Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Sclerospora graminicola
(downy mildew of pearl millet)

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Datasheet

Sclerospora graminicola (downy mildew of pearl millet)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Sclerospora graminicola
  • Preferred Common Name
  • downy mildew of pearl millet
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Chromista
  •     Phylum: Oomycota
  •       Class: Oomycetes
  •         Order: Sclerosporales

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Asexual sporulation on underside of systemically infected pearl millet leaf, produces a downy white growth consisting of sporaniophores and sporangia.
TitleSymptoms on millet leaf
CaptionAsexual sporulation on underside of systemically infected pearl millet leaf, produces a downy white growth consisting of sporaniophores and sporangia.
CopyrightRob Williams/CAB International
Asexual sporulation on underside of systemically infected pearl millet leaf, produces a downy white growth consisting of sporaniophores and sporangia.
Symptoms on millet leafAsexual sporulation on underside of systemically infected pearl millet leaf, produces a downy white growth consisting of sporaniophores and sporangia.Rob Williams/CAB International
Typical symptoms of systemic downy mildew.
TitleSymptoms on millet head
CaptionTypical symptoms of systemic downy mildew.
CopyrightRob Williams/CAB International
Typical symptoms of systemic downy mildew.
Symptoms on millet headTypical symptoms of systemic downy mildew.Rob Williams/CAB International
Typical malformed head of systemically infected plant with the inflorescence converted into a vegetative mass.
TitleSymptoms on millet head
CaptionTypical malformed head of systemically infected plant with the inflorescence converted into a vegetative mass.
CopyrightRob Williams/CAB International
Typical malformed head of systemically infected plant with the inflorescence converted into a vegetative mass.
Symptoms on millet headTypical malformed head of systemically infected plant with the inflorescence converted into a vegetative mass.Rob Williams/CAB International
Typical symptoms of systemic downy mildew.
TitleSymptoms on millet head
CaptionTypical symptoms of systemic downy mildew.
CopyrightRob Williams/CAB International
Typical symptoms of systemic downy mildew.
Symptoms on millet headTypical symptoms of systemic downy mildew.Rob Williams/CAB International
An Indian F1 hybrid killed by DM in a trial at Kano, Nigeria, with resistant local variety in the background.
TitleSymptoms on millet crop
CaptionAn Indian F1 hybrid killed by DM in a trial at Kano, Nigeria, with resistant local variety in the background.
CopyrightRob Williams/CAB International
An Indian F1 hybrid killed by DM in a trial at Kano, Nigeria, with resistant local variety in the background.
Symptoms on millet cropAn Indian F1 hybrid killed by DM in a trial at Kano, Nigeria, with resistant local variety in the background.Rob Williams/CAB International
Control of PMDM through seed treatment with the phenylamide fungicide, metalaxyl.
TitleSymptoms on millet crop
CaptionControl of PMDM through seed treatment with the phenylamide fungicide, metalaxyl.
CopyrightRob Williams/CAB International
Control of PMDM through seed treatment with the phenylamide fungicide, metalaxyl.
Symptoms on millet cropControl of PMDM through seed treatment with the phenylamide fungicide, metalaxyl.Rob Williams/CAB International
Evidence of successful selection for a resistant subpopulation of the highly downy mildew-susceptible line 23D2B.
TitleSelection of resistant subpopulation
CaptionEvidence of successful selection for a resistant subpopulation of the highly downy mildew-susceptible line 23D2B.
CopyrightRob Williams/CAB International
Evidence of successful selection for a resistant subpopulation of the highly downy mildew-susceptible line 23D2B.
Selection of resistant subpopulationEvidence of successful selection for a resistant subpopulation of the highly downy mildew-susceptible line 23D2B.Rob Williams/CAB International
The asexual phase of S. graminicola. Sporangia (14-31 x 12-21 µm) are suborbicular, hyaline and twin-walled and have a papilla of dehiscence.
TitleAsexual phase
CaptionThe asexual phase of S. graminicola. Sporangia (14-31 x 12-21 µm) are suborbicular, hyaline and twin-walled and have a papilla of dehiscence.
CopyrightICRISAT
The asexual phase of S. graminicola. Sporangia (14-31 x 12-21 µm) are suborbicular, hyaline and twin-walled and have a papilla of dehiscence.
Asexual phaseThe asexual phase of S. graminicola. Sporangia (14-31 x 12-21 µm) are suborbicular, hyaline and twin-walled and have a papilla of dehiscence.ICRISAT
A mature sporangiophore (100-250 x 18 µm) of S. graminicola showing the basal cell, the main body of the sporangiophore and the sporangia attached to the sterigmata.
TitleMature sporangiophore
CaptionA mature sporangiophore (100-250 x 18 µm) of S. graminicola showing the basal cell, the main body of the sporangiophore and the sporangia attached to the sterigmata.
CopyrightICRISAT
A mature sporangiophore (100-250 x 18 µm) of S. graminicola showing the basal cell, the main body of the sporangiophore and the sporangia attached to the sterigmata.
Mature sporangiophoreA mature sporangiophore (100-250 x 18 µm) of S. graminicola showing the basal cell, the main body of the sporangiophore and the sporangia attached to the sterigmata. ICRISAT
The sexual phase of S. graminicola. Oospores (19-40 µm) are orange, spherical and thick-walled.
TitleSexual phase
CaptionThe sexual phase of S. graminicola. Oospores (19-40 µm) are orange, spherical and thick-walled.
CopyrightICRISAT
The sexual phase of S. graminicola. Oospores (19-40 µm) are orange, spherical and thick-walled.
Sexual phaseThe sexual phase of S. graminicola. Oospores (19-40 µm) are orange, spherical and thick-walled.ICRISAT

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Sclerospora graminicola (Sacc.) J. Schröt.

Preferred Common Name

  • downy mildew of pearl millet

Other Scientific Names

  • Peronospora graminicola (Sacc.) Sacc., 1882
  • Peronospora setariae Pass.
  • Protomyces graminicola Sacc.
  • Sclerospora graminicola var. setariae-italicae Traverso
  • Ustilago urbani Magnus

International Common Names

  • English: green ear

Local Common Names

  • India: bajra downy mildew

EPPO code

  • SCLPGR (Sclerospora graminicola)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Chromista
  •         Phylum: Oomycota
  •             Class: Oomycetes
  •                 Order: Sclerosporales
  •                     Family: Sclerosporaceae
  •                         Genus: Sclerospora
  •                             Species: Sclerospora graminicola

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentCMI, 1979; Singh et al., 1993
-Hong KongPresentCMI, 1979
-YunnanPresentCMI, 1979
IndiaWidespreadButler, 1918; CMI, 1979; Singh et al., 1993
-Andhra PradeshPresentRajan et al., 2008
-BiharPresentCMI, 1979
-GujaratPresentCMI, 1979
-HaryanaPresentAnil et al., 2004
-Jammu and KashmirPresentCMI, 1979
-KarnatakaPresentCMI, 1979
-Madhya PradeshPresentSharma et al., 2005
-MaharashtraPresentCMI, 1979
-RajasthanPresentRajan et al., 2008
-Tamil NaduPresentCMI, 1979
-Uttar PradeshPresentCMI, 1979
IranPresentCMI, 1979; Singh et al., 1993
IsraelPresentCMI, 1979; Singh et al., 1993
JapanPresentCMI, 1979; Singh et al., 1993
KazakhstanPresentCMI, 1979
Korea, Republic ofPresentCMI, 1979
PakistanPresentCMI, 1979; Singh et al., 1993
TaiwanPresentCMI, 1979
YemenPresentCMI, 1979

Africa

Burkina FasoWidespreadCMI, 1979; Singh et al., 1993
ChadWidespreadCMI, 1979; Singh et al., 1993
Côte d'IvoirePresentCMI, 1979
EgyptPresentCMI, 1979; Singh et al., 1993
EritreaPresentRao et al., 2002
GambiaPresentCMI, 1979; Singh et al., 1993
GhanaPresentCMI, 1979; Singh et al., 1993
MalawiWidespreadCMI, 1979; Singh et al., 1993
MauritaniaPresentFrison and Sadio, 1987
MozambiquePresentCMI, 1979; Singh et al., 1993
NigerWidespreadCMI, 1979; Singh et al., 1993
NigeriaWidespreadCMI, 1979; Singh et al., 1993
SenegalWidespreadCMI, 1979; Singh et al., 1993
Sierra LeonePresentCMI, 1979
South AfricaPresentCMI, 1979; Singh et al., 1993
SudanPresentCMI, 1979; Singh et al., 1993
TanzaniaWidespreadCMI, 1979; Singh et al., 1993
TogoPresentCMI, 1979
UgandaPresentCMI, 1979
ZimbabweWidespreadCMI, 1979; Singh et al., 1993

North America

CanadaPresentCMI, 1979
-ManitobaPresentCMI, 1979
-OntarioPresentCMI, 1979
-SaskatchewanPresentCMI, 1979
MexicoPresentCMI, 1979
USAPresentCMI, 1979; Singh et al., 1993
-FloridaPresentCMI, 1979
-HawaiiPresentCMI, 1979
-MontanaPresentCMI, 1979
-New MexicoPresentCMI, 1979
-New YorkPresentCMI, 1979

Central America and Caribbean

Puerto RicoPresentCMI, 1979

South America

ArgentinaPresentCMI, 1979

Europe

BulgariaPresentCMI, 1979; Singh et al., 1993
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentCMI, 1979; Singh et al., 1993
FrancePresentCMI, 1979; Singh et al., 1993
GermanyPresentSingh et al., 1993
HungaryPresentCMI, 1979; Singh et al., 1993
ItalyPresentCMI, 1979; Singh et al., 1993
NetherlandsPresentCMI, 1979; Singh et al., 1993
PolandPresentCMI, 1979
RomaniaPresentCMI, 1979; Singh et al., 1993
Russian FederationPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Russia (Europe)PresentCMI, 1979; Singh et al., 1993
SpainPresentCMI, 1979; Singh et al., 1993
SwitzerlandPresentCMI, 1979
Yugoslavia (former)PresentCMI, 1979

Oceania

FijiPresentCMI, 1979; Singh et al., 1993

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Inflorescence / discoloration panicle
Inflorescence / twisting and distortion
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Roots / rot of wood
Stems / discoloration of bark
Whole plant / dwarfing

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Land vehiclesOospores with soil Yes
Soil, sand and gravelOospores with crop debris Yes

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Growing medium accompanying plants spores Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Leaves hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots hyphae Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae; spores Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes
Fruits (inc. pods)
Wood

References

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Ahuja RL; Dang JK; Chand JN, 1989. Presence and position of mycelium of Sclerospora graminicola (Sacc.) Schroet. in the seeds of pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke) and its role in disease development. Annals of Arid Zone, 28(3-4):325-329

AICMIP, 1971-72. Progress Report. Pune, Maharashtra, India: Indian Council of Agricultural Research.

Amruthesh KN; Geetha NP; Jørgensen HJL; Neergaard Ede; Shetty HS, 2005. Unsaturated fatty acids from zoospores of Sclerospora graminicola induce resistance in pearl millet. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 111(2):125-137. http://springerlink.metapress.com/link.asp?id=100265

Anil Kumar; Ram Niwas; Anil Kumar; Pawar MS, 2004. Influence of weather parameters on downy mildew progression in pearl millet var. 7042-S. Haryana Agricultural University Journal of Research, 34(2):143-147.

Anon, 2012. .

Arya HC; Sharma R, 1962. On the perpetuation and recurrence of the 'green ear' disease of bajra [Pennisetum typhoides] caused by Sclerospora graminicola [Sacc.] Schroet. Indian Phytopathology, 15:166-172.

Ball SL, 1983. Pathogenic variability of downy mildew (Sclerospora graminicola) on pearl millet. I. Host cultivar reactions to infection by different pathogen isolates. Annals of Applied Biology, 102(2):257-264

Ball SL; Pike DJ, 1983. Pathogenic variability of downy mildew (Sclerospora graminicola) on pearl millet. II. Statistical techniques for analysis of data. Annals of Applied Biology, 102(2):265-273

Bhat SS, 1973. Investigations on the biology and control of Scelrospora graminicola on bajra. Ph.D. thesis. Karnataka, India: University of Mysore.

Bhatnagar A, 1988. Studies on mode of penetration by Sclerospora graminicola [Sacc.] Schroet. in pearl millet [Pennisetum americanum[L.] Leeke] leaves. MSc. thesis. Rajendranagar, Andhra Pradesh, India: Andhra Pradesh Agricultural University.

Borchhardt A, 1927. Operations of the phytopathological section of the Agricultural Experiment Station in the Eastern Steppe region (Ekaterinostaff Government) in the 1925. Dniepropetrovsk (Ekaterinostaff):3-37 (Russian Abstract) in Bot. Centralbl., N.S. 11:440-441.

Butler EJ, 1918. Fungi and Diseases in Plants. London, UK: Spink & Co.

Chahal SS; Thakur RP; Mathur SB, 1994. Seed-borne diseases and seed health testing of pearl millet. Copenhagen, Denmark: Danish Government Institute of Seed Pathology for Developing Countries, 72 pp.

Chu JuZheng; Wang YaRu; Chao XiuJu; Duan ChunLan; Liu HuaiXiang; Song YanChun, 1996. On the resistance of foxtail millet to downy mildew. II. Variability and physiological races of Sclerospora graminicola (Sacc.) Schröt. and its distribution in China. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica, 26(2):145-151.

CILSS, 1986. Synthese des rapports techniques annuels de la campagne agricole 1985. Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso: CILSS.

CILSS, 1987. Mil. In: Recherche et developpement de la lutte integree contre les principaux ennemis des cultures dans le Sahel. Compte rendu. Reunion Technique Annuelle des Groupes de Travail, 2-7 fev 1987, Banjul, Gambia. Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso:CILSS, 17-29.

CMI, 1979. Distribution Maps of Plant Pests, Map No. 431. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Deepak SA; Oros G; Raj SN; Shetty NP; Shetty HS, 2004. Iprovalicarb has potential for the control of downy mildew of pearl millet. Acta Phytopathologica et Entomologica Hungarica, 39(1/3):55-69. http://www.akkrt.hu/kerdesek/reszletes_hjour.jsp?id=038

Deswal DP; Govila OP; Sheoran RK, 1998. Genetic analysis of downy mildew resistance in pearl millet. Indian Phytopathology, 51(3):261-264; 11 ref.

Frison EA; Sadio D, 1987. Diseases of sorghum and millet in Mauritania. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 35(2):55-61

Geetha HM; Shetty HS, 2002. Induction of resistance in pearl millet against downy mildew disease caused by Sclerospora graminicola using benzothiadiazole, calcium chloride and hydrogen peroxide - a comparative evaluation. Crop Protection, 21(8):601-610.

Geetha NP; Amruthesh KN; Shetty HS, 2002. Determination of cellular fatty acid components in five pathotypes of Sclerospora graminicola, the downy mildew pathogen of pearl millet. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 32(3):345-353.

Geetha S; Shetty SA; Shetty HS; Prakash HS, 1996. Arachidonic acid-induced hypersensitive cell death as an assay of downy mildew resistance in pearl millet. Annals of Applied Biology, 129(1):91-96; 14 ref.

Geetha S; Shetty SA; Shetty HS; Prakash HS, 1998. Sclerospora graminicola- and arachidonic acid-induced autofluorescence in downy mildew resistant and susceptible genotypes of pearl millet. Annals of Applied Biology, 133(2):219-226; 21 ref.

Gilijamse E; Frinking HD; Jeger MJ, 1997. Occurrence and epidemiology of pearl millet downy mildew, Sclerospora graminicola, in southwest Niger. International Journal of Pest Management, 43(4):279-283; 17 ref.

Girard JC, 1975. Downy mildew of pearl millet in senegal. In: Williams RJ, ed. Proceedings, Consultants' Group Meetings on Downy Mildew and Ergot of Pearl Millet. Hyderabad, India: ICRISAT, 59-73.

Gupta GK; Singh D, 1996. Effectiveness of water absorbents, FYM application and sowing direction in downy mildew reduction in pearl millet under arid environment. Indian Phytopathology, 49(1):41-47; 25 ref.

Gupta GK; Singh D, 1996. Studies on the influence of downy mildew infection on yield and yield-contributing plant characters of pearl millet in India. International Journal of Pest Management, 42(2):89-93.

Gupta GK; Singh D, 1999. Influence of environmental factors on downy mildew development in pearl millet under arid climate. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 29(1):1-4.

Gupta GK; Singh D, 1999. Nutritional and physiological disorders in downy mildew infected pearl millet plants in arid environment. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 29(1):5-10.

Gupta GK; Singh D, 1999. Role of edaphic factors in the development of downy mildew (Sclerospora graminicola) in pearl millet. Journal of Agricultural Science, 133(1):61-68; 39 ref.

Gupta GK; Verma SK, 1991. Control of downy mildew of pearl millet with Ridomil. Indian Phytopathology, 44(4):458-461

Gupta IJ; Singh G; Cheema HS, 1989. Evaluation of fungicides for their effect on germination, seed mycoflora and downy mildew disease in downy mildew infected seeds of pearl millet. Pestology, 13(8):13-16

Idris MO; Ball SL, 1984. Inter- and intracontinental sexual compatibility in Sclerospora graminicola. Plant Pathology, 33(2):219-223

Ito S, 1913. Kleine Notizen uber parasitische Pilze Japans. Bot. Mag. Tokyo, 27:217-223

Jeger MJ; Gilijamse E; Bock CH; Frinking HD, 1998. The epidemiology, variability and control of the downy mildews of pearl millet and sorghum, with particular reference to Africa. Plant Pathology, 47(5):544-569; 6 ref.

Jouan B; Delassus M, 1971. Principales maladies des mils et sorghos observées au Niger. Agronomie Tropicale, 26:830-860.

Kaushik Banerjee; Handa SK, 1999. Persistence, bioefficacy and effect of metalaxyl on pearl millet. Pesticide Research Journal, 11(2):168-171; 7 ref.

Kenneth R, 1981. Downy mildew of graminaceous crops. In: Spenser DM, ed. The Downy Mildews. London, UK and New York, USA: Academic Press, 367-394

King SB; Webster OJ, 1970. Downy mildew of sorghum in Nigeria. Indian Phytopathology, 23:342-349.

King SB; Werder J; Singh SD, 1989. Pathogenic variation in Sclerospora graminicola on pearl millet. Phytopathology, 79:1390.

Kumar VU; Hindumathi CK; Kini KR; Shetty HS, 1998. Prior inoculation inducing resistance to downy mildew (Sclerospora graminicola) enhances growth, peroxidase and -1,3-glucanase activity in pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum). Journal of Plant Pathology, 80(3):203-209; 14 ref.

Lukose CM; Kadvani DL; Patel MH; Pethani KV, 1999. Impact of excess rainfall and drought on downy mildew disease in pearl millet. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 29(3):398-401; 3 ref.

Mangat BK; Randhawa HS; Virk DS, 1996. Grain yield potential and disease reaction of diverse pearl millet hybrids. Crop Improvement, 23(1):99-104; 11 ref.

Manjunatha G; Roopa KS; Prashanth GN; Shetty HS, 2008. Chitosan enhances disease resistance in pearl millet against downy mildew caused by Sclerospora graminicola and defence-related enzyme activation. Pest Management Science, 64(12):1250-1257. http://www.interscience.wiley.com/pestmanagementscience

Mathur RL; Dalela CG, 1971. Estimation of losses from green ear disease (Sclerospora graminicola) of Bajra (Pennisetum typhoides) and grain smut (Sphacelotheca sorghi) of jowar (Sorghum vulgare) in Rjasthan. Indian Phytopathology 24:101-104.

Melhus IE; van Haltern FH; Bliss DE, 1928. A study of Sclerospora graminicola (Sacc.) Schroet. on Setaria viridis (L.) Beauv. and Zea mays L. Iowa Agric. Exp. Stn. Res. Bull., 111:297-338.

Michelmore RW; Pawar MN; Williams RJ, 1982. Heterothallism in Sclerospora graminicola. Phytopathology, 72(10):1368-1372

Mitter JH; Tandon RN, 1930. A note on Sclerospora graminicola [Sacc.] Schroet. in Alahabad. Journal of the Indian Botanical Society, 9:243.

Navi SS; Singh SD, 1999. Detection of Sclerospora graminicola mycelium in infected pearl millet leaves. International Sorghum and Millets Newsletter, 40:58; 1 ref.

Nene YL; Singh SD, 1976. Downy mildew and ergot of pearl millet. PANS, 22(3):366-385

Pandya RK; Reeti Singh; Tripathi ML, 2000. Efficacy of metalaxyl and Aliete on downy mildew of pearl millet. Crop Research (Hisar), 20(1):134-136; 4 ref.

Parbhu MSC; Safeeulla KM; Shetty HS, 1983. Tissue culture technique to demonstrate the viability of downy mildew mycelium in pearl millet seeds. Current Science, 52(21):1027-1029

Porter RH, 1926. A preliminary report of surveys for plant diseases in East China. Plant Disease Reporter, Supplement 46:153-166.

Rai KN; Chandra S; Rao AS, 2000. Potential advantages of male-sterile F1 hybrids for use as seed parents of three-way hybrids in pearl millet. Field Crops Research, 68(3):173-181.

Rai KN; Khairwal IS; Yadav HP, 1999. Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) hybrid parents research and development. Advances in Agricultural Research in India, 11:1-18; 32 ref.

Rai KN; Thakur RP; Rao AS, 1998. Registration of smut-resistant pearl millet parental lines ICMA 88006 and ICMB 88006. Crop Science, 38(2):575-576; 2 ref.

Raj SN; Chaluvaraju G; Amruthesh KN; Shetty HS; Reddy MS; Kloepper JW, 2003. Induction of growth promotion and resistance against downy mildew on pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum) by rhizobacteria. Plant Disease, 87(4):380-384.

Rajan Sharma; Rao VP; Rai KN; Thakur RP, 2008. Genetic resistance in pearl millet seed parent lines against diverse pathotypes of Sclerospora graminicola. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 36(2):272-276.

Ramakrishnan TS, 1963. Diseases of Millets. New Delhi, India: Indian Council of Agricultural Research.

Ramesh CR; Safeeulla KM, 1983. Role of sporangia of Sclerospora graminicola in causing pearlmillet flower infection. Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 53(12):1081-1084

Rao KC; Balasubramanian KA, 1988. Effect of storage of metalaxyl treated seed on downy mildew of pearl millet. Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 16(1):1-7

Rao VP; Raj AGB; Russom NA; Preston SR; Bidinger FR, 2002. Prevalence of pearl millet downy mildew in Eritrea. International Sorghum and Millets Newsletter, 43:93-95.

Reddy MVB; Shetty HS; Reddy MS, 1990. Mobility, distribution and persistence of metalaxyl residues in pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum (L.) Leeke.). Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology, 45(2):250-257

Saccardo PA, 1876. Fungi Veneti novi vel critici. Ser. V. Nuovo Giorn, Bot. Ital., 8:161-211.

Saccardo PA, 1882. Fungi venti novi vel critici vel Mycologiae Venetae addendi, Ser. XIII-Michaelia, 2:528-563.

Saccas AM, 1954. Les champignons parasitesdes sorghos (Sorghum vulgare). et des penicilliaires (Pennisetum typhoideum) en Afrique Equatoriale Francaise. Agronomie Tropicale, 9:135-173,263-301,647-686.

Safeeulla KM, 1976. Biology and control of the downy mildews of pearl millet, sorghum and finger millet. Biology and control of the downy mildews of pearl millet, sorghum and finger millet. Mysore University. Manasagangothri, Mysore India, xv + 304 pp.

Sastry JG; Ramakrishna W; Sivaramakrishnan S; Thakur RP; Gupta VS; Ranjekar PK, 1995. DNA fingerprinting detects genetic variability in the pearl millet downy mildew pathogen (Sclerospora graminicola). Theoretical and Applied Genetics, 91(6/7):856-861

Sastry JG; Sivaramakrishnan S; Rao VP; Thakur RP; Singru RS; Gupta VS; Ranjekar PK, 2001. Genetic basis of host-specificity in Sclerospora graminicola, the pearl millet downy mildew pathogen. Indian Phytopathology, 54(3):323-328; 16 ref.

Sastry JG; Sivaramakrishnan S; Thakur RP; Gupta VS; Ranjekar PK, 1997. Characterization of the genome of Sclerospora graminicola, the causal fungus of downy mildew of pearl millet. World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology, 13(6):693-697; 14 ref.

Schr÷ter J, 1879. Protomyes graminicola Saccardo. Hedwigia, 18:83-87.

Selvaraj JC, 1979. Research on pearl millet diseases in Nigeria, Samaru Conference Paper no.28. Samaru, Zaria, Nigeria: Ahmadu Bello University.

Semisi ST; Ball SFL, 1989. Infection of the pearl millet (Pennisetum americanum) inflorescence by the downy mildew fungus (Sclerospora graminicola). Plant Pathology, 38(4):571-576

Sharathchandra RG; Geetha NP; Amruthesh KN; Kini KR; Sarosh BR; Shetty NP; Shetty HS, 2006. Isolation and characterisation of a protein elicitor from Sclerospora graminicola and elicitor-mediated induction of defence responses in cultured cells of Pennisetum glaucum. Functional Plant Biology, 33(3):267-278.

Sharma YK; Khairwal IS; Rajpurohit BS, 2005. Resistance in pearl millet male-sterile and restorer lines to diverse pathogen populations of Sclerospora graminicola. International Sorghum and Millets Newsletter, 46:105-107.

Shaw CG, 1981. Taxonomy and evaluation. In: Spencer DM, ed. The Downy Mildews. London, UK: Academic Press, 17-29.

Shekhawat NS; Purohit SD; Arya HC, 1983. Relative role of oospores and infected seed in green-ear disease incidence. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 13(1):17-20

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