Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Scolytus scolytus
(large elm bark beetle)

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Datasheet

Scolytus scolytus (large elm bark beetle)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 29 March 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Vector of Plant Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Scolytus scolytus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • large elm bark beetle
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
S. scolytus adult: frontal view.
TitleAdult
CaptionS. scolytus adult: frontal view.
CopyrightMassimo Faccoli
S. scolytus adult: frontal view.
AdultS. scolytus adult: frontal view.Massimo Faccoli
Lateral view of S. scolytus adult.
TitleAdult
CaptionLateral view of S. scolytus adult.
CopyrightMassimo Faccoli
Lateral view of S. scolytus adult.
AdultLateral view of S. scolytus adult.Massimo Faccoli
Dorsal view of adult S. scolytus.
TitleAdult
CaptionDorsal view of adult S. scolytus.
CopyrightMassimo Faccoli
Dorsal view of adult S. scolytus.
AdultDorsal view of adult S. scolytus.Massimo Faccoli
Scolytus gallery system excavated in the elm bark.
TitleGalleries
CaptionScolytus gallery system excavated in the elm bark.
CopyrightMassimo Faccoli
Scolytus gallery system excavated in the elm bark.
GalleriesScolytus gallery system excavated in the elm bark.Massimo Faccoli
Ophiostoma ulmi (Dutch elm disease); SEM of Scolytus scolytus, the beetle vector of Dutch elm disease.
TitleVector
CaptionOphiostoma ulmi (Dutch elm disease); SEM of Scolytus scolytus, the beetle vector of Dutch elm disease.
Copyright©Rudy J. Scheffer
Ophiostoma ulmi (Dutch elm disease); SEM of Scolytus scolytus, the beetle vector of Dutch elm disease.
VectorOphiostoma ulmi (Dutch elm disease); SEM of Scolytus scolytus, the beetle vector of Dutch elm disease.©Rudy J. Scheffer
Scolytus gallery system excavated in the elm phloem.
TitlePhloem galleries
CaptionScolytus gallery system excavated in the elm phloem.
CopyrightMassimo Faccoli
Scolytus gallery system excavated in the elm phloem.
Phloem galleriesScolytus gallery system excavated in the elm phloem.Massimo Faccoli
Ophiostoma ulmi (Dutch elm disease); larvae of the Dutch elm disease vector, Scolytus scolytus (Coleoptera), under bark. Note feeding galleries.
TitleVector larvae
CaptionOphiostoma ulmi (Dutch elm disease); larvae of the Dutch elm disease vector, Scolytus scolytus (Coleoptera), under bark. Note feeding galleries.
Copyright©Rudy J. Scheffer
Ophiostoma ulmi (Dutch elm disease); larvae of the Dutch elm disease vector, Scolytus scolytus (Coleoptera), under bark. Note feeding galleries.
Vector larvaeOphiostoma ulmi (Dutch elm disease); larvae of the Dutch elm disease vector, Scolytus scolytus (Coleoptera), under bark. Note feeding galleries.©Rudy J. Scheffer
Scolytus maturation feeding: short galleries excavated by adults at the twig crotches.
TitleMaturation feeding
CaptionScolytus maturation feeding: short galleries excavated by adults at the twig crotches.
CopyrightMassimo Faccoli
Scolytus maturation feeding: short galleries excavated by adults at the twig crotches.
Maturation feedingScolytus maturation feeding: short galleries excavated by adults at the twig crotches.Massimo Faccoli
Scolytus maturation feeding: short galleries excavated by adults at the twig crotches.
TitleMaturation feeding
CaptionScolytus maturation feeding: short galleries excavated by adults at the twig crotches.
CopyrightMassimo Faccoli
Scolytus maturation feeding: short galleries excavated by adults at the twig crotches.
Maturation feedingScolytus maturation feeding: short galleries excavated by adults at the twig crotches.Massimo Faccoli
Scolytus maturation feeding: short galleries excavated by adults at the twig crotches.
TitleMaturation feeding
CaptionScolytus maturation feeding: short galleries excavated by adults at the twig crotches.
CopyrightMassimo Faccoli
Scolytus maturation feeding: short galleries excavated by adults at the twig crotches.
Maturation feedingScolytus maturation feeding: short galleries excavated by adults at the twig crotches.Massimo Faccoli

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Scolytus scolytus (Fabricius, 1775)

Preferred Common Name

  • large elm bark beetle

Other Scientific Names

  • Bostrichus scolytus Fabricius, 1775
  • Dermestes geoffroi Goeze, 1777
  • Dermestes scolythus Sulzer, 1776
  • Dermestes scolytus geoffroi Goeze, 1777
  • Eccoptogaster scolytus (Fabricius, 1775)
  • Ekkoptogaster scolytus (Fabricius, 1775)
  • Hylesinus scolytus (Fabricius, 1775)
  • Ips scolytus (Fabricius, 1775)
  • Scolytus californicus LeConte, 1868
  • Scolytus destructor Olivier, 1795
  • Scolytus destructor var. ciliaris Rey, 1892
  • Scolytus fuchsi Reitter, 1913
  • Scolytus niger Geoffroy, 1785
  • Scolytus punctatus Müller, 1776
  • Scolytus scolytus var. variabilis Sokanovsky, 1958

International Common Names

  • English: bark beetle, elm; bark beetle, large elm; elm bark beetle; large European elm bark beetle
  • Spanish: barrenillo del olmo; barrenillo grande del olmo
  • French: grand scolyte européen de l'orme; grand, scolyte, de l'orme
  • Russian: bol'shoi il'movyi sabolonnik
  • Portuguese: escolítido grande

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Großer Ulmensplintkäfer; Splintkaefer, Grosser Ulmen-
  • Italy: grande scolitide dell'olmo; Scolito dell'olmo, grande
  • Netherlands: Iepenspintkever, groote; Iepspintkever, grote
  • Romania: gândacul mare al scoartei ulmului
  • Slovenia: veliki brestov beljavar
  • Sweden: större almsplintborre

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Coleoptera
  •                         Family: Scolytidae
  •                             Genus: Scolytus
  •                                 Species: Scolytus scolytus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ArmeniaPresentSchedl, 1957
AzerbaijanPresentSchedl, 1957; Farahbakhsh, 1961
Georgia (Republic of)PresentSchedl, 1957; Kakuliya and Devdariani, 1967
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Jammu and KashmirPresentBeeson, 1941
IranWidespreadStark, 1952; Farahbakhsh, 1961; Michalski, 1973
TajikistanPresentMakhmadzieev and Shukronaev, 1983
TurkeyPresentWood and Bright, 1992

Europe

AlbaniaPresentSchedl, 1948
AndorraPresentSchedl, 1948
AustriaWidespreadSchedl, 1948; Schroder, 1974; Wood and Bright, 1992
BelarusPresentSchedl, 1948
BelgiumWidespreadMeulemans et al., 1979; Merlin, 1984; Wood and Bright, 1992
Bosnia-HercegovinaPresentSchedl, 1948
BulgariaWidespread****Purrini, 1975; Wood and Bright, 1992
CroatiaPresentVajda, 1952; Maksimovic et al., 1971
Czech RepublicWidespreadLipa, 1968
Czechoslovakia (former)Widespread****Wood and Bright, 1992
DenmarkRestricted distributionBalachowsky, 1949; Lekander et al., 1977; Harding and Ravn, 1982; De Andersen, 1983
FranceWidespreadBalachowsky, 1949
GermanyWidespreadPrell, 1930; Vite et al., 1976; Klimetzek et al., 1981; Klimetzek and Kopp, 1983; Sengonca and Leisse, 1984
GreeceRestricted distributionSchedl, 1948; Wood and Bright, 1992
HungaryWidespreadWood and Bright, 1992
IrelandWidespreadDella Beffa, 1961
ItalyWidespreadDella Beffa, 1961; Masutti, 1995
LiechtensteinPresentSchedl, 1948
LithuaniaPresentKamyshnyi, 1925
LuxembourgWidespreadWood and Bright, 1992
MoldovaPresentSchedl, 1948
MonacoPresentSchedl, 1948
NetherlandsWidespreadMinks & van Deventer, 1978; Roepke, 1940; Brugge, 1979
NorwayAbsent, invalid recordLekander et al., 1977
PolandWidespreadSiemaszko, 1939; Lipa, 1968; Lipa and Chmielewski, 1977
PortugalRestricted distributionWood and Bright, 1992
RomaniaRestricted distributionGuran, 1933; Simionescu and Mihalache, 2000
Russian FederationPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Central RussiaPresentSmirnov, 1935; Stark, 1952; Lindeman, 1963
-SiberiaPresentKondakov SYu, 2002
-Southern RussiaPresentZvierezomb-Zubovsky, 1918; Gavalov, 1927; Pyatnitzkii, 1932; Stark, 1952
SerbiaPresentManojlovic and Sivcev, 1995a; Manojlovic and Sivcev, 1995b; Manojlovic, 1986
SlovakiaWidespreadLipa, 1968; Kalina, 1969; Wood and Bright, 1992
SloveniaPresentTitovsek, 1988
SpainWidespreadEspanol, 1964; Pajares and Arevalo, 1987; Riba, 1996
SwedenRestricted distribution****Lekander et al., 1977; Austara et al., 1984
SwitzerlandRestricted distributionAngst et al., 1982
UKWidespreadBratton, 1934; Fisher, 1937; Beaver, 1967; Beaver, 1969; Gibbs, 1974
UkrainePresentBogdanov-Kat'kov, 1926

Growth Stages

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List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / dieback
Growing point / internal feeding; boring
Growing point / lesions
Growing point / wilt
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Stems / internal feeding
Stems / mycelium present
Stems / visible frass
Whole plant / frass visible
Whole plant / internal feeding
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aulonium trisulcum Predator
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen
Cheiropachus quadrum Parasite Larvae
Coeloides scolyticida Parasite Larvae
Dendrosoter protuberans Parasite UK Ulmus
Dinotiscus aponius Parasite Larvae
Dinotiscus eupterus Parasite Larvae
Ecphylus silesiacus Parasite Larvae
Ektaphelenchus scolyti Pathogen
Entedon ergias Parasite
Medetera impigra Predator Larvae
Medetera nitida Predator Larvae
Metarhizium anisopliae Pathogen
Odinia meijerei Predator
Paecilomyces farinosus Pathogen
Parasitaphelenchus oldhami Pathogen
Pyemotes scolyti Parasite
Rhopalicus tutele Parasite Larvae
Spathius rubidus Parasite

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark adults; eggs; larvae; nymphs; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults; eggs; larvae; nymphs; pupae Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

References

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Agrios GN, 1988. Plant diseases caused by fungi. New York, USA: Academic Press, 3:265-509.

Angst ME; Lanier GN; Mueller CA; Jans PA; Benz G, 1982. Response of Scolytus multistriatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) to alpha - and delta -multistriatin in Switzerland. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 8(11):1345-1352

Austara ; Annila E; Bejer B; Ehnstrom B, 1984. Insect pests in forests of the nordic countries 19771981. Fauna Norvegica, B, 31(1):8-15

Baker JE; Norris DM, 1967. A feeding stimulant for Scolytus multistriatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) isolated from the bark of Ulmus americana. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 60:1213-1215.

Baker JE; Rainey DP; Norris DM; Strong FM, 1968. R-Hydroxybenzaldehyde and other phenolics as feeding stimulants for the smaller European elm bark beetle. Forest Science, 14:91-95.

Balachowsky AS, 1949. Coleopteres, Scolytides. Faune de France 50. Paris, France: Lechevalier.

Beaver RA, 1965. Two braconids and a pteromalid (Hymenoptera) new to Britain. Entomologist, London, 98:238-240.

Beaver RA, 1966. Notes on the fauna associated with elm bark beetles in Wytham Wood, Berks. - I Coleoptera. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 102:163-170.

Beaver RA, 1966. The biology and immature stages of Entedon leucogramma (Ratzeburg) (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) a parasite of bark beetles. Proceedings of the Royal Entomological Society of London, 41(1/3):37-41.

Beaver RA, 1966. The biology and immature stages of two species of Medetera (Diptera: Dolichopodidae) associated with the bark beetle Scolytus scolytus (F.). Proceedings, Royal Entomological Society, London, 41A(10/12):145-54.

Beaver RA, 1967. The regulation of population density in the bark beetle Scolytus scolytus (F.). Journal of Animal Ecology, 36:435-451.

Beaver RA, 1969. Natality, mortality and control of the Elm bark beetle Scolytus scolytus (F.) (Col., Scolytidae). Bulletin of Entomological Research, 59:537-540.

Beeson CFC, 1941. The ecology and control of the forest insects of India and the neighbouring countries. Dehra Dun, India: Published privately, Vasant Press (Copyright: Government of India).

Begley MJ; Grove JF, 1985. Metabolic products of Phomopsis oblonga. Part 1. 3a, 5a, 6, 7, 8, 9, 9a, 9b-octahydro-7, 9b-dimethylnaphto (1, 2-c) furan (3H)-one (oblongide). J. Chem. Soc. Perkin. Trans., 1:861-863.

Bejer B, 1979. Elm bark-beetles and their role in elm disease. Ugeskrift for Jordbrug, No. 16-18:395-398

Betrem JG, 1929. De iepenziekte en de iepenspintkevers Tijdschr Plantenziekten, 35:272-289.

Birch MC; Paine TD; Miller JC, 1981. Effectiveness of pheromone mass-trapping of the smaller European elm bark beetle. California Agriculture, 35(1/2):6-7

Blight MM; King CJ; Wadhams LJ; Wenham MJ, 1978. Attraction of Scolytus scolytus (F.) to the components of Multilure, the aggregation pheromone of S. multistriatus (Marsham) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Experientia, 34(9):1119-1120

Blight MM; Wadhams LJ; Wenham MJ, 1978. Volatiles associated with unmated Scolytus scolytus beetles on English elm: differential production of alpha -multistriatin and 4-methyl-3-heptanol, and their activities in a laboratory bioassay. Insect Biochemistry, 8(3):135-142

Bogdanov-Kat'kov NN, 1926. Insects injurious to vegetable crops. 2 ed., Leningrad, Muisl, 1-112.

Bosman BT; Meijeraan JW, 1969. New data on some Hymenoptera parasitic on Elm bark beetles in the Netherlands. Ned. Bosb. Tijdschr., 41:325-330.

Brasier CM, 1991. Ophiostoma novo-ulmi sp. nov., causative agent of current Dutch elm disease pandemics. Mycopathologia, 115(3):151-161

Bratton EB, 1934. A record of the parasitic mite - Pediculoides ventricosus (Newp.) - in Monmouthshire. Trans. Cardiff Nat. Soc., 67:109-110.

Brugge B, 1979. Coleoptera collected from elm bark. Entomologische Berichten, 39(3):33-34

Buisman C, 1932. De olmen- of iepenziekte. Dirix-Van Riet K., Antwerpen, 1-15.

Burdekin D, 1979. Beetle and fungus: The unholy alliance. London, UK: Heinemann, 65-79.

Butovitsch VV, 1929. Studien uber die Morphologie und Systematik palaarktisken Splintkafer. Stettiner Entomologische Zeitung., 90:1-80.

Byers JA, 1989. Chemical ecology of bark beetles. Experientia, 45(3):271-283

Byers JA, 1995. Host-tree chemistry affecting colonization in bark beetles. In: CardT RT, Bell WJ, eds. Chemical Ecology of Insects, 2. New York, USA: Chapman & Hall, 154-213.

Byers JA, 1996. An encounter rate model of bark beetle populations searching at random for susceptible host trees. Ecol. Model, 91:57-66.

Campana RJ; Stipes RJ, 1981. Biotic Disease, Wilts, Dutch elm disease: Control - Part 1. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: The American Phytopathological Society, 18-22.

Claydon N; Grove JF; Pople M, 1985. Elm bark beetle boring and feeding deterrents from Phomopsis oblonga. Phytochemistry, 24(5):937-943

Cong Hao N; Cuu Thi Huong Giang N; Cuu Khoa N; Thanh Son N, 1997. Synthesis and application of insect attractants in Vietnam. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 18(1/4):59-68; 19 ref.

Della Beffa G, 1961. Insects Harmful to Agriculture and Modern Methods and Means of Control. 3rd edition. Gli insetti dannosi allnagricoltura ed i moderni metodi e mezzi di lotta. Milan, Italy: V. Hoepli.

Doberski JW, 1980. Mite populations on elm logs infested by European elm bark beetles. Zeitschrift fnr Angewandte Entomologie, 89(1):13-22

Doberski JW, 1981. Comparative laboratory studies on three fungal pathogens of the elm bark beetle Scolytus scolytus: pathogenicity of Beauveria bassiana, Metarhizium anisoplip, and Ppcilomyces farinosus to larvae and adults of S. scolytus. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 37(2):188-194

Doskotch RW; Mikhail AA; Chatterji SK, 1973. Structure of the water-soluble feeding stimulant for Scolytus multistriatus: a revision. Phytochemistry, 12:1153-1155.

Eggers H, 1912. Beitrage zur Kenntnis der Borkenkafer. Entomologische Blatter, 8:203-211.

Escherich K, 1923. Die Forstinsekten Mitteleuropas II. Berlin, Germany: Paul Parey, 1-663.

Espanol F, 1964. Un enemigo de los barrenillos del olmo en los alrededores de Jaca. Boln Serv. Plagas For., 7:52-54.

Fabricius JCH, 1775. Systema Entomologiae. Flensburgi-Lipsiae. K÷rte, 1-832.

Fabricius JCH, 1801. Systema eleutheratorum. Kiliae Vol. I. Vol. II, 1-687.

Faccoli M, 2001. Elm bark beetles and Dutch elm disease: tests of combined control. Journal of Pest Science, 74:22-29.

Faccoli M; Battisti A, 1997. Observations on the transmission of Ophiostoma ulmi by the Smaller Elm Bark Beetles (Scolytus spp.). Meeting IUFRO: Integrating Cultural Tactics Into The Management of Bark Beetles and Reforestation Pest. Vallombrosa (FI), 1-3 September 1996: 172-176.

Faccoli M; Zanocco D; Battisti A; Masutti L, 1998. Chiave semplificata per la determinazione degli Scolytus Geoffroy (Coleoptera Scolytidae) italiani viventi sugli olmi. Redia, 81:183-197.

Farahbakhsh G, 1961. A Checklist of Economically Important Insects and other Enemies of Plants and Agricultural Products in Iran. Tehran, Iran: Department of Plant Protection, Ministry of Agriculture.

Finney JR; Walker C, 1977. The DD-136 strain of Neoaplectana sp. as a potential biological control agent for the European elm bark beetle, Scolytus scolytus. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 29(1):7-9

Fisher RC, 1937. The Genus Scolytus in Great Britain, with notes on the structure of Scolytus destructor Ol. Annals of Applied Biology, 24:110-130.

Fransen JJ, 1939. Lepenziekte, iepenspintkevers en beider bestrijding. Wageningen, Netherlands: Veenman & Zonen, 1-118.

Fursov V, 1997. Euderus lindemani sp. n. (Hymenoptera, Chalcidoidea, Eulophidae): parasite of Scolytus kirschi (Coleoptera, Scolytidae) larvae. Zoologicheskii Zhurnal, 76:766-768.

Gavalov II, 1927. On some injurious insects observed in the Crimea, 1922-25. Acta Soc. Ent. Stauropol., 1:8-16.

Gibbs JN, 1974. Biology of Dutch elm disease Ceratocystis ulmi. Forest Record, No. 94:9 pp.

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Gilbert BL; Baker JE; Norris DM, 1967. Juglone (5-hydroxy 1, 4-naphthoquinone) from Carya ovata, a deterrent to feeding by Scolytus multistriatus. J. Insect Physiol., 13:1453-1459.

Goeze JAE, 1777. Entomologische beitrage zu des Ritter Linne, 12 Ausgabe, des Natursystems. Weidmanns, Erben und Reich, Leipzig, 1-736.

Gore WE; Pearce GT; Lanier GN; Simeone JB; Silverstein RM; Peacock JW; Cuthbert RA, 1977. Aggregation attractant of the European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus: production of individual components and related aggregation behavior. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 3(4):429-446

Graham MWR, 1969. The Pteromalidae of north-western Europe (Hymenoptera: Chalcidoidea). London, UK: Bulletin of the British Museum (Natural History), Entomology, Supplement, 16, 1-908.

Grissell EE, 1981. The identity of Nearctic Cerocephala Westwood (Hymenoptera: Pteromalidae). Proceedings of the Entomological Society of Washington, 83(4):620-624

Guran I, 1933. Observatiuni asupra atacului scolytidaelor ulmului. Rev. Padurilor, 45:225-236.

Harding S; Ravn HP, 1982. Danske fund af de tre elmebarkbillearter i relation til elmesygen. Tidsskrift for Planteavl, 86:477-495.

Harvey WR; Cioffi M; Dow JAT; Wolfersberger MG, 1983. Potassium ion transport ATPase in insect epithelia. Journal of Experimental Biology, 106:91-117; [4 pl., 7 fig.]; 3 pp. of ref.

Hedqvist KJ, 1963. Die Feinde der Borkenkafer in Schweden I Erzwespe (Chalcidoidea)-Studia Forestalia Suecica, 11:1-176.

Hedqvist KJ, 1998. Bark beetle enemies in Sweden II. Braconidae (Hymenoptera) Scandinavian Entomology Ltd, Sandby, 52:3-85.

Herbst JFW, 1793. Natursystem aller bekannten und auslandischen Insekten, Vol. 5. Berlin, 1-392.

Heybroek HM; Elgersma DM; Scheffer RJ, 1982. Dutch elm disease: an ecological accident. Outlook on Agriculture, 11(1):1-9

Hofmann C; Vanderbruggen H; Höfte H; Rie Jvan; Jansens S; Mellaert Hvan, 1988. Specificity of Bacillus thuringiensis d-endotoxins is correlated with the presence of high-affinity binding sites in the brush border membrane of target insect midguts. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 85(21):7844-7848; 31 ref.

Hubbes T, 1999. The American elm and Dutch elm disease. Forestry Chronicle, 75:265-273.

Hunt DJ; Hague NGM, 1974. A redescription of Parasitaphelenchus oldhami Ruhm. Nematologica, 20:174-180.

Hunt DJ; Hague NGM, 1976. The bionomics of Crypapelenchoides scolyti n. comb., syn. Ektaphelenchus scolyti Ruhm, 1956, (Nematoda: Aphelenchoididae) a nematode associate of Scolytus scolytus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Nematologica, 22(2):212-216

Höfte H; Whiteley HR, 1989. Insecticidal crystal proteins of Bacillus thuringiensis.. Microbiological Reviews, 53(2):242-255; 106 ref.

Jassim HK; Foster HA; Fairhurst CP, 1990. Biological control of Dutch elm disease: Bacillus thuringiensis as a potential control agent for Scolytus scolytus and S. multistriatus.. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 69(4):563-568; 24 ref.

Jassim HK; Foster HA; Fairhurst CP, 1990. Biological control of Dutch elm disease: larvicidal activity of Trichoderma harzianum, T. polysporum and Scytalidium lignicola in Scolytus scolytus and S. multistriatus reared in artificial culture. Annals of Applied Biology, 117(1):187-196

Jin H; Webster GRB, 1998. Persistence, penetration, and surface availability of cypermethrin and its major degradation products in elm bark. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry, 46(7):2851-2857; 13 ref.

Kakuliya GA; Devdariani TsG, 1967. Nematode fauna of Scolytus scolytus in eastern Georgian SSR. Soobshcheniya Akademii Nauk Gruzinskoi SSR, 46(2):469-474

Kalina V, 1969. Beitrag zur Kenntnis der Larven europaischer Borkenkafer II (Col., Scolytidae), III (Col., Scolytidae). Studia Entomologica Forestalia, 3:13-22.

Kamyshnyi NS, 1925. Forest pests and their control in the Kharkow government in 1924. Prot. Plants Ukraine, 1-2:14.

Karnosky DF, 1979. Dutch elm disease: a review of the history, environmental implications control, and research needs. Environmental Conservation, 6(4):311-322

Kennedy BH, 1984. Effect of multilure and its components on parasites of Scolytus multistriatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Journal of Chemical Ecology, 10(2):373-385

Kielczewski B; Balazy S; Seniczak S, 1973. The role of mites in the limitation of pest insects in the forest. Zesz. Probl. Postepow. Nauk. Roln., 144:131-138.

Kirkendall LR, 1983. The evolution of mating systems in bark and ambrosia beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae and Platypodidae). Zoological Journal of the Linnean Society, 77(4):293-352

Kirkendall LR; Kent DS; Raffa KF, 1997. Interactions among males, females and offspring in bark and ambrosia beetles: the significance of living in tunnels for the evolution of social behavior. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 181-215.

Kletecka Z, 1996. The xylophagus beetles (Insecta, Coleoptera) community and its succession on Scotch elm (Ulmus glabra) branches. Biolo^acute~gia (Bratislava), 51(2):143-152; 15 ref.

Klimetzek D; Baader EJ; Helbig W, 1981. The suitability of pheromone traps for monitoring elm bark-beetles. Mitteilungen der Deutschen Gesellschaft fur Allgemeine und Angewandte Entomologie, 2(3/5):311-313

Klimetzek D; Kopp HP, 1983. Scolytid pheromone research in West Germany. Forestry Commission Bulletin, No. 60:50-58

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