Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Athelia rolfsii
(sclerotium rot)

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Datasheet

Athelia rolfsii (sclerotium rot)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Athelia rolfsii
  • Preferred Common Name
  • sclerotium rot
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •       Subphylum: Agaricomycotina
  •         Class: Agaricomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Decay of tomato fruit, and colonization of damp paper tissue, on which numerous sclerotia have formed.
TitleSymptoms on tomato
CaptionDecay of tomato fruit, and colonization of damp paper tissue, on which numerous sclerotia have formed.
Copyright©Anna L. Snowdon
Decay of tomato fruit, and colonization of damp paper tissue, on which numerous sclerotia have formed.
Symptoms on tomatoDecay of tomato fruit, and colonization of damp paper tissue, on which numerous sclerotia have formed.©Anna L. Snowdon
Typical silky white mycelium spreading over carrot roots (artificially inoculated), with sclerotia just beginning to form.
TitleSymptoms on carrot
CaptionTypical silky white mycelium spreading over carrot roots (artificially inoculated), with sclerotia just beginning to form.
Copyright©Anna L. Snowdon
Typical silky white mycelium spreading over carrot roots (artificially inoculated), with sclerotia just beginning to form.
Symptoms on carrotTypical silky white mycelium spreading over carrot roots (artificially inoculated), with sclerotia just beginning to form.©Anna L. Snowdon
Advanced natural infection of a mass of carrots; sclerotia in various stages of maturity (from white to dark brown).
TitleSymptoms on carrot
CaptionAdvanced natural infection of a mass of carrots; sclerotia in various stages of maturity (from white to dark brown).
Copyright©Anna L. Snowdon
Advanced natural infection of a mass of carrots; sclerotia in various stages of maturity (from white to dark brown).
Symptoms on carrotAdvanced natural infection of a mass of carrots; sclerotia in various stages of maturity (from white to dark brown).©Anna L. Snowdon
Infected soyabean stems.
TitleSymptoms on soyabean stems
CaptionInfected soyabean stems.
CopyrightISU
Infected soyabean stems.
Symptoms on soyabean stemsInfected soyabean stems.ISU
Infected sorghum stems.
TitleSymptoms on sorghum stem
CaptionInfected sorghum stems.
CopyrightR.A. Frederiksen
Infected sorghum stems.
Symptoms on sorghum stemInfected sorghum stems.R.A. Frederiksen
Sclerotium rolfsii, with abundant sclerotia.
TitleSymptoms on cowpea plant
CaptionSclerotium rolfsii, with abundant sclerotia.
CopyrightRob Williams/CAB International
Sclerotium rolfsii, with abundant sclerotia.
Symptoms on cowpea plantSclerotium rolfsii, with abundant sclerotia.Rob Williams/CAB International
Basal stem rot causing wilting.
TitleSymptoms on cowpea plant
CaptionBasal stem rot causing wilting.
CopyrightRob Williams/CAB International
Basal stem rot causing wilting.
Symptoms on cowpea plantBasal stem rot causing wilting.Rob Williams/CAB International
Seedling blight caused by Sclerotium rolfsii.
TitleSeedling blight
CaptionSeedling blight caused by Sclerotium rolfsii.
CopyrightChin Khoon Min
Seedling blight caused by Sclerotium rolfsii.
Seedling blightSeedling blight caused by Sclerotium rolfsii.Chin Khoon Min
Initial symptom of sclerotium rot of lentil: drooping of the upper green leaves of the plant.
TitleSymptoms on lentil
CaptionInitial symptom of sclerotium rot of lentil: drooping of the upper green leaves of the plant.
CopyrightVed Prakash Gupta
Initial symptom of sclerotium rot of lentil: drooping of the upper green leaves of the plant.
Symptoms on lentilInitial symptom of sclerotium rot of lentil: drooping of the upper green leaves of the plant.Ved Prakash Gupta
Wilting of lentil plants at the flowering stage in the field.
TitleSymptoms on lentil
CaptionWilting of lentil plants at the flowering stage in the field.
CopyrightVed Prakash Gupta
Wilting of lentil plants at the flowering stage in the field.
Symptoms on lentilWilting of lentil plants at the flowering stage in the field.Ved Prakash Gupta
TitleC. rolfsii in culture
Caption
CopyrightICRISAT
C. rolfsii in cultureICRISAT
A, Cells from sclerotium rind; B, from sclerotium cortex; C, from sclerotium medulla; D, primary and secondary hyphae including mycelial strand; E, tertiary hyphae. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 410. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
TitleC. rolfsii - line drawing
CaptionA, Cells from sclerotium rind; B, from sclerotium cortex; C, from sclerotium medulla; D, primary and secondary hyphae including mycelial strand; E, tertiary hyphae. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 410. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
Copyright©CABI BioScience
A, Cells from sclerotium rind; B, from sclerotium cortex; C, from sclerotium medulla; D, primary and secondary hyphae including mycelial strand; E, tertiary hyphae. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 410. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
C. rolfsii - line drawingA, Cells from sclerotium rind; B, from sclerotium cortex; C, from sclerotium medulla; D, primary and secondary hyphae including mycelial strand; E, tertiary hyphae. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 410. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.©CABI BioScience
Symptoms: collar rot of soybean caused by S. rolfsii, showing mycelia growth on stem and mycelia growth with sclerotia on soil surface around collar region of stem
TitleSymptoms
CaptionSymptoms: collar rot of soybean caused by S. rolfsii, showing mycelia growth on stem and mycelia growth with sclerotia on soil surface around collar region of stem
CopyrightVed Prakash Gupta
Symptoms: collar rot of soybean caused by S. rolfsii, showing mycelia growth on stem and mycelia growth with sclerotia on soil surface around collar region of stem
SymptomsSymptoms: collar rot of soybean caused by S. rolfsii, showing mycelia growth on stem and mycelia growth with sclerotia on soil surface around collar region of stemVed Prakash Gupta
Symptoms: collar rot of soybean caused by S. rolfsii, showing mycelia growth on stem and mycelia growth with sclerotia on soil surface around collar region of stem.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionSymptoms: collar rot of soybean caused by S. rolfsii, showing mycelia growth on stem and mycelia growth with sclerotia on soil surface around collar region of stem.
CopyrightVed Prakash Gupta
Symptoms: collar rot of soybean caused by S. rolfsii, showing mycelia growth on stem and mycelia growth with sclerotia on soil surface around collar region of stem.
SymptomsSymptoms: collar rot of soybean caused by S. rolfsii, showing mycelia growth on stem and mycelia growth with sclerotia on soil surface around collar region of stem.Ved Prakash Gupta
White cottony mycelial growth of S. rolfsii on collar region of wilted chickpea seedling.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionWhite cottony mycelial growth of S. rolfsii on collar region of wilted chickpea seedling.
CopyrightVed Prakash Gupta
White cottony mycelial growth of S. rolfsii on collar region of wilted chickpea seedling.
SymptomsWhite cottony mycelial growth of S. rolfsii on collar region of wilted chickpea seedling.Ved Prakash Gupta
Mycelial growth and sclerotia (arrowed) of S. rolfsii on the root of wilted chickpea plant.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionMycelial growth and sclerotia (arrowed) of S. rolfsii on the root of wilted chickpea plant.
CopyrightVed Prakash Gupta
Mycelial growth and sclerotia (arrowed) of S. rolfsii on the root of wilted chickpea plant.
SymptomsMycelial growth and sclerotia (arrowed) of S. rolfsii on the root of wilted chickpea plant.Ved Prakash Gupta
Sclerotium rot of lentil at seedlling stage in field.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionSclerotium rot of lentil at seedlling stage in field.
CopyrightVed Prakash Gupta
Sclerotium rot of lentil at seedlling stage in field.
SymptomsSclerotium rot of lentil at seedlling stage in field.Ved Prakash Gupta
Close-up of collar region of wilted plant showing white cottony growth of S. rolfsii mycelium.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionClose-up of collar region of wilted plant showing white cottony growth of S. rolfsii mycelium.
CopyrightVed Prakash Gupta
Close-up of collar region of wilted plant showing white cottony growth of S. rolfsii mycelium.
SymptomsClose-up of collar region of wilted plant showing white cottony growth of S. rolfsii mycelium. Ved Prakash Gupta
Wilted lentil plant at flowering stage showing white mycelial growth of S. rolfsii on stem near soil level.
TitleSymptoms
CaptionWilted lentil plant at flowering stage showing white mycelial growth of S. rolfsii on stem near soil level.
CopyrightVed Prakash Gupta
Wilted lentil plant at flowering stage showing white mycelial growth of S. rolfsii on stem near soil level.
SymptomsWilted lentil plant at flowering stage showing white mycelial growth of S. rolfsii on stem near soil level.Ved Prakash Gupta

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Athelia rolfsii (Curzi) C. C. Tu & Kimbr.

Preferred Common Name

  • sclerotium rot

Other Scientific Names

  • Botryobasidium rolfsii (Saccardo) Venkat.
  • Corticium centrifugum (Lév.) Bresad.
  • Corticium rolfsii Curzi
  • Hypochnus centrifugus (Lév.) Tul.
  • Pellicularia rolfsii (Curzi) E. West
  • Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc.
  • Sclerotium rolfsii var. rolfsii Saccardo

International Common Names

  • English: collar rot; collar rot of tomato; cotton stem & root rot; crown rot (bean); damping-off; groundnut stem rot; leaf spot or neck rot of yams; root and stem wilt of groundnut; root rot of beans, citrus; sclerotium blight (alfalfa, soyabean); seedling blight (sweet potato, rice); southern blight (groundnut, alfalfa, soyabean); southern blight of ginger; southern root rot (sugarbeet); southern sclerotial rot (sorghum, sugarbeet); southern stem rot (groundnut, bean, soyabean); southern wilt (bean); white mould (groundnut, soyabean); white rot on taro; white rot or bulb rot of onions; wilt and fruit rot
  • Spanish: mal del esclerocio
  • French: nécrose du collet; pourriture des capsules
  • Portuguese: murcha-de-sclerotium; podridão-das-raízes

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Sklerotienkrankheit

EPPO code

  • SCLORO (Sclerotium rolfsii)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Basidiomycota
  •             Subphylum: Agaricomycotina
  •                 Class: Agaricomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Agaricomycetidae
  •                         Order: Polyporales
  •                             Family: Atheliaceae
  •                                 Genus: Athelia
  •                                     Species: Athelia rolfsii

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentReddy et al., 1992; UK CAB International, 1992
Brunei DarussalamPresentPeregrine et al., 1984; UK CAB International, 1992
CambodiaPresentUK CAB International, 1992
ChinaPresentUK CAB International, 1992
-GuangdongPresentZheng et al., 2001
-HainanPresentLiu and Pu, 2004
-Hong KongPresentUK CAB International, 1992
-HunanPresentYou et al., 2016
-LiaoningPresentChen and Zhu, 1991
-SichuanPresentUK CAB International, 1992
-YunnanPresentUK CAB International, 1992
-ZhejiangPresentYuan et al., 1990
IndiaPresentUK CAB International, 1992; Harlapur et al., 1993
-Andaman and Nicobar IslandsPresentUK CAB International, 1992
-Andhra PradeshPresentRaju et al., 1995
-AssamPresentRoy, 1989; UK CAB International, 1992
-BiharPresentSinha et al., 1993
-ChhattisgarhPresentGupta et al., 2005
-DelhiPresentKapoor, 1988
-GujaratPresentRakholiya et al., 2003; Ronakkkumar and Sumanbhai, 2014
-Himachal PradeshPresentMadhu-Meeta et al., 1992
-Jammu and KashmirPresentThakur et al., 1991; Vikas et al., 2012
-KarnatakaPresentAnon., 1991; Mahadevakumar et al., 2016
-KeralaPresentAnon., 1992; Sudina et al., 2014
-Madhya PradeshPresentAshok, 1995
-MaharashtraPresentAnon., 1991; UK CAB International, 1992
-ManipurPresentSingh et al., 1991
-NagalandPresentSingh et al., 1987; UK CAB International, 1992
-OdishaPresentAshok, 1995
-RajasthanPresentAgrawat et al., 1980
-SikkimPresentBag, 2003
-Tamil NaduPresentAnon., 1992
-Uttar PradeshPresentSujan Singh et al., 1991
-UttarakhandPresentBijender Kumar, 2016
-West BengalPresentGiri et al., 1989
IndonesiaPresentNaito et al., 1993
-Irian JayaPresentUK CAB International, 1992
-JavaPresentUK CAB International, 1992; Vos and Nurtika, 1995
-SumatraPresentUK CAB International, 1992
IranPresentUK CAB International, 1992
IraqPresentUK CAB International, 1992
IsraelPresentUK CAB International, 1992; Lisker et al., 1994
JapanPresentUK CAB International, 1992; Takahashi and Tsukiboshi, 2012
-HonshuPresentIshikawa et al., 1992; Takeuchi and Horie, 1994; Iihama et al., 2013; Morita et al., 2015
-KyushuPresentMorita, 1995
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentUK CAB International, 1992
Korea, DPRPresentKim, 1974; Kye and Kim, 1985; UK CAB International, 1992
Korea, Republic ofPresentKwon et al., 2011a; Kwon et al., 2013a; Kwon et al., 2013b; Kwon et al., 2012
LaosPresentUK CAB International, 1992; Songvilay et al., 2013
LebanonPresentVannacci et al., 1992; UK CAB International, 1992
MalaysiaPresentLim and Sijam, 1989
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresentUK CAB International, 1992
-SabahPresentUK CAB International, 1992
-SarawakPresentUK CAB International, 1992; Chong, 1995
MyanmarPresentReddy et al., 1992; UK CAB International, 1992
NepalPresentJayaswal et al., 1988; UK CAB International, 1992
PakistanPresentUK CAB International, 1992; Mirza and Aslam, 1993
PhilippinesPresentReddy et al., 1992; UK CAB International, 1992
Saudi ArabiaPresentUK CAB International, 1992
SingaporeAbsent, reported but not confirmedYik, 1988; AVA, 2001
Sri LankaPresentAnon., 1991; UK CAB International, 1992; Jayasinghe et al., 1993
SyriaPresentICRISAT, 1984; UK CAB International, 1992
TaiwanPresentFu et al., 2012a; Fu et al., 2012b; Sun, 1991; UK CAB International, 1992
ThailandPresentReddy et al., 1992; UK CAB International, 1992
TurkeyPresentAyayd-i-n et al., 1984; UK CAB International, 1992
VietnamPresentUK CAB International, 1992

Africa

AngolaPresentUK CAB International, 1992
BeninPresentUK CAB International, 1992
BotswanaPresentUK CAB International, 1992
Burkina FasoPresentSubrahmanyam et al., 1992; UK CAB International, 1992
BurundiPresentUK CAB International, 1992
CameroonPresentIMI Herbarium, undated; UK CAB International, 1992
Cape VerdePresentUK CAB International, 1992
Central African RepublicPresentUK CAB International, 1992
ChadPresentSougnabe and Foko, 2003
CongoPresentUK CAB International, 1992
Congo Democratic RepublicPresentUK CAB International, 1992
Côte d'IvoirePresentSavary, 1987; UK CAB International, 1992
EgyptPresentUK CAB International, 1992; Fahim et al., 1994
Equatorial GuineaPresentUK CAB International, 1992
EthiopiaPresentUK CAB International, 1992; Hulluka and Ahmed, 1993
GabonPresentUK CAB International, 1992
GambiaPresentUK CAB International, 1992
GhanaPresentUK CAB International, 1992; Abbasher et al., 1995
GuineaPresentUK CAB International, 1992
KenyaPresentUK CAB International, 1992
LesothoPresentUK CAB International, 1992
LiberiaPresentUK CAB International, 1992
MadagascarPresentDequaire, 1976; UK CAB International, 1992
MalawiPresentRothwell, 1972; ICRISAT, 1986; UK CAB International, 1992
MaliPresentIRAT, 1983; UK CAB International, 1992
MauritaniaPresentUK CAB International, 1992
MauritiusPresentUK CAB International, 1992
MoroccoPresentUK CAB International, 1992
MozambiquePresentUK CAB International, 1992
NigerPresentReddy et al., 1992; UK CAB International, 1992
NigeriaPresentUK CAB International, 1992; Osai and Ikotun, 1994
Rodriguez IslandPresentUK CAB International, 1992
RwandaPresentUK CAB International, 1992
SenegalPresentIRAT, 1983; UK CAB International, 1992
SeychellesPresentUK CAB International, 1992
Sierra LeonePresentUK CAB International, 1992
SomaliaPresentUK CAB International, 1992
South AfricaPresentvan Eeden et al., 1994; UK CAB International, 1992
SudanPresentUK CAB International, 1992
TanzaniaPresentUK CAB International, 1992
TogoPresentUK CAB International, 1992
TunisiaPresentBoulila and Mahjoub, 1994; Kalai-Grami et al., 2013
UgandaPresentUK CAB International, 1992; Elobu and Adipala, 1993
ZambiaPresentRothwell, 1972; UK CAB International, 1992
ZimbabwePresentRothwell, 1972; UK CAB International, 1992

North America

BermudaPresentUK CAB International, 1992
CanadaPresent
-AlbertaPresentChang and Mirza, 1994
MexicoPresentGarza Lopez & Cruz Fernandez, 1991; UK CAB International, 1992
USAWidespreadMinton and Bell, 1981
-AlabamaPresentBackman et al.,1975; Rodriguez Kabana et al.,1991c
-ArizonaPresentMihail and Alcorn, 1984; UK CAB International, 1992
-ArkansasPresentWest et al., 1991; UK CAB International, 1992
-CaliforniaPresentUK CAB International, 1992; Koike et al., 1994; Koike, 2014
-ConnecticutPresentUK CAB International, 1992
-FloridaPresentKucharek and Edmondson, 1991; UK CAB International, 1992
-GeorgiaPresentMinton et al., 1975; Culbreath et al., 1995
-HawaiiPresentKo and Nishijima, 1985; UK CAB International, 1992
-IllinoisPresentKane and Wilkinson, 1992; UK CAB International, 1992
-IndianaPresentUK CAB International, 1992
-IowaPresentUK CAB International, 1992
-KansasPresentAppel and Jardine, 1992; UK CAB International, 1992
-KentuckyPresentUK CAB International, 1992
-LouisianaPresentUK CAB International, 1992; Rolston et al., 1995
-MarylandPresentUK CAB International, 1992; Lewis et al., 1993
-MichiganPresentPersich, 1975
-MinnesotaPresentPedersen et al., 1976
-MississippiPresentUK CAB International, 1992
-MissouriPresentBeuselinck and McGraw, 1990; UK CAB International, 1992
-NevadaPresentPedersen et al., 1976
-New JerseyPresentUK CAB International, 1992
-New YorkPresentUK CAB International, 1992
-North CarolinaPresentRistaino et al., 1991; UK CAB International, 1992
-OhioPresentUK CAB International, 1992
-OklahomaPresentUK CAB International, 1992; Damicone and Jackson, 1994
-OregonPresentUK CAB International, 1992
-PennsylvaniaPresentUK CAB International, 1992
-South CarolinaPresentUK CAB International, 1992; Chapin and Thomas, 1993
-TennesseePresentUK CAB International, 1992
-TexasPresentUK CAB International, 1992; Nalim et al., 1995
-UtahPresentPedersen et al., 1976
-VirginiaPresentOsbourne et al., 1973; Brenneman et al., 1990; UK CAB International, 1992
-WashingtonPresentUK CAB International, 1992

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentUK CAB International, 1992
BarbadosPresentUK CAB International, 1992
BelizePresentUK CAB International, 1992
Costa RicaPresentUK CAB International, 1992
CubaPresentPerez Sendin et al., 1990; UK CAB International, 1992
DominicaPresentUK CAB International, 1992
Dominican RepublicPresentUK CAB International, 1992
El SalvadorPresentUK CAB International, 1992
French West IndiesPresentUK CAB International, 1992
GrenadaPresent
GuadeloupePresentUK CAB International, 1992
GuatemalaPresentUK CAB International, 1992
HaitiPresentUK CAB International, 1992
HondurasPresentUK CAB International, 1992
JamaicaPresentUK CAB International, 1992
MartiniquePresentIRAT, 1983; UK CAB International, 1992
MontserratPresentUK CAB International, 1992
NicaraguaPresentUK CAB International, 1992
PanamaPresentUK CAB International, 1992
Puerto RicoPresentUK CAB International, 1992; Esnard and Hepperly, 1995
Saint Kitts and NevisPresentUK CAB International, 1992
Saint LuciaPresentUK CAB International, 1992
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentUK CAB International, 1992
Trinidad and TobagoPresentUK CAB International, 1992

South America

ArgentinaPresentUK CAB International, 1992; Mitidieri, 1994; Cúndom et al., 2013
BrazilPresentPonte, 1986; UK CAB International, 1992; Macedo et al., 2016
-Espirito SantoPresentMoreira et al., 2013
-GoiasPresentCharchar et al., 2004
-MaranhaoPresent
-Mato GrossoPresentUK CAB International, 1992
-Minas GeraisPresentGoulart, 1988
-ParaPresentBastos, 2007
-ParanaPresentAlmeida et al., 2000; Franzener et al., 2013; Dias-Arieira et al., 2014
-PernambucoPresentSilveira et al., 1994; Queiroz et al., 2017
-Rio de JaneiroPresentSoares et al., 2009
-Santa CatarinaPresentBecker, 1989
-Sao PauloPresentUK CAB International, 1992
ChilePresentUK CAB International, 1992; Sepulveda, 1993
ColombiaPresentTamayo and Jaramillo, 1992; UK CAB International, 1992
EcuadorPresentPadilla, 1979
French GuianaPresentUK CAB International, 1992
GuyanaPresentUK CAB International, 1992
PeruPresentVallejos, 1988; UK CAB International, 1992
SurinamePresentUK CAB International, 1992
UruguayPresentBackman et al., 1981; UK CAB International, 1992
VenezuelaPresentUK CAB International, 1992; Aponte et al., 1994

Europe

BelgiumPresentKamoen and Jamart, 1977
CyprusPresentUK CAB International, 1992
DenmarkPresentUK CAB International, 1992
FrancePresentIRAT, 1983
GermanyPresentEl Abyad et al., 1988; UK CAB International, 1992
GreecePresentUK CAB International, 1992; Chatzivassiliou et al., 2016Agrinion
GuernseyPresentIMI Herbarium, undated
ItalyPresentAnon., 1992; UK CAB International, 1992; Carrieri et al., 2016
-SardiniaPresentUK CAB International, 1992; Garibaldi et al., 2013; Gilardi et al., 2013
-SicilyPresentPolizzi et al., 2010
JerseyPresentIMI Herbarium, undated
NetherlandsPresentIMI Herbarium, undated
PolandPresentOrlikowski and Ptaszek, 2013
PortugalPresentIMI Herbarium, undated
Russian FederationPresentMkervali et al., 1990
-Russia (Europe)PresentShengeliya, 1971; Skripka et al., 1986; UK CAB International, 1992
SloveniaPresentCelar and Valic, 2003
SpainPresentUK CAB International, 1992; Remesal et al., 2010; Roca et al., 2016
Yugoslavia (former)PresentMilevoj, 1989; UK CAB International, 1992

Oceania

AustraliaPresentConde and Diatloff, 1991
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentUK CAB International, 1992; Duff and Connelly, 1993
-New South WalesPresentUK CAB International, 1992
-QueenslandPresentVawdrey and Peterson, 1990; UK CAB International, 1992
-South AustraliaPresentUK CAB International, 1992
-TasmaniaPresentUK CAB International, 1992
-VictoriaPresentUK CAB International, 1992
-Western AustraliaPresentDewan and Sivasithamparam, 1987; UK CAB International, 1992
FijiPresentUK CAB International, 1992
French PolynesiaPresentUK CAB International, 1992
GuamPresentUK CAB International, 1992
New CaledoniaPresentUK CAB International, 1992
New ZealandPresentUK CAB International, 1992; Alexander and Stewart, 1994
Norfolk IslandPresentUK CAB International, 1992
Papua New GuineaPresentUK CAB International, 1992
SamoaPresentReynolds, 1975
Solomon IslandsPresentGollifer, 1973; UK CAB International, 1992
TongaPresentUK CAB International, 1992
TuvaluPresentFAO, 1985
VanuatuPresentUK CAB International, 1992

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Pre-emergence, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / extensive mould
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Inflorescence / lesions on glumes
Inflorescence / rot
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / wilting
Roots / fungal growth on surface
Roots / necrotic streaks or lesions
Roots / rot of wood
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Seeds / rot
Stems / canker on woody stem
Stems / dieback
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / internal discoloration
Stems / mould growth on lesion
Vegetative organs / internal rotting or discoloration
Vegetative organs / soft rot
Vegetative organs / surface lesions or discoloration
Whole plant / damping off
Whole plant / seedling blight

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aspergillus flavus Antagonist
Aspergillus niger Antagonist
Bacillus subtilis Pathogen sunflowers
Gliocladium virens Antagonist
Glomus fasciculatum Antagonist India
Hypocrea rufa Mycoparasite India; Italy sunflowers
Laetisaria arvalis Pathogen
Nectria ventricosa Pathogen
Penicillium corylophilum Pathogen
Penicillium notatum Antagonist
Pseudomonas fluorescens Antagonist
Serratia marcescens Pathogen
Trichoderma hamatum Antagonist
Trichoderma harzianum Antagonist India; Philippines; Italy
Trichoderma longibrachiatum Antagonist
Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae Pathogen

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes hyphae; sclerotia Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; sclerotia Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; sclerotia Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Growing medium accompanying plants hyphae; sclerotia Yes Pest or symptoms usually invisible
Leaves hyphae; sclerotia Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots hyphae; sclerotia Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; sclerotia Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae; sclerotia Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

References

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Abbasher AA, Kroschel J, Sauerborn J, 1995. Microorganisms of Striga hermonthica in northern Ghana with potential as biocontrol agents. Biocontrol Science and Technology, 5(2):157-161; 17 ref.

Abd-Allah EF, 2005. Effect of a Bacillus subtilis isolate on southern blight (Sclerotium rolfsii) and lipid composition of peanut seeds. Phytoparasitica, 33(5):460-466. http://www.phytoparasitica.org

Abd-Allah EF, El-Didamony G, 2007. Effect of seed treatment of Arachis hypogaea with Bacillus subtilis on nodulation in biological control of southern blight (Sclerotium rolfsii) disease. Phytoparasitica, 35(1):8-12. http://www.phytoparasitica.org

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