Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Stromatinia cepivora
(white rot of onion and garlic)

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Datasheet

Stromatinia cepivora (white rot of onion and garlic)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 25 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Stromatinia cepivora
  • Preferred Common Name
  • white rot of onion and garlic
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Leotiomycetes

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Hyphae emerging as an S. cepivorum sclerotium germinates.
TitleHyphae
CaptionHyphae emerging as an S. cepivorum sclerotium germinates.
CopyrightDean A. Metcalf
Hyphae emerging as an S. cepivorum sclerotium germinates.
HyphaeHyphae emerging as an S. cepivorum sclerotium germinates.Dean A. Metcalf
A rare occasion when white S. Cepivorum hyphae appear at the soil surface at the base of an infected seedling.
TitleHyphae at base of seedling
CaptionA rare occasion when white S. Cepivorum hyphae appear at the soil surface at the base of an infected seedling.
CopyrightDean A. Metcalf
A rare occasion when white S. Cepivorum hyphae appear at the soil surface at the base of an infected seedling.
Hyphae at base of seedlingA rare occasion when white S. Cepivorum hyphae appear at the soil surface at the base of an infected seedling.Dean A. Metcalf
Infected onion bulbs displaying sclerotia (black) and hyphae (white) on the base.
TitleSymptoms on onion bulbs
CaptionInfected onion bulbs displaying sclerotia (black) and hyphae (white) on the base.
CopyrightDean A. Metcalf
Infected onion bulbs displaying sclerotia (black) and hyphae (white) on the base.
Symptoms on onion bulbsInfected onion bulbs displaying sclerotia (black) and hyphae (white) on the base.Dean A. Metcalf
Above ground symptoms of S. cepivorum infection.
TitleSymptoms on onion plants
CaptionAbove ground symptoms of S. cepivorum infection.
CopyrightDean A. Metcalf
Above ground symptoms of S. cepivorum infection.
Symptoms on onion plantsAbove ground symptoms of S. cepivorum infection.Dean A. Metcalf
A yellow patch is often the first symptom of S. cepivorum infection to be detected (Devonport, Tasmania).
TitleEarly symptoms on crop
CaptionA yellow patch is often the first symptom of S. cepivorum infection to be detected (Devonport, Tasmania).
CopyrightDean A. Metcalf
A yellow patch is often the first symptom of S. cepivorum infection to be detected (Devonport, Tasmania).
Early symptoms on cropA yellow patch is often the first symptom of S. cepivorum infection to be detected (Devonport, Tasmania).Dean A. Metcalf
Base of an S. cepivorum infected bulb displaying three sclerotia of the large sclerotial form amid thousands of normal sclerotia.
TitleSymptoms on onion bulb
CaptionBase of an S. cepivorum infected bulb displaying three sclerotia of the large sclerotial form amid thousands of normal sclerotia.
CopyrightDean A. Metcalf
Base of an S. cepivorum infected bulb displaying three sclerotia of the large sclerotial form amid thousands of normal sclerotia.
Symptoms on onion bulbBase of an S. cepivorum infected bulb displaying three sclerotia of the large sclerotial form amid thousands of normal sclerotia.Dean A. Metcalf

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Stromatinia cepivora (Berk.) Whetzel

Preferred Common Name

  • white rot of onion and garlic

Other Scientific Names

  • Sclerotium cepivorum Berk.
  • Stromatinia cepivorum (Berk.) Whetzel

International Common Names

  • English: Allium white rot; bulb rot of onion; onion white root rot; onion white rot
  • Spanish: mal del esclerocio de los ajos; podredumbre blanca de la cebolla; pudrición blanca de la cebolla y del ajo
  • French: pourriture blanche de l'échalote; pourriture blanche de l'oignon et de l'ail; pourriture noire de l'ail

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Mehlkrankheit: Lauchgewaechse; Mehlkrankheit: Zwiebel; Weissfaeule: Zwiebel

EPPO code

  • SCLOCE (Stromatinia cepivorum)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Leotiomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Leotiomycetidae
  •                         Order: Helotiales
  •                             Family: Sclerotiniaceae
  •                                 Genus: Stromatinia
  •                                     Species: Stromatinia cepivora

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 23 Apr 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

EgyptPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
EthiopiaPresentTamire Zewde et al. (2007)
LibyaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
South AfricaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
UgandaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
ZimbabwePresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)

Asia

ChinaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
IndiaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-DelhiPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-Uttar PradeshPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
IranPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
IsraelAbsent, Formerly presentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
JapanPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
PhilippinesPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
South KoreaPresentKim YongBum et al. (2009)
TurkeyPresentTürkkan and Karaca (2006)

Europe

AustriaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
BulgariaPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
CyprusPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
CzechiaPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
CzechoslovakiaPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2014); CABI (Undated)
DenmarkPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
FinlandPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
FrancePresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
GermanyPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
GreecePresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-CretePresentCABI (Undated)Original citation: CMI, 1990
HungaryPresentBakonyi et al. (2011)
IrelandPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
ItalyPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
NetherlandsPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
NorwayPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)First reported: 195*
PolandPresentRobak (2005)
PortugalPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-AzoresPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
RomaniaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
RussiaPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
-Russia (Europe)Present, WidespreadEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
SerbiaPresentEPPO (2020)
Serbia and MontenegroPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
SpainPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
SwedenPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
SwitzerlandPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
United KingdomPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-EnglandPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020)
-Northern IrelandPresentEPPO (2020)

North America

CanadaPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-British ColumbiaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-ManitobaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-OntarioPresentCouch and Kohn (2000)
-QuebecPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
Costa RicaPresentGranados and Wang (2005)
MexicoPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
United StatesPresent, LocalizedEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-CaliforniaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-KentuckyPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-LouisianaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-New JerseyPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-OhioPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-OregonPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-PennsylvaniaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-TexasPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-VirginiaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, WidespreadEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-New South WalesPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-QueenslandPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-South AustraliaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-TasmaniaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-VictoriaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
New ZealandPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)

South America

ArgentinaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
BoliviaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
BrazilPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-Minas GeraisPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-Rio Grande do SulPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
-Sao PauloPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
ChilePresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
ColombiaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
GuyanaPresentEPPO (2020)
UruguayPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)
VenezuelaPresentEPPO (2020); CABI (Undated)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / mycelium present
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / wilting
Leaves / yellowed or dead
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Stems / mould growth on lesion
Stems / mycelium present
Stems / wilt
Whole plant / early senescence
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Acremoniella atra Pathogen
Aspergillus candidus Antagonist
Bacillus pumilus Pathogen
Bacillus subtilis Pathogen
Chaetomium globosum Pathogen
Clonostachys rosea Antagonist
Coniothyrium minitans Mycoparasite
Gliocladium virens Antagonist
Hypocrea rufa Mycoparasite
Paecilomyces lilacinus Mycoparasite
Penicillium aurantiogriseum Antagonist
Penicillium godlewskii Pathogen
Penicillium nigricans Pathogen
Teratosperma sclerotivora Pathogen
Trichoderma harzianum Antagonist
Trichothecium roseum Antagonist

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes hyphae; sclerotia Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots hyphae Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; sclerotia Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx
Fruits (inc. pods)
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
True seeds (inc. grain)
Wood

References

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Abd-El Moity TH; Papavizas GC; Shatla MN, 1982. Induction of new isolates of Trichoderma harzianum tolerant to fungicides and their experimental use for control of white rot of onion. Phytopathology, 72(4):396-400

Abd-El-Moity TH, 1983. Biological control of white rot of onion in the field. Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Allium White Rot, Beltsville, USA, 81-82.

Abd-El-Moity TH, 1986. A new system for the production and delivery of biological control agents to the soil. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Allium White Rot. Wellesbourne, UK, S4:28-34.

Abd-El-Moity TH; Shatla MN, 1981. Biological control of white rot disease of onion (Sclerotium cepivorum) by Trichoderma harzianum. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 100(1):29-35

Abd-El-Razik AA; Shatla MN; Rushdi M, 1973. Studies on the infection of onion plants by Sclerotium cepivorum Berk. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 76(2):108-116

Adams PB; Ayers WA, 1981. Sporidesmium sclerotivorum: distribution and function in natural biological control of sclerotial fungi. Phytopathology, 71(1):90-93

Adams PB; Papavizas GC, 1971. Effect of inoculum density of Sclerotium cepivorum and some soil environmental factors on disease severity. Phytopathology, 61:1253-1256.

Ahmed AHM; Tribe HT, 1977. Biological control of white rot of onion (Sclerotium cepivorum) by Coniothyrium minitans. Plant Pathology, 26(2):75-78

Alexander BJR; Stewart A, 1994. Survival of sclerotia of Sclerotinia and Sclerotium spp. in New Zealand horticultural soil. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 26(10):1323-1329

Avila de Moreno C, 1991. Chemical control of Sclerotium cepivorum Berk causing white rot of garlic. Fitopatologia Colombiana, 15(2):62-69

Backhouse D; Stewart A, 1987. Anatomy and histochemistry of resting and germinating sclerotia of Sclerotium cepivorum. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 89(4):561-567

Backhouse D; Stewart A, 1988. Large sclerotia of Sclerotium cepivorum. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 91(2):343-346

Backhouse D; Stewart A, 1989. Ultrastructure of antagonism of Sclerotium cepivorum by Bacillus subtilis.. Journal of Phytopathology, 124(1-4):207-214; 14 ref.

Bakonyi J; Vajna L; Szeredi A; Tímár E; Kovács GM; Csodouble acute~sz M; Varga A, 2011. First report of Sclerotium cepivorum causing white rot of garlic in Hungary. New Disease Reports, 23:Article 5. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/pdfs/023/NDR_023005.pdf

Brix HD; Zinkernagel V, 1992. Screening for resistance of Allium species to Sclerotium cepivorum with special reference to non-stimulatory resistance. Plant Pathology, 41(3):308-316

Budge SP; Whipps JM, 1991. Glasshouse trials of Coniothyrium minitans and Trichoderma species for the biological control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in celery and lettuce. Plant Pathology, 40(1):59-66

Carbone I; Kohn LM, 1993. Ribosomal DNA sequence divergence within internal transcribed spacer 1 of the Sclerotiniaceae. Mycologia, 85(3):415-427

Coley-Smith JR, 1986. Interaction between Sclerotium cepivorum and cultivars of onion, leek, garlic and Allium fistulosum. Plant Pathology, 35(3):362-369

Coley-Smith JR, 1990. White rot disease of Allium: problems of soil-borne diseases in microcosm. Plant Pathology, 39(2):214-222

Coley-Smith JR; Cooke RC, 1971. Survival and germination of fungal sclerotia. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 9:65-92.

Coley-Smith JR; Holt RW, 1966. The effect of species of Allium on germination in soil of sclerotia of Sclerotium cepivorum Berk. Annals of Applied Biology, 58:273-278.

Coley-Smith JR; Mitchell CM; Sansford CE, 1990. Long-term survival of sclerotia of Sclerotium cepivorum and Stromatinia gladioli. Plant Pathology, 39(1):58-69

Couch BC; Kohn LM, 2000. Clonal spread of Sclerotium cepivorum in onion production with evidence of past recombination events. Phytopathology, 90(5):514-521.

Crowe FJ, 1995. First report of the large sclerotial form of Sclerotium cepivorum in North America. Phytopathology, 85:1038.

Crowe FJ, 1995. Survival and Viability of Sclerotium cepivorum in soil with and without in season flooding. Phytopathology, 85:1038.

Crowe FJ; Hall DH, 1980. Soil temperature and moisture effects on sclerotium germination and infection of onion seedlings by Sclerotium cepivorum. Phytopathology, 70(1):74-78

Crowe FJ; Hall DH, 1980. Vertical distribution of sclerotia of Sclerotium cepivorum and host root systems relative to white rot of onion and garlic. Phytopathology, 70(1):70-73

Crowe FJ; Hall DH; Greathead AS; Baghott KG, 1980. Inoculum density of Sclerotium cepivorum and the incidence of white rot of onion and garlic. Phytopathology, 70(1):64-69

Dennis JJC, 1997. Progress toward an integrated control strategy for onion white root rot disease, including the use of artificial germination stimulants. Acta Horticulturae (Papers from the Second International Symposium on Edible Alliaceae, Adelaide, Australia, November 1997.), in press.

Dennis JJC, 1998. Germination Stimulants in Tasmania- Update. Onions Australia, 15:29-32.

Earnshaw D; Boland GJ, 1997. Mycelial compatibility groups in Sclerotium cepivorum. Plant Pathology, 46(2):229-238; 21 ref.

Entwistle AR, 1990. Root diseases. In: Rabinowitch HD, Brewster L, eds. Onions and Allied Crops Vol. II. Agronomy, Biotic Interactions, Pathology, and Crop Protection. London, UK: CRC Press, 105-154.

EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm

Fullerton RA; Stewart A; Slade EA, 1995. Use of demethylation inhibiting fungicides (DMIs) for the control of onion white rot (Sclerotium cepivorum Berk.) in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Crop and Horticultural Science, 23(2):121-125

Georgy NI; Coley-Smith JR, 1982. Variation in morphology of Sclerotium cepivorum sclerotia. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 79(3):534-536

Gerbrandy SJ, 1992. Effects of different temperature treatments on dormancy of sclerotia of ten isolates of Sclerotium cepivorum. Netherlands Journal of Plant Pathology, 98(5):269-276

Gerlagh M; Whipps JM; Budge SP; Goossen van de Geijn HM, 1996. Efficiency of isolates of Coniothyrium minitans as mycoparasites of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, Sclerotium cepivorum and Botrytis cinerea on tomato stem pieces. European Journal of Plant Pathology, 102(8):787-793; 12 ref.

Ghaffar A, 1969. Biological control of onion white root rot. 1- Interaction of soil micro-organisms with sclerotium cepivorum Berk. Mycopathogogia et Mycologia Applicata, 38:113-127.

Gindro C; Corbaz RA, 1994. Verticillium tenerum, an antagonist to Sclerotium cepivorum. Proceedings of the Fifth International Workshop on Allium White Rot, Cordoba, Spain.

Gindro C; L'Hoste G, 1997. Germination and infectious potential of microconidia of Sclerotium cepivorum. Journal of Phytopathology, 145(4):171-175; 21 ref.

Granados Mdel M; Wang A, 2005. Isolation and identification of fungi associated to sclerotia of Sclerotium cepivorum, causal agent of white rot in onion, in the highlands of Cartago, Costa Rica. (Aislamiento e identificación de hongos asociados a esclerocios de Sclerotium cepivorum, causante de la pudrición blanca de la cebolla, en la zona alta de cartago, Costa Rica.) Agronomía Costarricense, 29(1):57-66.

Harrison YA; Stewart A, 1988. Selection of fungal antagonists for biological control of onion white rot in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 16(3):249-256

Huang HC; Hoes JA, 1976. Penetration and infection of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum by Coniothyrium minitans. Canadian Journal of Botany, 54(5/6):406-410

Katan J, 1981. Solar heating (Solarization) of soil for control of soilborne pests. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 19:211-236.

Kaye SJ; Stewart A, 1994. Evaluation of fungal antagonists for control of onion white rot in soil box trials. Plant Pathology, 43:863-871.

Kim YongBum; Choi InHu; Kim CheolWoo; Bang JinKi; Kim YongGi, 2009. Effects of soil environmental condition on occurrence of Allium white rot (Sclerotium cepivorum) in welsh onion. Korean Journal of Horticultural Science & Technology, 27(2):181-186. http://www.horticulture.or.kr

King JE; Coley-Smith JR, 1969. The production by species of Allium of alkyl sulphides and the effect on germination of sclerotia of Sclerotium cepivorum. Annals of Applied Biology, 64:298-301.

Littley ER; Rahe JE, 1987. Effect of host plant density on white rot of onion caused by Sclerotium cepivorum. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 9(2):146-151

Mankarios AT; Friend J, 1980. Polysaccharide-degrading enzymes of Botrytis allii and Sclerotium cepivorum. Enzyme production in culture and the effect of the enzymes on isolated onion cell walls. Physiological Plant Pathology, 17(1):93-104

Metcalf DA, 1997. Biological control of Onion White Root Rot. PhD Thesis. Hobart, Australia: University of Tasmania.

Metcalf DA, 1998. Onion White Rot verses Trichoderma. Onions Australia, 15:35-38.

Metcalf DA; Dennis JJC; Wilson CR, 1997. First report of the large sclerotial form of Sclerotium cepivorum in Australia. Australasian Plant Pathology, 26(3):203; 5 ref.

Metcalf DA; Wilson CR, 1997. Progress toward a biological control system for onion white root rot in Tasmania. Acta Horticulturae (Papers from the Second International Symposium on Edible Alliaceae, Adelaide, Australia, November 1997), in press.

Mordue JEM, 1976. Sclerotium cepivorum. Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria. No 512. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Mukerji KG, 1971. A new disease- white rot of Zephyranthes Herb. Review of Plant Pathology, 50:1846.

Netzer D, 1963. New diseases and vegetables in Israel. Hassadeh, 43:1267-1269.

Oliveira VL de; Bellei M de; Borges AC, 1984. Control of white rot of garlic by antagonistic fungi under controlled environmental conditions. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 30(7):884-889

Papavizas GC, 1982. Survival of Trichoderma harzianum in soil and in pea and bean rhizospheres. Phytopathology, 72(1):121-125

Parfitt D; Coley-Smith JR, 1983. The occurrence of Teratosperma oligocladum and Laterispora brivirama in soils in England. Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Allium White Rot. Beltsville, USA.

Pereira JCR; Chaves GM; Zambolim L; Matsuoka K; Acuna RS; Vale FXRdo, 1996. Control of Sclerotium cepivorum by the use of vermicompost, solarization, Trichoderma harzianum and Bacillus subtilis. Summa Phytopathologica, 22(3/4):228-234; 39 ref.

Porter IJ, 1988. White rot control: Sumisclex works but correct use is essential. Australian Onion Grower, 5:25-27.

Porter IJ; Merriman PR, 1985. Evaluation of soil solarization for control of root diseases of row crops in Victoria. Plant Pathology, 34(1):108-118; [11 ref.]; 19 ref.

Rahe JE, 1981. Lack of correlation between field and laboratory tests for resistance with special reference to white rot in onions. In: Staples RC, Toenniessen GH, eds. Plant Disease Control: Resistance and Susceptability. New York, USA: Wiley, 193-200.

Reddy MS; Rahe JE; Lévesque CA, 1992. Influence of onion seed bacterization on germination and mycosphere microflora of Sclerotium cepivorum sclerotia. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 38(11):1135-1143; 24 ref.

Robak J, 2005. Diseases of onions grown from winter sowing. (Choroby cebuli uprawianej z siewu ozimego.) Ochrona Roslin, 50(11):20-22.

Sansford CE; Coley-Smith JR; Parfitt D, 1987. Sporidesmium sclerotivorum on sclerotia of Sclerotinia. Plant Pathology, 36(3):411-412

Scott MR, 1956. Studies of the biology of Sclerotium cepivorum Berk. I-The growth of mycelium in the soil. Annals of Applied Biology, 44:576-583.

Stewart A; Backhouse D; Sutherland PW; Fullerton RA, 1989. The development of infection structures of Sclerotium cepivorum on onion. Journal of Phytopathology, 126(1):22-32

Stone HE; Armentrout VN, 1985. Production of oxalic acid by Sclerotium cepivorum during infection of onion. Mycologia, 77:526-530.

Tamire Zewde; Chemeda Fininsa; Sakhuja PK; Seid Ahmed, 2007. Association of white rot (Sclerotium cepivorum) of garlic with environmental factors and cultural practices in the North Shewa highlands of Ethiopia. Crop Protection, 26(10):1566-1573. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02612194

Trutmann P; Keane PJ; Merriman PR, 1982. Biological control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on aerial parts of plants by the hyperparasite Coniothyrium minitans. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 78(3):521-529

Turner GJ; Tribe HT, 1976. On Coniothyrium minitans and its parasitism of Sclerotinia species. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 66(1):97-105

Türkkan M; Karaca G, 2006. Determination of fungal root rot disease agents associated with onion fields in Amasya province. (Amasya ili sogan ekilis alanlarInda bulunan fungal kök çürüklügü hastalIk etmenlerinin belirlenmesi.) Tarim Bilimleri Dergisi , 12(4):357-363. http://www.agri.ankara.edu.tr/tarimbilimleri

Utkhede RS; Rahe JE, 1979. Wet-sieving floatation technique for isolation of sclerotia of Sclerotium cepivorum from muck soil. Phytopathology, 69(3):295-297

Utkhede RS; Rahe JE, 1980. Biological control of onion white rot. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 12(2):101-104

Utkhede RS; Rahe JE, 1983. Interactions of antagonist and pathogen in biological control of onion white rot. Phytopathology, 73(6):890-893; [2 fig., 2 tab.]; 8 ref.

Visser CLM, 1997. Perspectives for the control of white rot in onions. PAV Bulletin Vollegrondsgroenteteelt, No. May:26-27.

Walker JC, 1924. White rot of Allium in Europe and America. Phytopathology, 14:315-322.

Whetzel HH, 1945. A synopsis of the genera and species of the Sclerotiniaceae, a family of stromatic inoperculate discomycetes. Mycologia, 37:648-714.

Wong DCW; Rahe JE; Utkede RS, 1983. Immunoflourescent analysis of rhizosphere populations of Bacilis subtilis in relation to the use of seed bacterisation for control of onion white rot. Proceedings of the Second International Workshop on Allium White Rot, Beltsville, USA.

Young JM; Allen JD, 1970. In vitro infection and pathogenesis of plants from several genera by the specific soil-borne pathogen Sclerotium cepivorum. Review of Plant Pathology, 49:720.

Distribution References

Bakonyi J, Vajna L, Szeredi A, Tímár E, Kovács G M, Csősz M, Varga A, 2011. First report of Sclerotium cepivorum causing white rot of garlic in Hungary. New Disease Reports. Article 5. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/pdfs/023/NDR_023005.pdf

CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI

CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Couch B C, Kohn L M, 2000. Clonal spread of Sclerotium cepivorum in onion production with evidence of past recombination events. Phytopathology. 90 (5), 514-521. DOI:10.1094/PHYTO.2000.90.5.514

EPPO, 2014. EPPO Global database (available online). Paris, France: EPPO. https://gd.eppo.int/

EPPO, 2020. EPPO Global database. In: EPPO Global database, Paris, France: EPPO.

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