Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Scapanes australis
(rhinoceros beetle)

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Datasheet

Scapanes australis (rhinoceros beetle)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 28 September 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Scapanes australis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • rhinoceros beetle
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
S. australis larvae: (A) older pre-pupal third-instar larva, note yellowish hue; and (B) younger third-instar larva, note whiter hue.
TitleLarvae
CaptionS. australis larvae: (A) older pre-pupal third-instar larva, note yellowish hue; and (B) younger third-instar larva, note whiter hue.
CopyrightL. Beaudoin-Ollivier
S. australis larvae: (A) older pre-pupal third-instar larva, note yellowish hue; and (B) younger third-instar larva, note whiter hue.
LarvaeS. australis larvae: (A) older pre-pupal third-instar larva, note yellowish hue; and (B) younger third-instar larva, note whiter hue.L. Beaudoin-Ollivier
Male pupa of S. australis. A typical exarate pupa with appendages free.
TitlePupa
CaptionMale pupa of S. australis. A typical exarate pupa with appendages free.
CopyrightL. Beaudoin-Ollivier
Male pupa of S. australis. A typical exarate pupa with appendages free.
PupaMale pupa of S. australis. A typical exarate pupa with appendages free.L. Beaudoin-Ollivier
S. australis, adult male beetle.
TitleAdult male
CaptionS. australis, adult male beetle.
CopyrightL. Beaudoin-Ollivier
S. australis, adult male beetle.
Adult maleS. australis, adult male beetle.L. Beaudoin-Ollivier
S. australis, adult female beetle.
TitleAdult female
CaptionS. australis, adult female beetle.
CopyrightL. Beaudoin-Ollivier
S. australis, adult female beetle.
Adult femaleS. australis, adult female beetle.L. Beaudoin-Ollivier
S. australis, male calling behaviour.
TitleMale calling behaviour
CaptionS. australis, male calling behaviour.
CopyrightL. Beaudoin-Ollivier
S. australis, male calling behaviour.
Male calling behaviourS. australis, male calling behaviour.L. Beaudoin-Ollivier
Distortion to young coconut palm due to S. australis damage.
TitleDamage
CaptionDistortion to young coconut palm due to S. australis damage.
CopyrightL. Beaudoin-Ollivier
Distortion to young coconut palm due to S. australis damage.
DamageDistortion to young coconut palm due to S. australis damage.L. Beaudoin-Ollivier
Coconut palm killed by S. australis.
TitleDamage
CaptionCoconut palm killed by S. australis.
CopyrightL. Beaudoin-Ollivier
Coconut palm killed by S. australis.
DamageCoconut palm killed by S. australis.L. Beaudoin-Ollivier
Beauveria bassiana (white muscardine fungus); natural ernmy. S. australis male killed by the fungus Beauvaria bassiana.
TitleNatural enemy
CaptionBeauveria bassiana (white muscardine fungus); natural ernmy. S. australis male killed by the fungus Beauvaria bassiana.
Copyright©L. Beaudoin-Ollivier
Beauveria bassiana (white muscardine fungus); natural ernmy. S. australis male killed by the fungus Beauvaria bassiana.
Natural enemyBeauveria bassiana (white muscardine fungus); natural ernmy. S. australis male killed by the fungus Beauvaria bassiana.©L. Beaudoin-Ollivier
Pheromone trap to catch S. australis.
TitlePheromone trap
CaptionPheromone trap to catch S. australis.
CopyrightL. Beaudoin-Ollivier
Pheromone trap to catch S. australis.
Pheromone trapPheromone trap to catch S. australis.L. Beaudoin-Ollivier

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Scapanes australis Boisduval

Preferred Common Name

  • rhinoceros beetle

Other Scientific Names

  • Oryctes australis
  • Scapanes australis australis Boisduval, 1832
  • Scapanes australis brevicornis Sternberg, 1908
  • Scapanes australis grossepunctatus Sternberg, 1908
  • Scapanes australis salomonensis Sternberg, 1908

International Common Names

  • English: coconut palm rhinoceros beetle; New Guinea rhinoceros beetle
  • French: rhinoceros du cocotier

Local Common Names

  • Papua New Guinea: binatang

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Coleoptera
  •                         Family: Scarabaeidae
  •                             Genus: Scapanes
  •                                 Species: Scapanes australis

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

IndonesiaPresentKalshoven and, 1981
PhilippinesPresent, few occurrencesLepesme, 1947; FAO, 1966
SingaporePresentAPPPC, 1987

Oceania

Papua New GuineaRestricted distributionBedford, 1976a; APPPC, 1987
Solomon IslandsPresentBedford, 1976a; APPPC, 1987

Growth Stages

Top of page Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / dead heart
Growing point / distortion
Growing point / internal feeding; boring
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / external feeding
Stems / dead heart
Stems / distortion
Whole plant / distortion; rosetting
Whole plant / internal feeding
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Metarhizium anisopliae Pathogen
Odontomachus simillimus Predator
Oryctes rhinoceros nudivirus Pathogen

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Clothing, footwear and possessions Yes
Containers and packaging - wood Yes
Land vehicles Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Fruits (inc. pods)
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Anon., 1981. Annual report of the entomologist 1980. Report, Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Solomon Islands (1981). Review of Applied Entomology, (A) 70:81.

APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA)

Arura M, 1984. Pests of coconut palm. The New Guinea Rhinoceros Beetle Entomology Bulletin, No. 32:115-117

Beaudoin-Ollivier L, Morin JP, Prior RNB, Kakul T, Ollivier J, Rochat D, Mariau D, 1999. The Scapanes-rhynchophorus complex, the main entomological problem on coconut in Papua New Guinea. Plantations, Recherche, De^acute~veloppement, 6(1):46-55; 29 ref

Beaudoin-Ollivier L, Prior RNB, Laup S, 1998. A field key to identify some rhinoceros and other beetle larvae breeding in coconut palm habitats in Papua New Guinea. Papua New Guinea Journal of Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries, 41(2):1-15

Bedford GO, 1973. Experiments with the virus Rhabdionvirus oryctes against the coconut palm rhinoceros beetles Oryctes rhinoceros and Scapanes australis grossepunctatus in New Guinea. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 22(1):70-74

Bedford GO, 1974. Descriptions of the larvae of some rhinoceros beetles (Col., Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae) associated with coconut palms in New Guinea. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 63(3):445-472

Bedford GO, 1976. Observations on the biology and ecology of Oryctes rhinoceros and Scapanes australis (Coleoptera: Scarabpidae: Dynastinp): pests of coconut palms in Melanesia. Journal of the Australian Entomological Society, 15(3):241-251

Bedford GO, 1976. Rhinoceros beetles in Papua New Guinea. South Pacific Bulletin, 26(3):38-41

Dori F, 1982. The influence of pests on cash crops. Course Proceedings, Sub-regional training course on methods of controlling diseases, insects and other pests of plants in the South Pacific. Ministry of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Kingdom of Tonga, 14-20 October 1982, Vaini, Tonga

Dun GS, 1955. Economic entomology in Papua New Guinea. Papua and New Guinea Agricultural Journal, 9:109-119

Endr÷di S, 1957. Rassenkreis von Scapanes australis Boisd. (Coleopt. Dynastinae). Bonner Zoologische Beitrage, (8):71-74

FAO, 1966. FAO Technical Working Party on coconut production, protection and processing, Colombo 30 November to 8 December 1964. Rome, Italy: FAO, Working Paper 33

Kakul T, Laup S, Stathers T, Beaudoin-Ollivier L, Morin JP, Rochat D, 1999. Trapping and disruption of the mating activity of Scapanes australis using live male as bait in Papua New Guinea. CORD, 15(2):131-149

Kalshoven LGE, Laan PA van der (Reviser and translator), 1981. Pests of crops in Indonesia (revised). Jakarta, Indonesia: Ichtiar Baru, 701 pp

Lepesme P, 1947. The insects of Palms. Paris, France: Paul Lechevalier

Morin JP, 1998. Study mission to detect a pheromone in Scapanes australis in Papua New Guinea. Cirad-Cp, Doc. CP 939, 1-18

Morin JP, Kakul T, Beaudoin-Ollivier L, Rochat D, Prior RNB, 1999. Importance of biological knowledge for trapping. The case of Scapanes australis (Coleoptera: Dynastidae), a coconut pest in Papua New Guinea. Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Pests in Agriculture, Part 2, Montpellier, France, 7-9 December, 1999., 303-310; 9 ref

PNG CCRI, 1999. Information Bulletin No. 2. Rabaul, East New Britain Province, Papua New Guinea: PNG Cocoa & Coconut Research Institute

Prior C, Arura M, 1985. The infectivity of Metarhizium anisoplip to two insect pests of coconuts. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 45(2):187-194

Prior R, Morin JP, Rochat D, Beaudoin-Ollivier L, Stathers T, Kakul T, Embupa S, Nanguai R, 2000. New aspects of the biology of the Melanesian rhinoceros beetle Scapanes australis (Col., Dynastidae) and evidence for field attraction to males. Journal of Applied Entomology, 124(1):41-50; 29 ref

Rochat D, Morin JP, Kakul T, Beaudoin-Ollivier L, Prior RNB, Malosse C, de Cruz-Malosse I, Renou M, Embupa S, 1999. Unusual Aggregation Pheromone of the Melanesian Rhinoceros Beetle Scapanes australis Bsdv. (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae) 1st Asia-Pacific Conference on Chemical Ecology, November 2-3, 1999, Shanghai, China

Rochat D, Ramirez-Lucas P, Malosse C, Aldana R, Kakul T, Morin JP, 2000. Role of solid-phase microextraction in the identification of highly volatile pheromones of two Rhinoceros beetles Scapanes australis and Strategus aloeus (Coleoptera, Scarabaeidae, Dynastinae). Journal of Chromatography, A, 885(1/2):433-444; 26 ref

Smee L, 1965. Insect pests of Cocos nucifera in the Territory of Papua and New Guinea: their habits and control. Papua and New Guinea Agricultural Journal, 17:51-64

Stapley JH, 1979. Annual report of entomologist 1978. Report, Ministry of Agriculture and Lands, Solomon Islands, 27 pp

Waterhouse DF, Norris KR, 1987. Biological control: Pacific prospects. viii + 454pp

Distribution Maps

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