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Datasheet

Scolytus multistriatus
(smaller European elm bark beetle)

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Datasheet

Scolytus multistriatus (smaller European elm bark beetle)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 22 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Vector of Plant Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Scolytus multistriatus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • smaller European elm bark beetle
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
S. multistriatus: dorsal view of female (a) and male (b).
TitleAdults
CaptionS. multistriatus: dorsal view of female (a) and male (b).
CopyrightBozidar Manojlovic
S. multistriatus: dorsal view of female (a) and male (b).
AdultsS. multistriatus: dorsal view of female (a) and male (b).Bozidar Manojlovic
S. multistriatus: lateral view of male.
TitleAdult
CaptionS. multistriatus: lateral view of male.
CopyrightBozidar Manojlovic
S. multistriatus: lateral view of male.
AdultS. multistriatus: lateral view of male.Bozidar Manojlovic
S. multistriatus: final instar larva.
TitleLarvae
CaptionS. multistriatus: final instar larva.
CopyrightBozidar Manojlovic
S. multistriatus: final instar larva.
LarvaeS. multistriatus: final instar larva.Bozidar Manojlovic
S. multistriatus: maternal gallery.
TitleMaternal gallery
CaptionS. multistriatus: maternal gallery.
CopyrightBozidar Manojlovic
S. multistriatus: maternal gallery.
Maternal galleryS. multistriatus: maternal gallery.Bozidar Manojlovic

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham, 1802)

Preferred Common Name

  • smaller European elm bark beetle

Other Scientific Names

  • Eccoptogaster abhorrens Wichmann, 1913
  • Eccoptogaster multistriatus (Marsham, 1802)
  • Ips multistriatus Marsham 1802
  • Scolytus affinis (Eggers, 1914)
  • Scolytus flavicornis Chevrolat, 1829
  • Scolytus javanus Chapuis, 1869
  • Scolytus nodifer Reitter, 1913
  • Scolytus orientalis (Eggers, 1910)
  • Scolytus papuanus Schedl, 1936
  • Scolytus therondi Hoffman, 1939
  • Scolytus ulmi Redtenbacher, 1849

International Common Names

  • English: bark beetle, European elm; bark beetle, lesser European elm; bark beetle, smaller European elm; Dutch elm beetle; European bark beetle; European elm bark beetle; small elm bark beetle; small European bark beetle
  • Spanish: barrenillo del olmo
  • French: petit scolyte européen de l'orme; scolyte de l'orme; scolyte de l'orme, petit; scolyte européen de l'orme; scolyte europeen de l'orme, petit

Local Common Names

  • Belgium: petit scolyte
  • Finland: kaarnakuoriaiset
  • Germany: Der Ulmensplintkäfer; Splintkaefer, Kleiner Ulmen-
  • Hungary: nagy-szíjácsszú
  • Italy: piccolo scolitide dell'olmo; scolitide dell'olmo; Scolito dell'olmo, piccolo
  • Netherlands: Iepenspintkever, kleine
  • Poland: oglodek wielorzedowy
  • Serbia: mali brestov potkornjak
  • Slovakia: podkôrnik pásový
  • Slovenia: mali brestov beljavar

EPPO code

  • SCOLMU (Scolytus multistriatus)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Coleoptera
  •                         Family: Scolytidae
  •                             Genus: Scolytus
  •                                 Species: Scolytus multistriatus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 04 Sep 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

AlgeriaPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
EgyptPresentEPPO (2020)

Asia

AzerbaijanPresentAfsharpour and Adeli (1973)
ChinaPresentDu (1987)
IndiaPresentGilmour et al. (1975)
IranPresent, WidespreadAfsharpour and Adeli (1973); Ostovan and Kamali (1996); Ostovan and Kamali (1997); EPPO (2020)
KazakhstanPresentAfsharpour and Adeli (1973); Kopyl (1983)
LebanonPresentMoussa and Tannouri (2018)
TajikistanPresentMakhmadzieev and Shukronaev (1983)
TurkeyPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Hegnauer (1975)
TurkmenistanPresentMakhmadzieev and Shukronaev (1983); Krivosheina and Tokgaev (1985)
UzbekistanPresentKhudaĭbergenov and Khodzhaev (1991)
VietnamPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Cong Hao et al., 1997

Europe

AlbaniaPresent, WidespreadKaraman (1971)
AndorraPresent, WidespreadPajares and Arévalo (1987)
AustriaPresent, WidespreadSchroder (1974); EPPO (2020)
BelarusPresentVorontsov (1987); Mandel'shtam and Popovichev (2000)
BelgiumPresent, WidespreadMerlin (1984); EPPO (2020)
Bosnia and HerzegovinaPresent, WidespreadMaksimović (1986)
BulgariaPresent, WidespreadKailides (1969); EPPO (2020)
CroatiaPresentMaksimović and Motal (1983); Maksimović (1986); EPPO (2020)
CzechiaPresent, WidespreadWEISER (1968); EPPO (2020)
CzechoslovakiaPresent, WidespreadWEISER (1968); EPPO (2014)
Federal Republic of YugoslaviaPresent, WidespreadManojlović (1986); Manojlović (1986a)
DenmarkPresent, LocalizedHarding and Ravn (1982); EPPO (2020)
EstoniaPresentEPPO (2020)
FrancePresent, WidespreadBoullard (1973); Mahieu (1979); Poinar and Deschamps (1981); EPPO (2020)
-CorsicaPresent, WidespreadSacchetti et al. (1990); Basset et al. (1992); Faccoli et al. (1998); EPPO (2020)
GermanyPresent, WidespreadKlimetzek and Kopp (1983); Șengonca and Leisse (1984); Schwenke (1985); EPPO (2020)
GreecePresent, LocalizedKailides (1969); EPPO (2020)
HungaryPresent, WidespreadMaksimović (1986); EPPO (2020)
IrelandPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
ItalyPresent, WidespreadSacchetti et al. (1990); Basset et al. (1992); Faccoli et al. (1998); EPPO (2020)
-SardiniaPresentEPPO (2020)
LuxembourgPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
MoldovaPresent, WidespreadWebber (1981)
NetherlandsPresent, WidespreadRossem et al. (1979); EPPO (2020)
North MacedoniaPresent, WidespreadKaraman (1971)
PolandPresent, WidespreadLipa and Chmielewski (1977); EPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
PortugalPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
RomaniaPresent, LocalizedMaksimović (1986); EPPO (2020)
RussiaPresent, WidespreadVorontsov (1987); Mandel'shtam and Popovichev (2000); EPPO (2020)
-Central RussiaPresentEPPO (2020)
-Russia (Europe)PresentEPPO (2020)
SerbiaPresent, WidespreadMaksimović (1986); EPPO (2020)
Serbia and MontenegroPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
SlovakiaPresent, WidespreadWEISER (1968)
SloveniaPresentKaraman (1971); EPPO (2020)
SpainPresent, WidespreadPajares and Arévalo (1987); EPPO (2020)
SwedenPresentSchlyter et al. (1987)
SwitzerlandPresent, LocalizedSchroder (1974); Angst et al. (1982); EPPO (2020)
UkrainePresentVorontsov (1987); Mandel'shtam and Popovichev (2000); EPPO (2020)
United KingdomPresent, WidespreadBlight et al. (1982); King and Fielding (1983); EPPO (2020)
-Channel IslandsPresentEPPO (2020)
-EnglandPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
-ScotlandPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)

North America

CanadaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
-ManitobaPresent, WidespreadButh and Ellis (1981); Westwood (1991)
-New BrunswickPresentSterner et al. (1976); EPPO (2020)
-Nova ScotiaPresent, WidespreadBrasier (1996); EPPO (2020)
-OntarioPresent, LocalizedGardiner (1976); Roden (1981); Roy et al. (1988); EPPO (2020)
-QuebecPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020)
MexicoPresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: Mendez Montiel & Equihua Martinez, 1999
United StatesPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
-AlabamaPresentEPPO (2020)
-ArkansasPresentEPPO (2020)
-CaliforniaPresentHajek and Dahlsten (1985); Smiley and Moser (1985); Svihra (1987); EPPO (2020)
-ColoradoPresentHostetler and Brewer (1976); Cuthbert and Peacock (1979); Boutz et al. (1985); EPPO (2020)
-ConnecticutPresentDOANE (1959); EPPO (2020)
-DelawarePresentLanier (1979); EPPO (2020)
-GeorgiaPresentBerisford et al. (1980); Hanula and Berisford (1984); EPPO (2020)
-IdahoPresentEPPO (2020)
-IllinoisPresent, WidespreadCuthbert and Peacock (1979); Neely (1984)
-IndianaPresentEPPO (2020)
-IowaPresentEPPO (2020)
-KansasPresentThompson et al. (1978); EPPO (2020)
-KentuckyPresentEPPO (2020)
-LouisianaPresentEPPO (2020)
-MainePresentDickens et al. (1990)
-MarylandPresentPeacock (1979); EPPO (2020)
-MassachusettsPresentCuthbert et al. (1973); Peacock and Cuthbert (1975); EPPO (2020)
-MichiganPresentBarger (1984); Cannon et al. (1985); Yonker (1990); EPPO (2020)
-MinnesotaPresentGold and Kiesling (1977); Phillipsen et al. (1986); EPPO (2020)
-MississippiPresentDickens et al. (1990)
-MissouriPresentWILLIAMS and BROWN (1969); EPPO (2020)
-MontanaPresentClaflin and Dooling (1973)
-NebraskaPresentEPPO (2020)
-NevadaPresentEPPO (2020)
-New HampshirePresentEPPO (2020)
-New JerseyPresentPEACOCK et al. (1971); EPPO (2020)
-New MexicoPresentMassey (1969); EPPO (2020)
-New YorkPresentLanier and Jones (1985); Millar et al. (1986); EPPO (2020)
-North CarolinaPresentPearce et al. (1975); Lanier (1979); EPPO (2020)
-North DakotaPresentGold and Kiesling (1977); EPPO (2020)
-OhioPresentBarger (1984); Barger and Cannon (1987); EPPO (2020)
-OklahomaPresentLAMDIN et al. (1969); EPPO (2020)
-OregonPresentBrasier (1996); EPPO (2020)
-PennsylvaniaPresentLanier (1979)
-Rhode IslandPresent, WidespreadLanier (1979)
-South CarolinaPresentEPPO (2020)
-South DakotaPresentEPPO (2020)
-TennesseePresentEPPO (2020)
-UtahPresentEPPO (2020)
-VermontPresentEPPO (2020)
-VirginiaPresentLanier (1979); EPPO (2020)
-WashingtonPresentMaloy and Inglis (1978); Brasier (1996); EPPO (2020)
-West VirginiaPresentEPPO (2020)
-WisconsinPresentBarger (1976); Lanier (1979); Krawczyk et al. (1982); EPPO (2020)
-WyomingPresentEPPO (2020)

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, LocalizedFrench et al. (1982); Neumann (1987); Parbery and Rubma (1991); EPPO (2020)
-VictoriaPresentParbery and Rubma (1991)
New ZealandPresentDick et al. (2000); EPPO (2020)

South America

ChilePresentBeéche C. and Muñoz G. (1994)

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Stems / dieback
Stems / external feeding
Stems / internal feeding
Stems / visible frass
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aulonium trisulcum Predator Larvae
Beauveria bassiana Pathogen
Cheiropachus quadrum Parasite Larvae
Coeloides scolyticida Parasite Larvae
Cordyceps militaris Pathogen
Dendrosoter protuberans Parasite Larvae Colorado; USA Ulmus
Dinotiscus aponius Parasite Larvae
Dinotiscus colon Parasite Larvae
Ecphylus silesiacus Parasite Larvae
Entedon ergias Parasite Larvae
Eurytoma morio Parasite Larvae
Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Parasite
Hirsutella thompsonii Pathogen
Lecanicillium lecanii Pathogen
Medetera nitida Predator
Metarhizium anisopliae Pathogen
Nomuraea rileyi Pathogen Larvae
Paecilomyces farinosus Pathogen
Paecilomyces fumosoroseus Pathogen
Parasitaphelenchus oldhami Parasite Larvae
Pyemotes scolyti Predator Larvae/Pupae
Spathius benefactor Parasite
Spathius rubidus Parasite Larvae
Steinernema carpocapsae Parasite

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Land vehicles Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bark adults; eggs; larvae; pupae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults; eggs; larvae; pupae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Wood adults Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Growing medium accompanying plants
Leaves
Roots
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)

References

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Afsharpour F; Adeli E, 1973. The Dutch Elm disease in Iran. Abstracts of Papers, 2nd International Congress of Plant Pathology, Minneapolis, USA, 1973, 0693.

Allen AJW, 1975. Aulonium trisulcum Fourc. (Col., Colydiidae) in Gloucestershire. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 111:1328-1330

Angst ME; Lanier GN; Mueller CA; Jans PA; Benz G, 1982. Response of Scolytus multistriatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) to alpha - and delta -multistriatin in Switzerland. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 8(11):1345-1352

Baker JE; Norris DM, 1968. Further biological and chemical aspects of host selection by Scolytus multistriatus. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 61(5):1248-1255.

Barger JH, 1976. Dutch elm disease and methoxychlor. Research Paper, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, Forest Service, United States Department of Agriculture, NE-353:[1+]5 pp.

Barger JH, 1977. Improved sanitation practice for control of Dutch elm disease. Forest Service Research Paper, United States Department of Agriculture, NE-386:4 pp.

Barger JH, 1984. Evaluation of hydraulically applied methoxychlor to protect American elms from feeding by the smaller European elm bark beetle (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Journal of Economic Entomology, 77(3):794-797

Barger JH; Cannon WN Jr, 1987. Response of smaller European elm bark beetles to pruning wounds on American elm. Journal of Arboriculture, 13(4):102-104

Barson G, 1977. Laboratory evaluation of Beauveria bassiana as a pathogen of the larval stage of the large elm bark beetle, Scolytus scolytus. Journal of Invertebrate Pathology, 29(3):361-366

Bartels JM; Lanier GN, 1974. Emergence and mating in Scolytus multistriatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 67(3):365-370

Basset Y; Favaro A; Springate ND; Battisti A, 1992. Observations on the relative effectiveness of Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham) and Scolytus pygmaeus (Fabricius) (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) as vectors of the Dutch elm disease. Mitteilungen der Schweizerischen Entomologischen Gesellschaft, 65(1-2):61-67

Beaver RA, 1967. Notes on the biology of the parasitic mite Pyemotes scolyti Oud. (Acari: Pyemotidae). Reprint from Entomologist, London, 100(1):9-12.

Becker WB, 1947. Use of a mist blower to apply concentrated sprays to Elms bark beetle "Scolytus multistriatus". Bull. Mass. Agric. Exp. Sta., No. 441.

Beeche C MA; Munoz G RS, 1994. First record of the elm scolytid Scolytus multistriatus Marsham (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in Chile. Revista Chilena de Entomologia, 21:181-183

Berisford CW; Brown EA; Hanula JL; Bailey K; Cordell HK, 1980. Treatment and utilization of wood salvaged from Dutch elm diseased trees. Georgia Forest Research Paper, No. 10.

Birch MC; Miller JC; Paine TD, 1982. Evaluation of two attempts to trap defined populations of Scolytus multistriatus. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 8(1):125-136

Birch MC; Paine TD; Miller JC, 1981. Effectiveness of pheromone mass-trapping of the smaller European elm bark beetle. California Agriculture, 35(1/2):6-7

Blight MM; Henderson NC; Wadhams LJ; Fielding NJ; King CJ, 1982. Field response of elm bark beetles to baits containing 4-methyl-3-heptanone. Naturwissenschaften, 69(11):554-555

Bosman BT; Meijeraan JW, 1969. New data on some Hymenoptera parasitic on Elm bark beetles in the Netherlands. Ned. Bosb. Tijdschr., 41:325-330.

Boullard B, 1973. Dutch Elm disease. Foret Privee Francaise, No. 89, 69-74.

Boutz GE; Brewer JW; Bishop JN, 1985. Capture patterns of Scolytus multistriatus (Marsh.) (Col., Scolytidae) attracted to a pheromone-baited trap. Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 99(4):366-370

Brasier CM, 1990. China and the origins of dutch elm disease: an appraisal. Plant Pathology, 39(1):5-16

Brasier CM, 1996. Low genetic diversity of the Ophiostoma novo-ulmi population in North America. Mycologia, 88(6):951-964; 49 ref.

Brasier CM, 2000. Intercontinental spread and continuing evolution of the Dutch elm research pathogens. Boston, USA: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 61-72.

Burdekin DA, 1979. Beetle and fungus: The unholy alliance. London, UK: Heinemann, 65-79.

Burdekin DA; Gibbs JN, 1974. The control of Dutch elm disease. Leaflet, Forestry Commission, No. 54:7 pp.

Bushing RW, 1965. A synoptic list of parasites of Scolytidae (Coleoptera) in North America north of Mexico. Canadian Entomologist, 97(5):449-492.

Buth JL; Ellis RA, 1981. Trapping elm bark beetles in the city of Winnipeg, with a new record for Scolytus multistriatus, (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in Manitoba. Canadian Entomologist, 113(3):263-264

Cannon WN Jr; Barger JH; Groth LL, 1985. Seasonal detection of visible Dutch elm disease symptoms. Journal of Arboriculture, 11(8):233-235

Choudhury JH, 1979. Flight activity, flight orientation and elm-bolt infestation by Scolytus multistriatus (Marsh.). Flight activity, flight orientation and elm-bolt infestation by Scolytus multistriatus (Marsh.). London University. UK, 204pp.

Claflin LE; Dooling OJ, 1973. Dutch Elm disease in Montana. Plant Disease Reporter, 57(8):701.

Cong Hao N; Cuu Thi Huong Giang N; Cuu Khoa N; Thanh Son N, 1997. Synthesis and application of insect attractants in Vietnam. Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 18(1-4):59-68.

Cuthbert RA; Barger JH; Lincoln AC; Reed PA, 1973. Formulation and application of methoxychlor for elm bark beetle control. Research Paper, Northeastern Forest Experiment Station, USDA Forest Service, NE-283:6 pp.

Cuthbert RA; Peacock JW, 1979. The Forest Service program for mass-trapping Scolytus multistriatus. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America, 25:105-108

Davies D, 1977. Aulonium trisulcum (Geoffr.) (Col., Colydiidae) in Wales. Entomologist's Monthly Magazine, 113:1352-1355

Dick M; Bulman L; Bain J, 2000. Dutch elm disease in New Zealand. New Zealand Tree Grower, 21(4):33-34; 1 ref.

Dickens JC; Jang EB; Light DM; Alford AR, 1990. Enhancement of insect pheromone responses by green leaf volatiles. Naturwissenschaften, 77(1):29-31

Doane CC, 1959. Beauveria bassiana as a pathogen of Scolytus multistriatus. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 52(1):109-111.

Doane CC, 1960. Bacterial pathogens of Scolytus multistriatus as related to crowding. Journal of Insect Pathology, New York, 2(1):24-29.

Doskotch RW; Chatterji SK; Peacock JW, 1970. Elm bark derived feeding stimulants for the smaller European Elm bark beetle. Science, NY, 167(3917):380-382.

Du JW, 1987. Chemical communication in the bark beetle. Chinese Journal of Biological Control, 3(2):91-95

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Faccoli M; Zanocco D; Battisti A; Masutti L, 1998. Brief illustrated key to the identification of elm bark beetles (Scolytus spp.) (Coleoptera, Scolytidae) in Italy. Redia, 81:183-197; 26 ref.

Fairhurst CP(et al), 1983. Bark beetle ecology and research. 10th International Congress of Plant Protection 1983. Volume 3. Proceedings of a conference held at Brighton, England, 20-25 November, 1983. Plant protection for human welfare British Crop Protection Council Croydon UK, 1070

Fairhurst CP; King CJ, 1983. The effect of climatic factors on the dispersal of elm bark beetles. Forestry Commission Bulletin, No. 60:40-46

Fransen JJ, 1939. Lepenziekte, iepenspintkevers en beider bestrijding. Wageningen, Netherlands: Veenman & Zonen, 1-118.

French JRJ; Robinson PJ; Minko G, 1982. Gamma irradiating elm billets reduces their attractancy to the smaller elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham). Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 94(2):175-179

French JRJ; Robinson PJ; Minko G; Pahl PJ, 1984. Response of the European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus, to host bacterial isolates. Journal of Chemical Ecology, 10(7):1133-1149; 25 ref.

Gardiner LM, 1976. Tests of an introduced parasite against the native elm bark beetle. Bi-monthly Research Notes, 32(2):11

Gilmour JW; Alma PJ; Marks GC; Neumann FG; Smith RK; French JRJ; Rosel A; Berrio Moreno J, 1975. The status of forest diseases and insects (America and Australasia). 2nd FAO-IUFRO World Technical Consultation on Forest Diseases and Insects, New Delhi, India, 7-12 April 1975. Rome; Italy: FAO, No. FOR: FAO IUFRO DI, 75:2.

Gold RE; Kiesling RL, 1977. The spread of Dutch elm disease in Minnesota and North Dakota. North Dakota Farm Research, 34(4):15-18

Hajek AE; Dahlsten DL, 1985. Factors influencing the mortality of Scolytus multistriatus (Coeloptera: Scolytidae) in elm branches in California. Canadian Entomologist, 117(7):819-828.

Hajek AE; Dahlsten DL, 1985. Insect and mite associates of Scolytus multistriatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in California. Canadian Entomologist, 117(4):409-421.

Hanula JL; Berisford CW, 1984. Seasonal flight activity of the smaller European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae), and associates in Georgia. Canadian Entomologist, 116(9):1251-1258

Harding S; Ravn HP, 1982. Danske fund af de tre elmebarkbillearter i relation til elmesygen. Tidsskrift for Planteavl, 86:477-495.

Hastings AR; Beroza M, 1961. Screening tests of chemical deterrents. Sta. Paper Northeastern For. Experimental Station, No. 156.

Hegnauer-R, 1975. Secondary metabolites and crop plants. In: Hawkes JG, ed. Crop Genetic Resources for Today and Tomorrow. International Biological Programme 2. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 249-265.

Heybroek HM, 1967. The Dutch Elm disease in the Old World. Proceedings of the 14th Congress of the International Union Forestry Research Organisation, Munich 1967 Pt. V, Sect. 24, 1967 (447-54).

Hostetler BB; Brewer JW, 1976. Survival of Dendrosoter protuberans, a parasitoid of Scolytus multistriatus, in Colorado. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 69(1):85-88

Houle C; Hartmann GC; Wasti SS, 1987. Infectivity of eight species of entomogenous fungi to the larvae of the elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus (Marsham). Journal of the New York Entomological Society, 95(1):14-18

Hunt DJ, 1972. Nematodes associated with the bark beetle vectors of Dutch elm disease. International Symposium of Nematology (11th), European Society of Nematologists, Reading, UK, 3-8 September, 1972. Abstracts., 30-31

Hunt DJ; Hague NGM, 1974. The distribution and abundance of Parasitaphelenchus oldhami, a nematode parasite of Scolytus scolytus and S. multistriatus, the bark beetle vectors of Dutch elm disease. Plant Pathology, 23(4):133-135

Jassim HK; Foster HA; Fairhurst CP, 1990. Biological control of Dutch elm disease: Bacillus thuringiensis as a potential control agent for Scolytus scolytus and S. multistriatus.. Journal of Applied Bacteriology, 69(4):563-568; 24 ref.

Jassim HK; Foster HA; Fairhurst CP, 1990. Biological control of Dutch elm disease: larvicidal activity of Trichoderma harzianum, T. polysporum and Scytalidium lignicola in Scolytus scolytus and S. multistriatus reared in artificial culture. Annals of Applied Biology, 117(1):187-196

Kailides DS, 1969. Dutch Elm disease in Greece. Das. Chron., 11(7):7-14.

Karaman Z, 1971. Fauna na Makedonia. I Potkornici. Prosvetno Delo, Skopje, 1-178.

Kennedy BH, 1970. Dendrosoter protuberans (Hymenoptera: Braconidae), an introduced larval parasite of Scolytus multistriatus. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 63(2):351-358.

Kennedy BH, 1979. The effect of multilure on parasites of the European elm bark beetle, Scolytus multistriatus. Bulletin of the Entomological Society of America, 25:116-118

Kennedy BH, 1984. Effect of multilure and its components on parasites of Scolytus multistriatus (Coleoptera: Scolytidae). Journal of Chemical Ecology, 10(2):373-385

Khudaibergenov M; Khodzhaev Sh, 1991. Against pests of cork elm. Zashchita Rastenii (Moskva), No. 5:39

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