Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Scutellonema brachyurus

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Datasheet

Scutellonema brachyurus

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Scutellonema brachyurus
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Nematoda
  •       Family: Hoplolaimidae
  •         Genus: Scutellonema
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    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
  • Distribution map More information

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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Scutellonema brachyurus Steiner (1938) Andrássy, 1958

Other Scientific Names

  • Rotylenchus brachyurus Steiner, 1938
  • Rotylenchus coheni Goodey, 1952
  • Scutellonema bangalorense
  • Scutellonema boocki Lordello, 1957
  • Scutellonema brachyurum (Steiner, 1938) Andrássy, 1958
  • Scutellonema coheni (Goodey, 1952) Andrássy, 1958
  • Scutellonema conicaudatum
  • Scutellonema orientale Rashid & Khan, 1974
  • Scutellonema ramai Verma, 1972
  • Scutellonema sheri Edward & Rai, 1970

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Nematoda
  •             Family: Hoplolaimidae
  •                 Genus: Scutellonema
  •                     Species: Scutellonema brachyurus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 16 Jun 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

Congo, Democratic Republic of thePresent
EgyptPresent
EswatiniPresentOriginal citation: Siddiqi (1972a)
EthiopiaPresent
KenyaPresent
MadagascarPresent
MalawiPresent
MauritiusPresent
MozambiquePresent
NigeriaPresent
RéunionPresent
South AfricaPresent
TanzaniaPresent
UgandaPresent
ZambiaPresent
ZimbabwePresent

Asia

BruneiPresent
ChinaPresent, Localized
-HeilongjiangPresent, Widespread
-JilinPresent, Widespread
-LiaoningPresent, Widespread
-SichuanPresent
IndiaPresent
-GujaratPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-ManipurPresent
-SikkimPresent
-TripuraPresent
-West BengalPresent
IranPresent
JapanPresent
-HonshuPresent
-KyushuPresent
MalaysiaPresent
NepalPresent
PakistanPresent
SingaporePresent
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresent
ThailandPresent

Europe

BelgiumPresent, Few occurrencesBotanical garden of Ghent University.
GermanyPresent
ItalyPresent
NetherlandsPresent
PolandPresent
SwedenPresent
United KingdomPresent

North America

BarbadosPresent
CanadaAbsent, Intercepted only
Costa RicaPresent
CubaPresent
JamaicaPresent
United StatesPresent
-ArkansasPresent
-CaliforniaPresentOriginal citation: Siddiqi et al., 1973
-FloridaPresent
-North CarolinaPresent
-South CarolinaPresent

Oceania

AustraliaPresent
-New South WalesPresent
-Northern TerritoryPresent
-QueenslandPresent
-South AustraliaPresent
FijiPresent
New ZealandPresent
SamoaPresent
TongaPresent

South America

BrazilPresent
-BahiaPresent
-Minas GeraisPresent
-Sao PauloPresent
ColombiaPresent
Falkland IslandsPresent
PeruPresent
VenezuelaPresent

Growth Stages

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Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Roots / cortex with lesions
Roots / necrotic streaks or lesions

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Catenaria anguillulae Pathogen

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Land vehiclesWith soil. Yes
Soil, sand and gravel Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Growing medium accompanying plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Roots adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants adults; eggs; juveniles Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Leaves
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Agudelo P; Harshman D, 2011. First report of the spiral nematode Scutellonema brachyurum on lilyturf in the United States. Plant Disease, 95(1):74-75. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Ali SS; Geraert E; Coomans A, 1973. Some spiral nematodes from Africa. Biologisch Jaarboek Dodonaea, 41:53-70.

Anon, 1989. Bureau of Nematology-sample detections of special interest. Tri-ology Technical Report, 28(5):2-3.

Baqri QH, 1991. Contribution to the fauna of Sikkim. Nematodes associated with citrus from Sikkim, India. Records of the Zoological Survey of India, No. 128 (occasional paper):103 pp.; 38 ref.

Berg Evan den; Mekete T, 2010. Notes on and new records of some Tylenchoidea (Nematoda) from Ethiopia. Nematologia Mediterranea, 38(2):211-214. http://www.edizioniets.com

Bhattacharya C; Dasgupta MK; Mukherjee B, 2012. Biodiversity of plant parasitic nematodes of cashew plantations in Tripura, India. Nematologia Mediterranea, 40(2):163-168. http://www.edizioniets.com

Bock KR; Ngundo BW; Othieno SM, 1970. Nematology, in EAFRO Record of Research for 1969. Nairobi, Kenya: East African Community, pp. 94-96.

Bolton C; Loots GC; De Waele D, 1989. Plant-parasitic nematodes on field crops in South Africa. 3. Sunflower. Revue de Nématologie, 12:69-76.

Botha A; Heyns J, 1993. New records of Tylenchida, Araeolaimida and Enoplida from the Kruger National Park, with an addendum to the check list of nematode species in the park. Koedoe, 36(1):61-65; 18 ref.

Braasch H, 1987. Two tropical and subtropical nematode species (Scutellonema brachyurum (Steiner, 1938) Andrassy, 1958 and Helicotylenchus dihystera (Cobb, 1893) Sher, 1961) (Hoplolaimidae) detected in greenhouses in the German Democratic Republic and on imported plant material. Nachrichtenblatt für den Pflanzenschutz in der DDR, 41:78-82.

CABI/EPPO, 2006. Scutellonema brachyurus. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 990. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Carvalho JC, 1959. Descrit¦o do macho de Scutellonema boocki (Nematoda: Tylenchidae). Arq. Inst. Biol., S¦o Paulo, 26:41-44.

Chapman RA, 1963. Population development of the plant parasitic nematode Scutellonema brachyurum on red clover. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 30(2):169-173.

Churchill RC Jr; Ruehle JL, 1971. Occurrence, parasitism, and pathogenicity of nematodes associated with sycamore (Platanus occidentalis L.). Journal of Nematology, 3:189-196.

Colbran RC, 1964. Studies of plant and soil nematodes. 7. Queensland records of the Order Tylenchida and genera Trichodorus and Xiphinema. Queensland Journal of Agricultural Science, 21:77-123.

De Waele D; Jordaan EM; De Waele D, 1988. Plant-parasitic nematodes on field crops in South Africa. 2. Sorghum. Revue de Nématologie, 11:203-211.

Demeure Y; Freckman DW; Van Gundy SD, 1979. Anhydrobiotic coiling of nematodes in soil. Journal of Nematology, 11(2):189-195

Devi NR, 2009. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with Indian pennywort Centella asiatica (L.) urban in Manipur. Journal of Threatened Taxa, 1(12):617-618. http://www.threatenedtaxa.org/ZooPrintJournal/2009/December/o211126xii09617-618.pdf

Duan YX; Liu WZ; Liu Y, 1995. Identification of plant parasitic nematodes associated with the root of soyabean in Northeast China. Journal of Shenyang Agricultural University, 26(2):128-130; 6 ref.

Esser RP; Riherd CC; Harkcom KJ, 1986. Pathogenicity of Scutellonema brachyurum to Aloe vera. Nematropica, 16:65-71.

Germani G; Baldwin JG; Bell AH; Wu XY, 1986. Revision of the genus Scutellonema Andrássy, 1958 (Nematoda: Tylenchida). Revue de Nématologie, 8(1985):289-320.

Golden AM, 1956. Endoparasitism of a spiral nematode on African violet. Phytopathology, 46:12-13.

Goodey JB, 1951. A secondary piliferous layer on the roots of Hippeastrum. Nature, London 167:822-823.

Goodey JB, 1952. The influence of the host on the dimensions of the plant parasitic nematode Ditylenchus destructor. Annals of Applied Biology, 39:1468-474.

Graham TW, 1955. Pathogenicity of Rotylenchus brachyurus on tobacco and of Criconemoides sp. on tobacco and peanuts. Phytopathology, 45:347.

Hutton DG, 1975. Pineapple nematodes in Jamaica and relationship between their population and rainfall in two areas. Nematropica, 5(2):23-24

Inserra RN; Robinson WL; Smith WW, 1995. Nematode parasites of daylily roots. Nematology Circular (Gainesville), No. 211:2 pp.; 9 ref.

Johansson E; Niedieck H, 1964. Scutellonema brachyurum - en för Sverige ny skadegöremde nematod. VSstxkyddsnotiser, 28(6):94-98.

Keetch DP; Dalldorf ER, 1980. The use of grass and legume rotations for pineapple nematode control in the Eastern Cape. Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Journal, No. 557:10-12

Kraus H; Lewis SA, 1979. Scutellonema brachyurum: host plants and pathogenicity on cotton. Plant Disease Reporter, 63(8):688-691

Kraus-Schmidt H; Lewis SA, 1981. Dynamics of concomitant populations of Hoplolaimus columbus, Scutellonema brachyurum, and Meloidogyne incognita on cotton. Journal of Nematology, 13(1):41-48

Krusberg LR; Hirschmann H, 1958. A summary of plant parasitic nematodes in Peru. Plant Disease Reporter, 42:599-608.

Lawn A; Noel GR; Sinclair JB, 1988. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with sunflower and maize in the Republic of Zambia. Nematropica, 18(2):143-154; 17 ref.

Lawn DA, 1988. Studies of nematodes associated with maize, soybean, and sunflower in Illinois and the Republic of Zambia. Dissertation Abstracts International. B, Sciences and Engineering, 49(6):2016; [91 pp., publ. 1988].

Lawn DA; Noel GR; Sinclair JB, 1988a. Plant-parasitic nematodes and Neocosmospora vasinfecta var. africana associated with soybeans in the Republic of Zambia. Nematropica, 18(1):33-34

Lordello LGE, 1957. A note on nematode parasites of red anthurium (Anthuirium andraeanum Lind.), with a description of Rotylenchus boocki n.sp. Nematologica, 2:273-276.

Luc M, 1959. Németodes parasites au soupconnés de parasitisme enver les plantes de Medagascar. Bull. Inst. Rech. Agron. Madagascar, 3:89-102.

Malek RB; Jenkins WR, 1964. Bulletin, New Jersey Experimental Station, New Brunswick, No. 813, pp. 1-31.

Mattaar JTA; Loof PAA, 1984. Systematic notes on some species of Scutellonema Andrássy, 1958 (Hoplolaimidae: Nematoda). Nematologica, 30:172-177.

Mead FW(Editor), 1989. Bureau of Nematology. Tri-ology Technical Report, 28(10):5-6

Melillo VA; Troccoli A, 1993. Morphological observations on two Scutellonema species (Nematoda: Hoplolaiminae) from Tanzania. Nematologia Mediterranea, 21(1):13-16; 6 ref.

Mor M; Spiegel Y, 1993. Ruscus hypophyllum: a new host for Aphelenchoides fragariae. Journal of Nematology, 25(2):312-313; 1 ref.

Nesmith WC; Zehr EI; Dowler WM, 1981. Association of Macroposthonia xenoplax and Scutellonema brachyurum with the peach tree short life syndrome. Journal of Nematology, 13(2):220-225

Nong L; Weber GF, 1964. Amaryllis diseases caused by two nematodes. Phytopathology, 902-903.

Patel HK; Patel DJ; Patel CC, 1988. Scutellonema brachyurum - pest of banana crop in Gujarat. Indian Journal of Nematology, 18(2):351.

Ratanaprapa D; Boonduang A, 1975. Identification of plant parasitic nematodes of Thailand. A second systematic study of Hoplolaimidae in Thailand. Plant Protection Service Technical Bulletin, Department of Agriculture, Bangkok, No. 27:35 pp.

Rebois RV; Cairns EJ, 1968. Nematodes associated with soybeans in Alabama, Florida, and Georgia. Plant Disease Reporter, 52:40-44.

Ruehle JL, 1971. Nematodes parasitic on forest trees: III. Reproduction on selected hardwoods. Journal of Nematology, 3:170-173.

Ruehle JL, 1973. Influence of plant-parasitic nematodes on longleaf pine seedlings. Journal of Nematology, 5(1):7-9

Schmitt DP, 1988. Susceptibility of soybean to Scutellonema brachyurum. Annals of Applied Nematology, 2:137-139; 3 ref.

Schuerger AC; McClure MA, 1983. Ultrastructural changes induced by Scutellonema brachyurum in potato roots. Phytopathology, 73(1):70-81

Shepherd JA, 1968. A nematode survey of tobacco soils in Rhodesia and Zambia, and the effects of grass-tobacco rotations on nematode populations. Rhodesian Journal of Agricultural Research, 6:19-26.

Shepherd JA, 1977. Hosts of non-gall-forming nematodes associated with tobacco in Rhodesia. Rhodesian Journal of Agricultural Research, 15(1):95-97

Sher SA, 1964. Revision of the Hoplolaiminae (Nematoda). III. Scutellonema Andrássy, 1958. Nematologica, 9:421-433.

Siddiqi MR, 1964. Labdev Journal of Science and Technology, 2(1): 73-74.

Siddiqi MR, 1972a. Two new species of Scutellonema from cultivated soils in Africa with a description of Hoplolaimus aorolaimoides sp. nov. from Portugal (Nematoda: Hoplolaiminae). Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 39:7-13.

Siddiqi MR, 1972b. Scutellonema bradys. CIH Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes, Set 1, No. 10. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Siddiqi MR, 1974. Scutellonema brachyurum. C.I.H. Descriptions of Plant-parasitic Nematodes, Set 4, No. 54:3 pp

Siddiqui IA; Sher SA; French AM, 1973. Distribution of plant parasitic nematodes in California. Sacramento, USA: Division of Plant Industry, Department of Food and Agriculture, 1-324.

Singh KP; Stephen RA; Vaish SS, 1996. Pathogenicity and development of Catenaria anguillulae on some nematodes. Mycological Research, 100(10):1204-1206; 10 ref.

Steiner G, 1938. Nematodes infesting red spiderlilies. Journal of Agricultural Research, 56(1):1-8.

Tanzania. Cotton Research Corporation, 1971. Progress Reports from Experiment Stations. Season 1968-69. Progress Reports from Experiment Stations. Season 1968-69. London: Cotton Research Corporation. UK, 58 pp.

Taylor DP, 1959. The male of Scutellonema brachyurum (Steiner, 1938) Andrassy, 1958. Proceedings of the Helminthological Society of Washington, 26(1):51-53.

Van den Berg E; Heyns J, 1973. South African Hoplolaiminae. 2. The genus Scutellonema Andrassy, 1958. Phytophylactica, 5:23-40.

Van den Berg E; Kirby MF, 1979. Some spiral nematodes from the Fiji Islands (Hoplolaimidae: Nematoda). Phytophylactica, 11(2):99-109

Walters MC, 1979. The possible status of parasitic nematodes as limiting factors in maize production in South Africa. In: HOGevers, ed. Proceedings of the 2nd South African maize breeding Symposium, 17-19 March, 1976, Pietermaritzburg, Natal. Organized by the Department of Agricultural Technical Services. Publication No. 2. . South Africa, 112-118

Wang KC; Chen TA, 1985. Ultrastructure of the phasmids of Scutellonema brachyurum. Journal of Nematology, 17:175-186.

Wang KC; Chen; TA, 1985. Ultrastructure of male sexual apparatus of Scutellonema brachyurum. Journal of Nematology, 17:435-444.

Williams JR, 1960. Studies on the nematode soil fauna of sugar cane fields in Mauritius. 4. Tylenchoidea (partim). Occasional Papers, Mauritius Sugar Industry Research Institute, 4:1-30.

Wojtowicz MR; Szczygiel A, 1990. Occurrence and biology of spiral nematode in cultures of Asparagus sprengeri. Zeszyty Problemowe Poste^hook~po^acute~w Nauk Rolniczych, No. 391:105-113; 13 ref.

Wojtowicz MR; Szczygiel A, 1990. Pathogenicity of spiral nematode to Asparagus sprengeri. Zeszyty Problemowe Poste^hook~po^acute~w Nauk Rolniczych, No. 391:115-121; 12 ref.

Wopjtowicz MR; Szczygiel A, 1990. Effect of systemic nematicides on spiral nematode and on Asparagus sprengeri yields. Zeszyty Problemowe Poste^hook~po^acute~w Nauk Rolniczych, No. 391:123-131; 15 ref.

Zarina B; Maqbool MA, 1995. Description of Merlinius indicus n. sp. and observations on two species (Nematoda: Tylenchida) from ornamental plants in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Nematology, 13(2):61-68; 5 ref.

Distribution References

Agudelo P, Harshman D, 2011. First report of the spiral nematode Scutellonema brachyurum on lilyturf in the United States. Plant Disease. 95 (1), 74-75. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis DOI:10.1094/PDIS-09-10-0665

Ali S S, Geraert E, Coomans A, 1973. Some spiral nematodes from Africa. Biologisch Jaarboek Dodonaea. 53-70.

Bahmani J, Khozeini F, Barooti S, Rezaee S, Ghaderi R, 2013. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with walnut in the Sanandej region of west Iran. Journal of Plant Protection Research. 53 (4), 404-408. http://www.degruyter.com/view/j/jppr.2013.53.issue-4/jppr-2013-0060/jppr-2013-0060.xml?format=INT DOI:10.2478/jppr-2013-0060

Baqri Q H, 1991. Contribution to the fauna of Sikkim. Nematodes associated with citrus from Sikkim, India. In: Records of the Zoological Survey of India, Calcutta, India: Zoological Survey of India. 103 pp.

Berg E van den, Mekete T, 2010. Notes on and new records of some Tylenchoidea (Nematoda) from Ethiopia. Nematologia Mediterranea. 38 (2), 211-214. http://www.edizioniets.com

Bhattacharya C, Dasgupta M K, Mukherjee B, 2012. Biodiversity of plant parasitic nematodes of cashew plantations in Tripura, India. Nematologia Mediterranea. 40 (2), 163-168. http://www.edizioniets.com

Braasch H, 1987. Two tropical and subtropical nematode species (Scutellonema brachyurum (Steiner,1938) Andrassy,1958 and Helicotylenchus dihystera (Cobb,1893) Sher,1961) (Hoplolaimidae) detected in greenhouses in the German Democratic Republic and on imported plant material. (Nachweis zweier tropisch-subtropischer nematodenarten (Scutellonema brachyurum (Steiner, 1938) Andrassy, 1958 und Helicotylenchus dihystera (Cobb, 1893) Sher, 1961) (Hoplolaimidae) in gewächshäusern der DDR und an importen.). Nachrichtenblatt für den Pflanzenschutz in der DDR. 41 (4), 78-82.

CABI, EPPO, 2006. Scutellonema brachyurus. [Distribution map]. In: Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Wallingford, UK: CABI. Map 990 (Edition 1). DOI:10.1079/DMPD/20063191819

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Colbran RC, 1964. Studies of plant and soil nematodes. 7. Queensland records of the Order Tylenchida and genera Trichodorus and Xiphinema. In: Queensland Journal of Agricultural Science, 21 77-123.

Daramola F Y, Afolami S O, Idowu A A, Nwanguma E I, 2013. Studies on the occurrence and distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes in some pineapple-producing states in Nigeria. Asian Journal of Crop Science. 5 (2), 190-199. http://scialert.net/fulltext/?doi=ajcs.2013.190.199&org=11

Daramola F, Afolami S, 2014. Studies on the distribution of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with pineapple in Delta, Imo and Cross River states of Nigeria. Australian Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences. 8 (7), 248-256. http://ajbasweb.com/old/ajbas/2014/May/248-256-May14.pdf

Devi N R, 2009. Plant parasitic nematodes associated with Indian pennywort Centella asiatica (L.) urban in Manipur. Journal of Threatened Taxa. 1 (12), 617-618. http://www.threatenedtaxa.org/ZooPrintJournal/2009/December/o211126xii09617-618.pdf

Duan Y X, Liu W Z, Liu Y, 1995. Identification of plant parasitic nematodes associated with the root of soyabean in Northeast China. Journal of Shenyang Agricultural University. 26 (2), 128-130.

Esser R P, Riherd C C, Harkcom K J, 1986. Pathogenicity of Scutellonema brachyurum to Aloe vera. Nematropica. 16 (1), 65-71.

Goodey J B, 1951. A secondary piliferous layer on the roots of Hippeastrum. Nature, London. 822-823.

Hutton D G, 1975. Pineapple nematodes in Jamaica and relationship between their population and rainfall in two areas. In: Nematropica, 5 (2) 23-24.

Huu Tien Nguyen, Quang Phap Trinh, Couvreur M, Singh P R, Decraemer W, Bert W, 2019. First report of Scutellonema brachyurus (Steiner, 1938) Andrassy, 1958 and occurrence of Meloidogyne incognita (Kofoid & White, 1919) Chitwood, 1949 in Belgium. Journal of Nematology. DOI:10.21307/jofnem-2019-062

Ibrahim I K A, Mokbel A A, Handoo Z A, 2010. Current status of phytoparasitic nematodes and their host plants in Egypt. Nematropica. 40 (2), 239-262. http://www.ontaweb.org/

Keetch D P, Dalldorf E R, 1980. The use of grass and legume rotations for pineapple nematode control in the Eastern Cape. Citrus and Subtropical Fruit Journal. 10-12.

Kraus H, Lewis S A, 1979. Scutellonema brachyurum: host plants and pathogenicity on cotton. Plant Disease Reporter. 63 (8), 688-691.

Krusberg LR, Hirschmann H, 1958. A summary of plant parasitic nematodes in Peru. In: Plant Disease Reporter, 42 599-608.

Lawn A, Noel G R, Sinclair J B, 1988. Plant-parasitic nematodes associated with sunflower and maize in the Republic of Zambia. Nematropica. 18 (2), 143-154.

LORDELLO L G E, 1957. A note on nematode parasites of red anthurium (Anthurium attdraeanum Land. ), with a description of Rotylenchus boocki rusp. Nematologica. 2 (4), 273-276.

Maafi Z T, Ebrahimi N, Khozeini F, Barooti S, Karegar A, 2006. Occurance of Scutellonema brachyurus (Steiner, 1938) Andrassy, 1958 in Damghan, Gilan and Golestan regions. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology. 42 (1), Pe197-Pe200, En50-En.

Nesmith W C, Zehr E I, Dowler W M, 1981. Association of Macroposthonia xenoplax and Scutellonema brachyurum with the peach tree short life syndrome. Journal of Nematology. 13 (2), 220-225.

Patel H K, Patel D J, Patel C C, 1988. Scutellonema brachyurum - pest of banana crop in Gujarat. Indian Journal of Nematology. 18 (2), 351.

Ratanaprapa D, Boonduang A, 1975. Identification of plant parasitic nematodes of Thailand. A second systematic study of Hoplolaimidae in Thailand. In: Plant Protection Service Technical Bulletin, Department of Agriculture, Bangkok, 35 pp.

RUEHLE J L, 1971. Nematodes parasitic on forest trees: III. Reproduction on selected hardwoods. Journal of Nematology. 3 (2), 170-173.

Schmitt D P, 1988. Susceptibility of soybean to Scutellonema brachyurum. Annals of Applied Nematology. 137-139.

Shepherd J A, 1977. Hosts of non-gall-forming nematodes associated with tobacco in Rhodesia. Rhodesian Journal of Agricultural Research. 15 (1), 95-97.

SHER S A, 1964. Revision of the Hoplolaiminae (Nematoda) III. Scutellonema Andrassy, 1958. Nematologica. 9 (3), 421-443.

Wopjtowicz M R, Szczygieł A, 1990. Effect of systemic nematicides on spiral nematode and on Asparagus sprengeri yields. (Wpływ nematocydów systemicznych na spiralnika szparagowca i na plon szparaga szprengera.). Zeszyty Problemowe Postępów Nauk Rolniczych. 123-131.

Zarina B, Maqbool M A, 1995. Description of Merlinius indicus n. sp. and observations on two species (Nematoda: Tylenchida) from ornamental plants in Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Nematology. 13 (2), 61-68.

Zeng Y S, Ye W M, Tredway L, Martin S, Martin M, 2012. Taxonomy and morphology of plant-parasitic nematodes associated with turfgrasses in north and South Carolina, USA. Zootaxa. 1-46. http://www.mapress.com/zootaxa/2012/f/zt03452p046.pdf

Distribution Maps

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