Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Hadula trifolii
(clover cutworm)

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Datasheet

Hadula trifolii (clover cutworm)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Hadula trifolii
  • Preferred Common Name
  • clover cutworm
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleLarva (brown form)
Caption
CopyrightVictor Sarto I. Monteys
Larva (brown form)Victor Sarto I. Monteys
TitleLarva (green form)
Caption
CopyrightVictor Sarto I. Monteys
Larva (green form)Victor Sarto I. Monteys
TitleAdult
Caption
CopyrightVictor Sarto I. Monteys
AdultVictor Sarto I. Monteys
TitleAdult
Caption
CopyrightVictor Sarto I. Monteys
AdultVictor Sarto I. Monteys

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Hadula trifolii (Hufnagel, 1766)

Preferred Common Name

  • clover cutworm

Other Scientific Names

  • Apamea glaucovaria Walker, 1860
  • Apamea inquieta Walker, 1857
  • Cardepia taylori Rothschild, 1921
  • Discestra trifolii (Hufnagel, 1766)
  • Hadena albifusa Walker, 1857
  • Hadena intermissa Walker, 1857
  • Mamestra canescens Moore, 1878
  • Mamestra trifolii var. major Speyer, 1875
  • Noctua chenopodii [Denis & Schiffermüller], 1775
  • Noctua contribulis Duponchel, 1827
  • Noctua infraina Haworth, 1809
  • Noctua verna Esper, 1787
  • Orthosia farkasii Treitschke, 1835
  • Phalaena Noctua saucia Esper, 1790
  • Scotogramma cinnamomina Rothschild, 1913
  • Scotogramma trifolii [sic] var. major Speyer, 1875
  • Scotogramma trifolii form zermattensis Draudt, 1934
  • Scotogramma trifolii var. fructicosae Dumont, 1925

International Common Names

  • English: the nutmeg
  • French: noctuelle des trefle; ver gris du trèfle

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Eule, Klee-; Klee-Eule; Kleefeldeule
  • Netherlands: Spurrieuil; Spurrievlinder

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Lepidoptera
  •                         Family: Noctuidae
  •                             Genus: Hadula
  •                                 Species: Hadula trifolii

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 10 Jan 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent, WidespreadWarren (1914); Hacker (1998)
EgyptPresentHacker (1990); Hacker (1998)
LibyaPresentHacker (1998)
MoroccoPresent, WidespreadRungs (1981); Hacker (1998)
NigerPresentRothschild (1913); Hacker (1998)
SudanPresentHacker (1998)
TunisiaPresent, WidespreadDumont (1925); Hacker (1998); CABI (Undated)
Western SaharaPresentHacker (1998)

Asia

AfghanistanPresentHacker (1990); Hacker (1998)
ArmeniaPresentHacker (1998)
AzerbaijanPresentHacker (1998)
BahrainPresentHacker (1990); Hacker (1998)
ChinaPresentTsia and Ding (1982); Hacker (1998)
-TibetPresent, WidespreadMoore (1878); Hu (1987); Hacker (1998); Hreblay et al. (1998)
GeorgiaPresentHacker (1998)
IndiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-HaryanaPresentHacker (1998)
-Himachal PradeshPresentHacker (1998)
-Jammu and KashmirPresentWarren (1914); Hacker (1998)
-PunjabPresentHacker (1998)
IranPresent, WidespreadHacker (1990); Hacker (1998)
IraqPresentRothschild (1921); Hacker (1990); Hacker (1998)
IsraelPresentHacker (1990); Hacker (1998)
JordanPresentHacker (1990); Hacker (1998)
KazakhstanPresentHacker (1998)
KuwaitPresentHacker (1998)
KyrgyzstanPresentHacker (1998)
LebanonPresentHacker (1990); Hacker (1998)
MongoliaPresentHacker (1998)
NepalPresentHacker (1998)
North KoreaPresentHacker (1998)
OmanPresentHacker (1990); Hacker (1998)
PakistanPresentHacker (1998)
Palestine
-Gaza StripPresentHacker (1990)
QatarPresentHacker (1990); Hacker (1998)
Saudi ArabiaPresentHammad and Ramadan (1979); Hacker (1990); Hacker (1998)
South KoreaPresentHacker (1998)
SyriaPresent, WidespreadWarren (1914); Hacker (1990); Hacker (1998)
TajikistanPresentHacker (1998)
TurkeyPresent, WidespreadHacker (1990); Hacker (1998)
TurkmenistanPresentWarren (1914); Alekseev (1972); Hacker (1990); Hacker (1998)
United Arab EmiratesPresentHacker (1990); Hacker (1998)
UzbekistanPresentHacker (1998)
YemenPresentHacker (1990); Hacker (1998)

Europe

AlbaniaPresentKarsholt and Razowski (1996)
AndorraPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Josa et al., 1979
AustriaPresent, WidespreadKarsholt and Razowski (1996); Hacker (1998); CABI (Undated)
BelarusPresentZhang (1994); Karsholt and Razowski (1996)
BelgiumPresent, WidespreadKarsholt and Razowski (1996); Leraut (1997)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresent, WidespreadHacker (1989); Karsholt and Razowski (1996)
BulgariaPresent, WidespreadDochkova (1971); Subchev et al. (1985); Subchev et al. (1987); Hacker (1989); CABI (Undated)
CroatiaPresent, WidespreadHacker (1989); Karsholt and Razowski (1996)
CyprusPresentHacker (1998)
CzechiaPresent, WidespreadKarsholt and Razowski (1996)
DenmarkPresent, WidespreadKarsholt and Razowski (1996); CABI (Undated)
EstoniaPresentKarsholt and Razowski (1996)
FinlandPresent, LocalizedNordström et al. (1969); Mikkola and Jalas (1977); Karsholt and Razowski (1996)
FrancePresent, WidespreadCayrol (1972); Karsholt and Razowski (1996); Leraut (1997)
-CorsicaPresent, WidespreadKarsholt and Razowski (1996); Leraut (1997)
GermanyPresent, WidespreadKarsholt and Razowski (1996); CABI (Undated);
GibraltarPresent, WidespreadCalle (1983)
GreecePresent, WidespreadKarsholt and Razowski (1996); CABI (Undated)
HungaryPresent, WidespreadKarsholt and Razowski (1996); Szeőke and Szendrey (1997)
IrelandPresent, Few occurrencesLorimer (1979); Karsholt and Razowski (1996)
ItalyPresent, WidespreadBerio (1985); Karsholt and Razowski (1996)
LatviaPresentKarsholt and Razowski (1996)
LiechtensteinPresentKarsholt and Razowski (1996)
LithuaniaPresentKarsholt and Razowski (1996)
LuxembourgPresent, WidespreadKarsholt and Razowski (1996)
MaltaPresent, WidespreadKarsholt and Razowski (1996)
MoldovaPresentZhang (1994); Karsholt and Razowski (1996)
MonacoPresent, WidespreadKarsholt and Razowski (1996)
NetherlandsPresent, WidespreadKarsholt and Razowski (1996)
North MacedoniaPresent, WidespreadHacker (1989); Karsholt and Razowski (1996)
NorwayPresent, LocalizedNordström et al. (1969); Karsholt and Razowski (1996)
PolandPresent, WidespreadLipa et al. (1971); Winiarska (1987); Karsholt and Razowski (1996)
PortugalPresent, WidespreadCarvalho (1983); Karsholt and Razowski (1996)
-AzoresPresentVieira (1994)
-MadeiraPresentCarvalho (1983)
RomaniaPresent, WidespreadKarsholt and Razowski (1996); Rakosy (1996)
RussiaPresentCABI (Undated a)Present based on regional distribution.
-Central RussiaPresentZolotov (1982); Karsholt and Razowski (1996)
-Eastern SiberiaPresentWarren (1914)
-Northern RussiaPresentKarsholt and Razowski (1996)
-Southern RussiaPresentHacker (1990); Karsholt and Razowski (1996)
-Western SiberiaPresentWarren (1914)
San MarinoPresent, WidespreadBerio (1985); Karsholt and Razowski (1996)
Serbia and MontenegroPresent, WidespreadHacker (1989); Karsholt and Razowski (1996)
SlovakiaPresent, WidespreadHrdy et al. (1979); Karsholt and Razowski (1996)
SloveniaPresent, WidespreadHacker (1989); Karsholt and Razowski (1996)
SpainPresent, WidespreadCalle (1983); Karsholt and Razowski (1996)
-Balearic IslandsPresent, WidespreadCuello (1982)
-Canary IslandsPresent, WidespreadCalle (1983)
SwedenPresent, LocalizedNordström et al. (1969); Svensson et al. (1987); Karsholt and Razowski (1996)
SwitzerlandPresent, WidespreadKarsholt and Razowski (1996); CABI (Undated)
UkrainePresent, WidespreadPuzuirnuij (1931); Karsholt and Razowski (1996)
United KingdomPresent, LocalizedLorimer (1979); Karsholt and Razowski (1996)
-Channel IslandsPresentLorimer (1979)

North America

CanadaPresent, WidespreadGodfrey (1972); Morris (1980)
-AlbertaPresent, WidespreadStruble and Swailes (1975); Swailes and Struble (1979); Byers and Struble (1987); Byers et al. (1988)
-British ColumbiaPresent, WidespreadZhang (1994)
-ManitobaPresent, WidespreadAyre et al. (1982); Ayre and Lamb (1990)
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresentMorris (1980)
-Nova ScotiaPresent, WidespreadWalker (1857); Ferguson (1955)
-OntarioPresent, WidespreadRockburne and Lafontaine (1976)
-QuebecPresent, WidespreadRockburne and Lafontaine (1976); Koponen and Lafontaine (1991)
-SaskatchewanPresent, WidespreadUnderhill et al. (1976)
United StatesPresent, WidespreadGodfrey (1972); Morris (1980)

Growth Stages

Top of page Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Leaves / external feeding
Whole plant / external feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Banchus flavescens Parasite Larvae
Blondelia nigripes Parasite Larvae
Exorista larvarum Parasite Larvae
Gonia bimaculata Parasite Larvae
Granulosis virus Pathogen
Nucleopolyhedrosis virus Pathogen Larvae
Phryxe nemea Parasite Larvae
Phryxe vulgaris Parasite Larvae
Spallanzania hebes Parasite Larvae

References

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Alekseev YuI, 1972. Notes on the biology of braconids (Hymenoptera, Braconidae) that parasitise pests of cotton and lucerne in Turkmenia (in russian). Izvestiya Akademii Nauk Turkmenskoi SSR. Biologicheskikh Nauk., 6:81-88.

Ayre GL; Lamb RJ, 1990. Life histories, flight patterns, and relative abundance of nine cutworms (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in Manitoba. Canadian Entomologist, 122(11-12):1059-1070; 35 ref.

Ayre GL; Turnock WJ; Struble DL, 1982. Spatial and temporal variability in sex attractant trap catches of Scotogramma trifolii (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) in relation to its biology in Manitoba. Canadian Entomologist, 114(2):145-154

Beck H, 1960. Die Larvalsystematik der Eulen ( Noctuidae). In: Sachtleben H, Stammer HJ, eds. Abhandlungen zur Larvalsystematik der Insekten. Berlin, Germany: Akademie - Verl., 406 pp.

Berio E, 1985. Lepidoptera Noctuidae. I. Generalities. Hadeninp, Cucullinp. Bologna, Rome, Milan, Italy; Officine Grafichi Calderini, xxiii + 970 pp.

Bongiovanni GC; Barbini M; Ansaloni R, 1990. Results of a campaign of monitoring certain Noctuidae harmful to sugarbeet using synthetic pheromones. Informatore Agrario, 46(2):89-99

Byers JR; Struble DL, 1987. Monitoring cutworm moths in southern Alberta with sex-attractant traps. Research Highlights, Lethbridge Research Station, Agriculture Canada. Alberta, Canada: Lethbridge Research Station, 68-70

Byers JR; Struble DL, 1987. Monitoring population levels of eight species of noctuids with sex-attractant traps in southern Alberta, 1978-1983: specificity of attractants and effect of target species abundance. Canadian Entomologist, 119(6):541-556

Byers JR; Struble DL; Schaalje GB, 1987. Monitoring population levels of eight species of noctuids with sex-attractant traps in southern Alberta, 1978-1983; consistency of trap catches and precision of population estimates. Canadian Entomologist, 119(6):557-566

Byers JR; Struble DL; Schaalje GB, 1988. Monitoring population levels of eight species of noctuids with sex-attractant traps in southern Alberta, 1978-1983: congruency of year-to-year fluctuations in intraspecific density shown by subsets of monitoring sites. Canadian Entomologist, 120(12):1071-1078

Calle JA, 1983. Noctuidos Espa±oles. Boletfn del Servicio contra Plagas e Inspección Fitopatológica. Fuera de serie no. 1 (1982). Madrid, Spain: Ministerio de Agricultura, Pesca y Alimentación. Dirección General de la Producción Agraria.

Carter DJ; Hargreaves B (Illustrator), 1986. A field guide to caterpillars of butterflies and moths in Britain and Europe. London, UK: Collins, 296 pp.

Carvalho JPde, 1983. Macrolepidoptera of Porto Santo Island. Boletim do Museu Municipaldo Funchal, 35(151/155):163-174

Cayrol RA, 1972. Famille des Noctuidae. In: Balachowsky AS, ed. Entomologie appliqué a l'agriculture. Vol. 2. Paris, France: Masson et Cie Editeurs, 1275-1614.

Chisholm MD; Steck W; Underhill EW, 1980. Effects of additional double bonds on some olefinic moth sex attractants. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 6(1):203-212

Cuello J, 1982. Els lepid=pters de les Illes Balears. Cens provisional.- Treb. Soc. Cat. Lep., Vol. IV: 33-53.

Dochkova B, 1971. Injurious Noctuids on sugar-beet in northern Bulgaria. Rastitelna Zashchita, 19(12):11-13

Draudt M, 1924. Eulenartige Nachtfalter. In: Seitz A, ed. Die Gross-Schmetterlinge des Amerikanischen Faunengebietes. Vol. 7. Stuttgart, Germany: Verlag Alfred Kernen.

Dumont C, 1925. Contribution à l'étude des LépidoptFres du Sahara Nord-Africain (Noctuidae). Bull. Soc. Ent., 1925:331-332.

Ewen AB; Arthur AP, 1976. Cuticular encystment in three noctuid species (Lepidoptera): induction by acid gland secretion from an ichneumonid parasite (Banchus flavescens). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 69(6):1087-1090

Federici BA, 1978. Baculovirus epizootic in a larval population of the clover cutworm, Scotogramma trifolii, in southern California. Environmental Entomology, 7(3):423-427

Federici BA, 1982. A new type of insect pathogen in larvae of the clover cutworm, Scotogramma trifolii. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 40(1):41-54

Ferguson DC, 1955. The Lepidoptera of Nova Scotia. Part 1. Bull. No. 2. Halifax, Canada: Nova Scotia Museum of Science, 161-375.

Forster W; Wohlfahrt; TA, 1971. Eulen (Noctuidae). In: Forster W, Wohlfahrt TA, eds. Die Schmetterlinge Mitteleuropas. Band IV. Franckh'sche Verlagshandlung. Stuttgart, Germany: W Keller & Co.

Godfrey GL, 1972. A Review and Reclassification of the Larvae of the Subfamily Hadeninae (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) of America North of Mexico. United States Department of Agriculture Technical Bulletin no.1450. Washington DC. USA: US Government Printing Office.

Hacker H, 1989. Die Noctuidae Griechenlands. Herbipoliana 2, Marktleuthen, Germany: Eitschberger.

Hacker H, 1990. Die Noctuidae Vorderasiens (Lepidoptera). Neue Entomologische Nachrichten. Band 27. Markleuthen, Germany: Verlag Dr. Ulf Eitschberger.

Hacker H, 1998. Revision der Gattungen Hadula Staudinger, 1889 (=Discestra Hampson, 1905; =Aglossestra Hampson, 1905; =Cardiestra Boursin, 1963), Anartomorpha Alphéraky, 1892, Trichanarta Hampson, 1895, Anarta Ochsenheimer, 1816 und Cardepia Hampson, 1905 mit Beschreibung einer neuen Gattung Hadumorpha gen. n. (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). Esperiana, 6:577-843.

Hammad SH; Ramadan MM, 1979. Preliminary studies on the population density of some moths at Al-Hassa region using a light trap. Proceedings of the Saudi Biological Society, 3:79-100

Harvey J; Tanada Y, 1985. Characterization of the DNAs of 5 baculoviruses pathogenic for the armyworm, Pseudaletia unipuncta. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 46(2):174-179

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Hrdy I; Marek J; Krampl F, 1979. Sexual pheromone activity of 8-dodecenyl and 11-tetradecenyl acetates for males of several lepidopteran species in field trials. Acta Entomologica Bohemoslovaca, 76(2):65-84

Hreblay M; Ronkay L; Plante J, 1998. Contrinution to the Noctuidae (Lepidoptera) fauna of Tibet and the adjacent regions (II) A systematic survey of the Tibetan Noctuidae fauna based on the material of the SchSfer-expedition (1938-1939) and recent expeditions (1993-1997)(Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Esperiana, 6:69-184.

Hu SC, 1987. A preliminary report on the main pest insects on leguminous crops in Tibet. Plant Protection, 13(6):2-3

Josa J, et al. , 1979. Fauna lepidopterol=gica d'Andorra. In: El Patrimoni natural d'Andorra. Els sistemes naturals andorrans i llur utilització. Ketres editora. Departament d'Agricultura del MI. Consell General de les Valls d'Andorra. Barcelona.

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Lipa JJ; Ziemnicka J; Lipa I, 1971. Infectivity of the cytoplasmic polyhedrosis virus Smithiavirus agrotidis Lipa to eight Noctuid species (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae). Prace Naukowe Instytutu Ochrony Roslin, 13(1):107-123

Lipa JJ; Ziemnicka J; Lipa I, 1972. Studies on the susceptibility of nine Noctuids (Noctuidae) to infection with the nuclear polyhedrosis virus Borrelina-virus agrotidis Lipa, Ziemnicka & Gudz-Gorban. Prace Naukowe Instytutu Ochrony Roslin, 14(1):47-64

Lipa JT; Ziemnicka J, 1972. The susceptibility of seven Noctuid species (Noctuidae, Lepidoptera) to infection with a granulosis virus isolated from the winter cutworm Agrotis segetum (Schiff.). Prace Naukowe Instytutu Ochrony Roslin, 14(1):35-46

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S"bchev MA, 1983. Interaction between synthetic sex pheromones of the cabbage moth (Mamestra brassicae L.) and the gamma moth (Autographa gamma L.) (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in traps. Ekologiya, Bulgaria, 11:80-83

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Struble DL; Swailes GE, 1975. A sex attractant for the clover cutworm, Scotogramma trifolii (Rottenberg), a mixture of Z-11-hexadecen-1-ol acetate and Z-11-hexadecen-1-ol. Environmental Entomology, 4(4):632-636

Struble DL; Swailes GE, 1977. Sex attractant for clover cutworm, Scotogramma trifolii: field tests with various ratios of Z-11-hexadecen-1-yl acetate and Z-11-hexadecen-1-ol, and with various quantities of attractant on two types of carriers. Canadian Entomologist, 109(3):369-373

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Subchev MA; Stanimirova LS; Milkova TS, 1987. The effect of compounds related to cis-11-hexadecenyl acetate on its attractiveness to the males of Mamestra brassicae L. (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and some other noctuid species. Folia Biologica, Poland, 35(3-4):143-150

Subchev MA; Stanimirova LS; Stoilov IL, 1985. Effect of cis-11-hexadecenol and its derivatives on the pheromonal activity of cis-11-hexadecenyl acetate to males of three noctuid species (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae) in field. Ekologiya, Bulgaria, 17:56-61

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Swailes GE; Struble DL, 1979. Variation in catches with sex attractant of the clover cutworm, Scotogramma trifolii, and army cutworm, Euxoa auxiliaris (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), due to trap location. Canadian Entomologist, 111(1):11-14

Sybchev MA; Stanimirova LS; Kovalev BG, 1985. The effect of dose, minor components and a supplementary source of cis-11-hexadecen-1-ol acetate on the attractiveness of the synthetic pheromone of the cabbage moth (Mamestra brassicae L.). Ekologiya, Bulgaria, 15:43-49

Szeoke K; Szendrey L, 1997. Damage by bright line clover moth (Discestra trifolii Hufnagel 1766) in sugarbeet and maize. No^umlaut~ve^acute~nyve^acute~delem, 33(8):395-397; 18 ref.

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