org/prosea/e-prosea.php

PROTA, 2018. PROTA4U web database. In: PROTA4U web database. Wageningen and Nairobi, Netherlands\Kenya: Plant Resources of Tropical Africa. https://www.prota4u.org/database/

Rojas-Sandoval J, Acevedo-Rodríguez P, 2015. Naturalization and invasion of alien plants in Puerto Rico and the Virgin Islands. Biological Invasions. 17 (1), 149-163. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10530-014-0712-3/fulltext.html DOI:10.1007/s10530-014-0712-3

Shimizu Y, Kohama T, Uesato T, Matsuyama T, Yamagishi M, 2007. Invasion of solanum fruit fly Bactrocera latifrons (Diptera: Tephritidae) to Yonaguni Island, Okinawa Prefecture, Japan. Applied Entomology and Zoology. 42 (2), 269-275. http://odokon.ac.affrc.go.jp/ DOI:10.1303/aez.2007.269

Singh R, Ferrin D M, Aime M C, 2009. First report of powdery mildew caused by Podosphaera xanthii on Sechium edule in the United States. Plant Disease. 93 (12), 1348. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-93-12-1348A

Smith H A, Evans G A, McSorley R, 2000. A survey of parasitoids of Trialeurodes vaporariorum and Bemisia tabaci (Homoptera: Aleyrodidae) in eastern Guatemala. Florida Entomologist. 83 (4), 492-496. DOI:10.2307/3496727

Stanley T D, Ross E M, 1989. Flora of south-eastern Queensland. Volume 3. Brisbane, Australia: Queensland Department of Primary Industries. 532 pp.

Tsai Y C, Chen J F, 2012. First report of Didymella bryoniae causing gummy stem blight of chayote in Taiwan. Plant Disease. 96 (10), 1578. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-02-12-0185-PDN

USDA-ARS, 2018. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

USDA-NRCS, 2018. The PLANTS Database. In: The PLANTS Database. Greensboro, North Carolina, USA: National Plant Data Team. https://plants.sc.egov.usda.gov

Villalobos W, Moreira L, Rivera C, Bottner K D, Lee I M, 2002. First report of an aster yellows subgroup 16SrI-B phytoplasma infecting chayote in Costa Rica. Plant Disease. 86 (3), 330. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2002.86.3.330C

Wu TL, 2001. Check List of Hong Kong Plants. In: Hong Kong Herbarium and the South China Institute of Botany. Agriculture, Fisheries and Conservation Department Bulletin 1 (revised), 384 pp. http://www.hkflora.com/v2/flora/plant_check_list.php

Yoon J Y, Choi I Y, Jang S W, Park S H, Choi S K, 2018. First report of Zucchini yellow mosaic virus in Chayote (Sechium edule) in Korea. Plant Disease. 102 (6), 1179-1180. DOI:10.1094/PDIS-08-17-1234-PDN

Yuki V A, Rezende J A M, Kitajima E W, Barroso P A V, Kuniyuki H, Groppo G A, Pavan M A, 2000. Occurrence, distribution, and relative incidence of five viruses infecting cucurbits in the state of São Paulo, Brazil. Plant Disease. 84 (5), 516-520. DOI:10.1094/PDIS.2000.84.5.516

Zenni R D, 2014. Analysis of introduction history of invasive plants in Brazil reveals patterns of association between biogeographical origin and reason for introduction. Austral Ecology. 39 (4), 401-407. DOI:10.1111/aec.12097

Links to Websites

Top of page
WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

Top of page

03/08/2018 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map
Select a dataset
Map Legends
  • CABI Summary Records
Map Filters
Extent
Invasive
Origin
Third party data sources: