Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
(cottony soft rot)

Toolbox

Datasheet

Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (cottony soft rot)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 May 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Sclerotinia sclerotiorum
  • Preferred Common Name
  • cottony soft rot
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Fungi
  •     Phylum: Ascomycota
  •       Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •         Class: Leotiomycetes

Don't need the entire report?

Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need.

Generate report

Pictures

Top of page
PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Head rot of sunflower caused by infection with ascospores of S. sclerotiorum. Note the threaded fibrous tissues.
TitleSymptoms on sunflower head
CaptionHead rot of sunflower caused by infection with ascospores of S. sclerotiorum. Note the threaded fibrous tissues.
Copyright©CABI BioScience
Head rot of sunflower caused by infection with ascospores of S. sclerotiorum. Note the threaded fibrous tissues.
Symptoms on sunflower headHead rot of sunflower caused by infection with ascospores of S. sclerotiorum. Note the threaded fibrous tissues.©CABI BioScience
Head rot of safflower caused by S. sclerotiorum. Note brown rotted heads.
TitleSymptoms on safflower
CaptionHead rot of safflower caused by S. sclerotiorum. Note brown rotted heads.
CopyrightH.C. Huang
Head rot of safflower caused by S. sclerotiorum. Note brown rotted heads.
Symptoms on safflowerHead rot of safflower caused by S. sclerotiorum. Note brown rotted heads.H.C. Huang
White mould of beans caused by S. sclerotiorum, showing white fluffy mycelia on the diseased pod (top).
TitleSymptoms on beans
CaptionWhite mould of beans caused by S. sclerotiorum, showing white fluffy mycelia on the diseased pod (top).
CopyrightH.C. Huang
White mould of beans caused by S. sclerotiorum, showing white fluffy mycelia on the diseased pod (top).
Symptoms on beansWhite mould of beans caused by S. sclerotiorum, showing white fluffy mycelia on the diseased pod (top).H.C. Huang
Mycelial growth on tomato stem.
TitleSymptoms on tomato stem
CaptionMycelial growth on tomato stem.
CopyrightMauritius Sugar Industry Research Institute
Mycelial growth on tomato stem.
Symptoms on tomato stemMycelial growth on tomato stem.Mauritius Sugar Industry Research Institute
Infected soyabean plant showing sclerotia.
TitleSymptoms on soyabean
CaptionInfected soyabean plant showing sclerotia.
CopyrightISU
Infected soyabean plant showing sclerotia.
Symptoms on soyabeanInfected soyabean plant showing sclerotia.ISU
Sclerotia from diseased sunflower head showing variation in size (up to 1 cm across) and shape.
TitleSclerotia
CaptionSclerotia from diseased sunflower head showing variation in size (up to 1 cm across) and shape.
CopyrightH.C. Huang
Sclerotia from diseased sunflower head showing variation in size (up to 1 cm across) and shape.
SclerotiaSclerotia from diseased sunflower head showing variation in size (up to 1 cm across) and shape.H.C. Huang
Morphologically abnormal sclerotia of S. sclerotiorum from diseased sunflower plants. Note the medullary tissue is white in the normal sclerotium (right) and brown or amber in the slightly abnormal (centre) and grossly abnormal (left) sclerotia.
TitleNormal and abnormal sclerotia (sections)
CaptionMorphologically abnormal sclerotia of S. sclerotiorum from diseased sunflower plants. Note the medullary tissue is white in the normal sclerotium (right) and brown or amber in the slightly abnormal (centre) and grossly abnormal (left) sclerotia.
CopyrightH.C. Huang
Morphologically abnormal sclerotia of S. sclerotiorum from diseased sunflower plants. Note the medullary tissue is white in the normal sclerotium (right) and brown or amber in the slightly abnormal (centre) and grossly abnormal (left) sclerotia.
Normal and abnormal sclerotia (sections)Morphologically abnormal sclerotia of S. sclerotiorum from diseased sunflower plants. Note the medullary tissue is white in the normal sclerotium (right) and brown or amber in the slightly abnormal (centre) and grossly abnormal (left) sclerotia.H.C. Huang
Apothecia on sclerotium.
TitleApothecia on sclerotium
CaptionApothecia on sclerotium.
CopyrightR.A. Frederiksen
Apothecia on sclerotium.
Apothecia on sclerotiumApothecia on sclerotium.R.A. Frederiksen
CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 513. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
TitleSection of sclerotium
CaptionCMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 513. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
Copyright©CABI BioScience
CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 513. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
Section of sclerotiumCMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 513. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.©CABI BioScience
A, cells from sclerotium rind; B, from sclerotium medulla; C, hyphae from advancing edge of colony (stained cotton-blue in lactophenol); D, spermatia. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 513. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
TitleS. sclerotiorum - line drawing
CaptionA, cells from sclerotium rind; B, from sclerotium medulla; C, hyphae from advancing edge of colony (stained cotton-blue in lactophenol); D, spermatia. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 513. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
Copyright©CABI BioScience
A, cells from sclerotium rind; B, from sclerotium medulla; C, hyphae from advancing edge of colony (stained cotton-blue in lactophenol); D, spermatia. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 513. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.
S. sclerotiorum - line drawingA, cells from sclerotium rind; B, from sclerotium medulla; C, hyphae from advancing edge of colony (stained cotton-blue in lactophenol); D, spermatia. CMI Descriptions of Pathogenic Fungi and Bacteria No. 513. CAB International, Wallingford, UK.©CABI BioScience

Identity

Top of page

Preferred Scientific Name

  • Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary

Preferred Common Name

  • cottony soft rot

Other Scientific Names

  • Peziza sclerotiorum Lib.
  • Sclerotinia libertiana Fuckel
  • Sclerotium varium Pers.
  • Whetzelinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) Korf & Dumont

International Common Names

  • English: collar rot; Sclerotinia blossom blight; Sclerotinia canker; sclerotinia disease; Sclerotinia drop; Sclerotinia head rot; Sclerotinia pod rot; Sclerotinia soft rot; Sclerotinia stalk rot; Sclerotinia stem rot; Sclerotinia twig blight; Sclerotinia wilt; watery pod rot; white mould; white rot
  • Spanish: mal del esclerocio de las plantas cultivadas; moho blanco; pudricion blanca
  • French: maladie des sclérotes; pourriture des pommes; pourriture du collet

Local Common Names

  • China: bai gan; bai mei bin; jun ho bin; jun ho sin su tsai ruan ru bin; lan tou bin; lau lai wen
  • Germany: Sclerotinia faule; Sclerotinia korbfaule; Sclerotinia stengelfaule; Sclerotinia welke
  • Japan: kinkakubyo

EPPO code

  • SCLESC (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Fungi
  •         Phylum: Ascomycota
  •             Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
  •                 Class: Leotiomycetes
  •                     Subclass: Leotiomycetidae
  •                         Order: Helotiales
  •                             Family: Sclerotiniaceae
  •                                 Genus: Sclerotinia
  •                                     Species: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum

Distribution Table

Top of page

The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

AzerbaijanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
BangladeshPresentProva et al., 2014; Ahmed and Akhond, 2015; Rahman et al., 2015
ChinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
-AnhuiPresentAnon, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-FujianPresentAnon, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-GuangdongPresentAnon, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-GuangxiPresentAnon, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-GuizhouPresentAnon, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-HainanPresentAnon, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-HebeiPresentAnon, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-HeilongjiangPresentAnon, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2005; Yan et al., 2014
-HenanPresentAnon, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-Hong KongPresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
-HubeiPresentAnon, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-HunanPresentAnon, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-JiangsuPresentAnon, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-JiangxiPresentAnon, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-JilinPresentAnon, 1979; Liu and Li, 1988; Hua et al., 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-LiaoningPresentAnon, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-Nei MengguPresentAnon, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-NingxiaPresentAnon, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-QinghaiPresentIrzykowski et al., 2004
-ShaanxiPresentAnon, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-ShandongPresentAnon, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-ShanghaiPresentWang et al., 2000
-ShanxiPresentAnon, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-SichuanPresentAnon, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-TibetPresentAnon, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-XinjiangPresentAnon, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-YunnanPresentAnon, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-ZhejiangPresentAnon, 1979; Shen, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2005
GazaPresentElazari-Volcani, 1944
Georgia (Republic of)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
IndiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
-Arunachal PradeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
-AssamPresentRoy, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-BiharPresentSaxena and Rai, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-DelhiPresentMukerji, 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-HaryanaPresentRajender-Singh & Tripathi, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-Himachal PradeshPresentGupta and Dohroo, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-Indian PunjabPresentSharma et al., 1992b; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-Jammu and KashmirPresentPandotra, 1976; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-Madhya PradeshPresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
-ManipurPresentBalou and Iboton, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-MeghalayaPresentMaiti, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-NagalandPresentSingh, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-RajasthanPresentSingh & Agrawat, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-SikkimPresentBag and Dutta, 2009
-Tamil NaduPresentMohan, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2005; Vinod et al., 2015
-Uttar PradeshPresentSaxena and Rai, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-West BengalPresentDilip-Monga, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2005; Mondal et al., 2012; Khatua et al., 2014
IranPresentMoghaddam and Izadyar, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2005; Yousefdoost and Ghosta, 2013
IsraelPresentBen-Yephet et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2005
JapanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
-HokkaidoPresentYamamoto, 1959; Kondo et al., 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-HonshuPresentHori, 1899; Yamamoto, 1959; Akazawa and Ono, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-KyushuPresentOkamoto, 1938; Tokumaru et al., 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentOkamoto, 1938; Yamamoto, 1959; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-ShikokuPresentNaito and Kimura, 1954; Saito, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2005
JordanPresentAbu-Blan and Abu-Gharbieh, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2005
Korea, Republic ofPresentBai, 1977; Park, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2005; Han et al., 2013; Choi et al., 2016
LebanonPresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
NepalPresentDuwadi et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2005
PakistanPresentMirza and Ahmad, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2005
SingaporePresentAdair, 1971; CABI/EPPO, 2005
Sri LankaPresentMahalingam et al., 2017
SyriaPresentHaware, 1990; CABI/EPPO, 2005
TaiwanPresentTsai, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2005; Shen et al., 2012
TajikistanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
ThailandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
TurkeyPresentYucer and Karaca, 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2005; Taskin and Yikilmazsoy, 2015
UzbekistanPresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
VietnamPresentTrinh et al., 2012

Africa

AlgeriaPresentMaire, 1927; CABI/EPPO, 2005
CongoPresentFoucart, 1954; CABI/EPPO, 2005
EgyptPresentTarabeih and Abou-el-Fadl, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2005
EthiopiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
KenyaPresentRobinson, 1960; Martens et al., 1970; CABI/EPPO, 2005
LibyaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
MalawiPresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
MauritiusPresentFelix, 1962; CABI/EPPO, 2005
MoroccoPresentAchbani and Tourvieille, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2005
NigeriaPresentAkem and Dashiell, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2005
Saint HelenaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
South AfricaPresentDenner et al., 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2005
TanzaniaPresentFivawo, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2005
ZimbabwePresentRothwell, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2005

North America

BermudaPresentWaterston, 1947; CABI/EPPO, 2005
CanadaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
-AlbertaPresentWilliams and Stelfox, 1980; Huang et al., 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-British ColumbiaPresentElmhirst and Joshi, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-ManitobaPresentBisby, 1924; Dedio, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-New BrunswickPresentRankin, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-Newfoundland and LabradorPresentCreelman, 1962; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-Nova ScotiaPresentGourley and Delbridge, 1972; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-OntarioPresentHildebrand, 1948; Melzer et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-Prince Edward IslandPresentWillis, 1966; Martin and Arsenault, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-QuebecPresentBaribeau, 1923; Arcelin and Kushalappa, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-SaskatchewanPresentMorrall & McKenzie, 1975; McKenzie and Morrall, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2005
MexicoPresentCrispin and Campos, 1976; Ponce and Mendoza, 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2005
USAPresentGreathead and Greathead, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-AlabamaPresentPratt et al., 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-AlaskaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
-ArizonaPresentBrown and Butler, 1936; Matheron and Matejka, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-ArkansasPresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
-CaliforniaPresentGill, 1975; Michailides and Morgan, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-ColoradoPresentBurke et al., 1957; Casciano and Schwartz, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-ConnecticutPresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
-DelawarePresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
-FloridaPresentMoore et al., 1949; Purdy, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2005; Young et al., 2012
-GeorgiaPresentBrenneman et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-HawaiiPresentCho, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-IdahoPresentHungerford, 1953; Murray et al., 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-IllinoisPresentNicholson et al., 1973; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-IndianaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
-IowaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
-KentuckyPresentAnon, 1935; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-LouisianaPresentHolcomb and Motsinger, 1968; Holcomb and Reed, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-MainePresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
-MarylandPresentOrellana and Bailey, 1964; Adam, 1986; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-MassachusettsPresentStone and Smith, 1898; Guba, 1961; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-MichiganPresentPurdy, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-MinnesotaPresentGrau & Bissonette, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-MississippiPresentPratt et al., 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-MissouriPresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
-MontanaPresentSwingle, 1921; Young, 1933; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-NebraskaPresentSteadman, 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-New HampshirePresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
-New JerseyPresentPurdy, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-New MexicoPresentSanogo and Puppala, 2007; Sanogo et al., 2015
-New YorkPresentHunter et al., 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-North CarolinaPresentPurdy, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2005; Koehler and Shew, 2014
-North DakotaPresentPurdy, 1979; Lamey, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-OhioPresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
-OklahomaPresentWadsworth, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-OregonPresentHAMPTON and FORD, 1965; Murray et al., 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-PennsylvaniaPresentBeach, 1921; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-Rhode IslandPresentJackson and Campanini, 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-South CarolinaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
-TexasPresentTaubenhaus and Ezekiel, 1931; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-VermontPresentMcPartland, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-VirginiaPresentOrellana and Bailey, 1964; Phipps and Porter, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-WashingtonPresentHAMPTON and FORD, 1965; Johnson, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-West VirginiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
-WisconsinPresentNewton and Sequeira, 1972a; Grau and Radke, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-WyomingPresentBridgmon and Starr, 1948; CABI/EPPO, 2005

Central America and Caribbean

Costa RicaPresentLaguna and Salazar, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2005
CubaPresentMartínez-de et al., 2013; Martínez et al., 2014
El SalvadorPresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
GuatemalaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
NicaraguaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
PanamaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2005

South America

ArgentinaPresentPontis and Feldman, 1959; de Mitidieri, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2005; Delhey et al., 2009
BoliviaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
BrazilPresentGasparotto and Chaves, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2005; Oliveira et al., 2015
-GoiasPresentGörgen et al., 2009
-MaranhaoPresentGomes et al., 2005
-Mato GrossoPresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
-Minas GeraisPresentMuller, 1935; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-ParanaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
-Rio Grande do SulPresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
-Santa CatarinaPresentBackes et al., 2008
-Sao PauloPresentMenegaz et al., 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2005
ChilePresentAcuna et al., 1975; CABI/EPPO, 2005; Ferrada et al., 2014
ColombiaPresentSalazar & Castro-Castano, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2005
EcuadorPresentVelastegui and Ball, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2005
PeruPresentBazan, 1951; CABI/EPPO, 2005
UruguayPresentSackston, 1957; CABI/EPPO, 2005
VenezuelaPresentPons et al., 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2005

Europe

AlbaniaPresentKola, 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2005
AustriaPresentBedlan, 1987a; Bedlan, 1987b; Krexner, 1969; CABI/EPPO, 2005
BelarusPresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
BelgiumPresentCouvreur and Herman, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2005
Bosnia-HercegovinaPresentPagliarini et al., 2007
BulgariaPresentIvancheva-Gabrovska et al., 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2005
CroatiaPresentVrataric et al., 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2005
CyprusPresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
Czech RepublicPresentKovacik et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2005
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentOndrej, 1983
DenmarkPresentAnon, 1974; CABI/EPPO, 2005
EstoniaPresentIlumäe et al., 2007
FinlandPresentMukula, 1957; Jamalainen, 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2005
FrancePresentGrill, 1979; CABI/EPPO, 2005
GermanyPresentKruger, 1983; CABI/EPPO, 2005
GreecePresentThanassoulopoulos, 1987; CABI/EPPO, 2005
HungaryPresentFolk and Tusnadi, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2005
IcelandPresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
IrelandPresentOethybridge, 1911; Cassells and Walsh, 1995; CABI/EPPO, 2005
ItalyPresentZazzerini and Tossi, 1985c; CABI/EPPO, 2005; Polizzi et al., 2011; Bertetti et al., 2012; Bertetti et al., 2015; Garibaldi et al., 2015; Lopez et al., 2015
LatviaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
LithuaniaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
MacedoniaPresentTanas, 2004
MaltaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
MoldovaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
NetherlandsPresentEster and Gerlagh, 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2005
NorwayPresentTronsmo, 1989; CABI/EPPO, 2005
PolandPresentTylkowska, 1984; Pieta and Patucha, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2005; Zalewska et al., 2015
PortugalPresentDias and Lucas, 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2005
RomaniaPresentSesan and Csep, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2005; Cristea and Jurcoane, 2016
Russian FederationPresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
-Central RussiaPresentYakutkin, 1978; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-Russia (Europe)PresentShavrova, 1972
-Russian Far EastPresentLazarev, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-Southern RussiaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
SlovakiaPresentVavrac and Kubova, 1992; CABI/EPPO, 2005
SpainPresentTores and Moreno, 1991; CABI/EPPO, 2005
SwedenPresentLindlbad, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2005
SwitzerlandPresentWinter et al., 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2005
UKPresentJellis et al., 1984; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-England and WalesPresentTurner et al., 2002; Gladdens et al., 2008
-England and WalesPresentTurner et al., 2002; Gladdens et al., 2008
UkrainePresentPetrenkova, 1994; CABI/EPPO, 2005
Yugoslavia (former)PresentAcimovic, 1977; Balaz et al., 1990
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentCABI/EPPO, 2005

Oceania

American SamoaPresentBrooks, 2002; CABI/EPPO, 2005
AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
-New South WalesPresentCother, 1977; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-QueenslandPresentPegg, 1962; Blackford, 1944; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-South AustraliaPresentCABI/EPPO, 2005
-TasmaniaPresentWong et al., 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-VictoriaPresentPorter and Merriman, 1985; CABI/EPPO, 2005
-Western AustraliaPresentHenderson, 1962; CABI/EPPO, 2005
FijiPresentMorwood, 1956; CABI/EPPO, 2005
New ZealandPresentBrien, 1932; Pennycook, 1982; CABI/EPPO, 2005
SamoaPresentGerlach, 1988; CABI/EPPO, 2005

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Post-harvest, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

Top of page
SignLife StagesType
Fruit / extensive mould
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Inflorescence / premature ripening
Inflorescence / rot
Leaves / abnormal colours
Leaves / fungal growth
Leaves / necrotic areas
Leaves / wilting
Roots / necrotic streaks or lesions
Roots / rot of wood
Roots / soft rot of cortex
Seeds / discolorations
Seeds / lesions on seeds
Seeds / rot
Stems / canker on woody stem
Stems / discoloration of bark
Stems / mould growth on lesion
Whole plant / damping off
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Natural enemies

Top of page
Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Alternaria alternata Pathogen
Bacillus cereus Pathogen Hyphae/Spores
Bacillus polymyxa Pathogen Nebraska
Bacillus subtilis Pathogen
Clonostachys rosea Antagonist
Coniothyrium minitans Mycoparasite Netherlands; Alberta; Germany oilseed rape; glasshouse crops
Dictyosporium elegans Pathogen
Epicoccum nigrum Antagonist Hyphae Quebec
Gibberella baccata Pathogen
Gibberella gordonii Antagonist
Gibberella zeae Pathogen
Gliocladium catenulatum Antagonist
Gliocladium deliquescens Antagonist
Gliocladium virens Antagonist
Hypocrea rufa Mycoparasite
Mycosphaerella tassiana Antagonist
Myrothecium verrucaria Pathogen
Pantoea agglomerans Antagonist Nebraska
Penicillium vermiculatum Pathogen
Rhizopus arrhizus Pathogen
Streptomyces griseoviridis Pathogen
Teratosperma sclerotivora Pathogen
Trichoderma hamatum Antagonist
Trichoderma harzianum Antagonist
Trichoderma koningii Antagonist
Zygorhynchus moelleri Pathogen

Plant Trade

Top of page
Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Bulbs/Tubers/Corms/Rhizomes hyphae; sclerotia Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx hyphae; sclerotia Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Fruits (inc. pods) hyphae; sclerotia Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Leaves hyphae; sclerotia Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Roots hyphae; sclerotia Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches hyphae; sclerotia Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
True seeds (inc. grain) hyphae; sclerotia Yes Yes Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye
Plant parts not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Bark
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants
Wood

References

Top of page

Abawi GS; Grogan RG, 1975. Source of primary inoculum and effects of temperature and moisture on infection of beans by Whetzelinia sclerotiorum. Phytopathology, 65(3):300-309

Abawi GS; Polach FJ; Molin WT, 1975a. Infection of bean by ascospores of Whetzelinia sclerotiorum. Phytopathology, 65(6):673-678

Abawi GS; Providenti R; Grogan RG; Hunter JE, 1975b. Predisposition of beans to infection by ascospores of Whetzelinia sclerotiorum prior to blossoming. Proceedings of the American Phytopathological Society, 2:61.

Abawi GS; Provvidenti R; Crosier DC; Hunter JE, 1978. Inheritance of resistance to white mold disease in Phaseolus coccineus. Journal of Heredity, 69(3):200-202

Abu-Blan HA; Abu-Gharbieh WI, 1994. Effect of soil solarization on winter planting of potato, cauliflower and cucumber in the central Jordan Valley. Dirasat. Series B, Pure and Applied Sciences, 21(3):203-213; 23 ref.

Achbani EH; Tourvieille D, 1993. Phytosanitary situation of sunflower in Morocco. Al Awamia, No. 83:117-138

Acimovic M, 1977. Distribution of important sunflower diseases in Yugoslavia. Distribution of important sunflower diseases in Yugoslavia. Inst. Field Veg. Crops,. Novi Sad Yugoslavia, 17 pp.

Acimovic M, 1980. Occurrence of sunflower diseases in Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary and Yugoslavia. Helia, 3:33-36.

Acimovic M, 1984. Sunflower diseases in Europe, the United States, and Australia, 1981-1983. Helia, 7:45-54.

Acuna P R; Latorre G B; Cancino E L, 1975. Translocation of systemic fungicides in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) and its action on Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. Agricultura Tecnica, 35(1):35-40

Adair CN, 1971. Influence of controlled-atmosphere storage conditions on cabbage postharvest decay fungi. Plant Disease Reporter, 55:864-868.

Adam PB; Tate CJ; Lumsde RD; Meiners JP, 1973. Resistance of Phaseolus species to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Report of Bean Improvement Cooperation, 16:8-9.

Adams PB, 1975. Factors affecting survival of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in soil. Plant Disease Reporter, 59(7):599-603

Adams PB, 1986. Production of sclerotia of Sclerotinia minor on lettuce in the field and their distribution in soil after disking. Plant Disease, 70(11):1043-1046

Adams PB, 1987. Comparison of isolates of Sporidesmium sclerotivorum in vitro and in soil for potential as active agents in microbial pesticides. Phytopathology, 77(4):575-578

Adams PB, 1989. Comparison of antagonists of Sclerotinia species. Phytopathology, 79(12):1345-1347

Adams PB; Ayers WA, 1981. Sporidesmium sclerotivorum: distribution and function in natural biological control of sclerotial fungi. Phytopathology, 71(1):90-93

Adams PB; Ayers WA, 1982. Biological control of Sclerotinia lettuce drop in the field by Sporidesmium sclerotivorum. Phytopathology, 72(5):485-488

Adams PB; Ayers WA, 1985. The world distribution of the mycoparasites Sporidesmium sclerotivorum, Teratosperma oligocladum and Laterispora brevirama. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 17:583-584.

Adams PB; Fravel DR, 1990. Economical biological control of Sclerotinia lettuce drop by Sporidesmium sclerotivorum. Phytopathology, 80(10):1120-1124

Adams PB; Marois JJ; Ayers WA, 1984. Population dynamics of the mycoparasite, Sporidesmium sclerotivorum, and its host, Sclerotinia minor, in soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 16(6):627-633

Adams PB; Tate CJ, 1975. Factors affecting lettuce drop caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Plant Disease Reporter, 59(2):140-143

Adams PB; Tate CJ, 1976. Mycelial germination of sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on soil. Plant Disease Reporter, 60(6):515-518

Ahlers D, 1986. Studies on the causal agent of stem rot, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) De Bary, on winter swede rape:varietal resistance, epidemiology, disease progression, prognosis. Hohe Landwirtschaftliche Fakultat, Rheinische Friedrich Wilhelms Universitat, Bonn, German Federal Republic.

Ahmed AU; Akhond MAY, 2015. First report of Sclerotinia rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on Lens culinaris in Bangladesh. New Disease Reports, 31:23. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=031023

Akai J, 1981. Studies on the epidemiology and control of sclerotinia disease of beans caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) De Bary. Report of Hokkaido Prefectural Agricultural Experiment Stations, No.36:83pp.

Akazawa J; Ono K, 1984. Factors affecting the occurrence of tobacco stem rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) De Bary. Bulletin of the Okayama Tobacco Experiment Station, No.43:47-58

Akem CN; Dashiell KE, 1992. Sclerotinia stem rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on soybeans in Nigeria. Plant Disease, 76(1):101

Alavoubette C; Louvet J, 1973. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Bibliographie Selectionnee (December 1971). Information Techniques, Centre Technique Interprofessionnel des Oleagineaux Metropolitains No. 31:7-26.

Allen SJ; Brown JF; Scott DM; Sedun FS, 1983. Sunflower disease surveys 1978-1983. Sunflower Journal of Australian Sunflower Association, 7:4-5.

Anas O; Alli I; Reeleder RD, 1989. Inhibition of germination of sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum by salivary gland secretions of Bradysia coprophila. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 21(1):47-52

Anon, 1935. 47th Annual Report of the Kentucky Agriculture Experiment Station for the year of 1934. Part I. 67 pp. (In:RAM 14:685)

Anon, 1979. Sclerotinia stem rot of oilseed rape. Edited by the Institute of Oilseed Crops, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, and Published by Chinese Agriculture Press, Beijing, China. 117 pp. (In Chinese)

Anon., 1975. Cottony soft rot of carrots. AGDEX 258/635-1, Agri-Fax, Alberta Agriculture.

Anon., 1997. Historical Overview of Canadian Agriculture, Statistics Canada, Ottawa, Ontario. P110-118.

Antonova TS; Bekhter AG, 1983. Role of oxalic acid in the maceration of sunflower torus tissues during white and grey rot infection. Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya, No.2:78-80

Arcelin R; Kushalappa AC, 1991. A survey of carrot diseases on muck soils in the southwestern part of Quebec. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 71(2):147-153

Asirifi KN; Morgan WC; Parbery DG, 1994. Suppression of Sclerotinia soft rot of lettuce with organic soil amendments. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture, 34(1):131-136; 22 ref.

Ayers WA; Adams PB, 1979a. Mycoparasitism of sclerotia of Sclerotinia and Sclerotium species by Sporidesmium sclerotivorum. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 25(1):17-23

Ayers WA; Adams PB, 1979b. Factors affecting germination, mycoparasitism, and survival of Sporidesmium sclerotivorum. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 25(9):1021-1026

Ayers WA; Adams PB, 1981. Mycoparasitism and its application to biological control of plant diseases. Biological Control in Crop Production, G. C. Papavizas (Ed.), Beltsville Symposia in Agricultural Research Volume 5, 91-103. Published by Allanheld, Osmum, Totowa &Co. New Jersey.

Ayers WA; Adams PB, 1985. Interaction of Laterispora brevirama and the mycoparasites Sporidesmium sclerotivorum and Teratosperma oligocladum. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 31(9):786-792

Backes RL; Souza AMde; Balbinot Junior AA; Gallotti GJM; Bavaresco A, 2008. Agronomic performance of sunflower cultivars in two planting dates in the North Plateau of Santa Catarina State. (Desempenho de cultivares de girassol em duas épocas de plantio de safrinha no Planalto Norte Catarinense.) Scientia Agraria, 9(1):41-48. http://ojs.c3sl.ufpr.br/ojs2/index.php/agraria

Bag TK; Dutta S, 2009. First report of Sclerotinia stem rot of Indian sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum). Journal of Mycopathological Research, 47(1):87-89. http://www.imskolkata.org/

Bai DH, 1977. Survey on the fruit rot occurrence and damages of shipping mandarin. Korean Journal of Plant Protection, 16(4):245-247

Balaz J; Sapundzic M; Adamov S, 1990. Aetiological study of iris rot. Zastita Bilja, 41(2):207-214

Balou S; Iboton N, 1985. Azolla diseases in Manipur, India. International Rice Research Newsletter, 10(2):28

Baribeau B, 1923. Fletrissure et pourriture de la tige du tournesol dans la province de Quebec. Scientific Agriculture 3:397-400.

Barkai-Golan R; Aharoni N, 1972. Postharvest thiabendazole treatments to prevent spoilage in stored celery. Israel Journal of Agricultural Research, 22(3):157-159

Barnaveta E; Andrei E; Ivancia V, 1992. The influence of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. de Bary) on some elements of productivity of sunflower. Cercetari Agronomice in Moldova, 25(1):193-200

Barros ML, 1980. Les maladies du tournesol au Portugal. Helia, 3:37-43.

Baswana KS; Rastogi KB; Sharma PP, 1991. Inheritance of stalk rot resistance in cauliflower (Brassica oleracea var. botrytis L.). Euphytica, 57(2):93-96

Bazan de Segura C, 1951. Plant diseases new to Peru. Plant Disease Reporter, 35:465-466.

Beach WS, 1921. The lettuce "drop" due to Sclerotinia minor. Pennsylvania State College of Agriculture, Bulletin, 165. 27 pp.

Bedlan G, 1987. Frequent fungal diseases of tomatoes. Pflanzenschutz, 3(3-4):10-12

Bedlan G, 1987. The most important diseases of pickling cucumbers. Pflanzenschutz, 3(3-4):6-8

Bennett OL; Elliott ES, 1972. Plant disease incidence on five forage species as affected by north- and south-facing slopes. Plant Disease Reporter, 56:371-375.

Ben-Yephet Y; Bitton S; Greenberger A, 1986. Control of lettuce drop disease, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, with metham-sodium soil treatment and foliar application of benomyl. Plant Pathology, 35(2):146-151

Ben-Yephet Y; Genizi A; Siti E, 1993. Sclerotial survival and apothecial production by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum following outbreaks of lettuce drop. Phytopathology, 83(5):509-513

Ben-Yephet Y; Siti E, 1987. Lettuce drop caused by inoculum of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum blown-in from a distance. Phytoparasitica, 15(1):69-71

Berkenkamp B; Kirkham C, 1991. Pea diseases in northeastern Saskatchewan, 1990. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 71(1):108.

Bertetti D; Ortu G; Gullino ML; Garibaldi A, 2015. First report of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on blanket flower (Gaillardia × grandiflora) grown in Italy. (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, nuovo parassita riscontrato su Gaillardia × grandiflora in Italia.) Protezione delle Colture, No.1:38-40.

Bertetti D; Pensa P; Ortega SF; Gullino ML; Garibaldi A, 2015. First report of white mould caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on Lavandula stoechas in Italy. (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, nuovo parassita di Lavandula stoechas L. coltivata in Italia.) Protezione delle Colture, No.4:30-32.

Bertetti D; Pensa P; Poli A; Gullino ML; Garibaldi A, 2013. First report of white mould caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on spearmint (Mentha spicata L.) in Italy. (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum nuovo parassita di Mentha spicata L.) Protezione delle Colture, No.4:38-40.

Bertetti D; Poli A; Gullino ML; Garibaldi A, 2011. First report of white mould caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on fan columbine (Aquilegia flabellata) grown in Italy. (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, nuovo parassita di Aquilegia flabellata coltivata in Italia.) Protezione delle Colture, No.5:38-40. http://www.agrinnova.org/comunicazione.php

Bertetti D; Poli A; Gullino ML; Garibaldi A, 2012. New fungal pathogens found on 2 hosts grown in Italy: Verticillium dahliae on Coleus verschaffeltii and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on Aquilegia flabellata. (Nuovi parassiti fungini riscontrati su due ospiti coltivati in Italia: Verticillium dahliae su Coleus verschaffeltii e Sclerotinia sclerotiorum su Aquilegia flabellata.) Protezione delle Colture, No.2:32-33. http://www.agrinnova.org/comunicazione.php

Beute MK; Porter DM; Hadley BA, 1975. Sclerotinia blight of peanut in North Carolina and Virginia and its chemical control. Plant Disease Reporter, 59(9):697-701

Bisby GR, 1924. The sclerotinia disease of sunflowers and other plants.. Scientific Agriculture 4:381-384.

Blackford FW, 1944. Sclerotinia or cottony-rot. Queensland Agriculture Journal, 53:161-163.

Bogdanova VN; Karadzhova LV; Klimenko TF, 1986. Use of Coniothyrium minitans Campbell as a hyperparasite in controlling the pathogen of white rot of sunflower. Sel'skokhozyaistvennaya Biologiya, No.5:80-84

Boland GJ; Hall R, 1994. Index of plant hosts of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 16(2):93-108

Boland GJ; Mould MJR; Robb J, 1993. Ultrastructure of a hypovirulent isolate of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum containing double-stranded RNA. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 43(1):21-32

Brash D, 1996. Keeping carrots fresh for Asia. Commercial Grower, 51(4):18-20; [2 col. pl.].

Brenneman TB; Sumner DR; Phillips DV, 1991. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on canola in Georgia and its potential as a pathogen on peanut. Plant Disease, 75(3):319

Bridgmon GH; Starr GH, 1948. Studies on the white mold of beans caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Journal of Colorado-Wyoming Acadmy of Science, 3(6):43.

Brien RM, 1932. Host range of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in New Zealand. New Zealand Journal of Agriculture, 44:127-129.

Broadhurst PG; Lewthwaite SL; Triggs CM, 1997. Field evaluation of sweet potato cultivars for resistance to Sclerotinia rot. Proceedings of the Fiftieth New Zealand Plant Protection Conference, Lincoln University, Canterbury, New Zealand, 18-21 August, 1997., 89-92; 9 ref.

Brooks F, 2002. List of Plant Diseases in American Samoa 2002. Land Grant Technical Report No. 44. Pago Pago, American Samoa: American Samoa Community College Land Grant Program.

Brown JG, 1937. Relation of livestock to the control of sclerotinosis of lettuce. Phytopathology, 27:1045-1050.

Brown JG; Butler KD, 1936. Sclerotinioise of lettuce in Arizona. Technical Bulletin of the Arizona Agriculture Experiment Station, 63:474-506.

Buchwald NF; Neergaard P, 1972. A plea for the retention of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum as type species for the genus Sclerotinia Fckl. emend. Friesia, 10(1/2):96-99

Budge SP; Whipps JM, 1991. Glasshouse trials of Coniothyrium minitans and Trichoderma species for the biological control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in celery and lettuce. Plant Pathology, 40(1):59-66

Burke DW; Gomes JC; Foeppel WG, 1957. Observations on sclerotinia wilt of beans in north-eastern Colorado. Plant Disease Reporter, 41:72-73.

Buzzell RI; Welacky TW; Anderson TR, 1993. Soybean cultivar reaction and row width effect on Sclerotinia stem rot. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 73(4):1169-1175

CABI/EPPO, 2005. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, No. 971. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Cam B le; Rouxel F; Villeneuve F, 1993. Post-harvest pathogens on cold stored carrots: Mycocentrospora acerina (Deighton), the major spoilage fungus. Agronomie, 13(2):125-133

Campbell WA, 1947. A new species of Coniothyrium parasitic on sclerotia. Mycologia, 39:190-195.

Casciano DH; Schwartz HF, 1985. Field measurement of white mold disease resistance and avoidance. Phytopathology, 75:1296.

Cassells AC; Walsh M, 1995. Screening for Sclerotinia resistance in Helianthus tuberosus L. (Jerusalem artichoke) varieties, lines and somaclones, in the field and in vitro. Plant Pathology, 44(3):428-437

Chamberlain DW, 1951. Sclerotinia stem rot of soybean. Plant Disease Reporter, 35(11):490-491.

Chaudhary KCB; Puttoo BL, 1991. Seedborne nature of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in safflower in India. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 21(2):196

Chaudhury BN, 1993. Yield loss estimation by (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) (LIB.) de Bary. Journal of the Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science, 14:113; 2 ref.

Cho JJ, 1979. Evaluation of bacterial soft rot-tolerant crisphead lettuce cultivars in Hawaii. Technical Bulletin, Hawaii Agricultural Experiment Station, No.102:8 pp.

Choi IY; Kim JH; Kim BS; Park MJ; Shin HD, 2016. First report of sclerotinia stem rot of fennel caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Korea. Plant Disease, 100(1):223. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Chun D; Kao LB; Lockwood JL; Isleib TG, 1987. Laboratory and field assessment of resistance in soybean to stem rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Plant Disease, 71(9):811-815

Clarke RG; Porter IJ; Woodroofe M, 1993. Effect of sowing date on the incidence of Sclerotinia stem rot caused by Sclerotinia minor and yield of a long- and a short-season sunflower cultivar. Australasian Plant Pathology, 22(1):8-13

Cors F; Cartrysse C, 1993. Sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in Belgium. Varieties and cultural techniques. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, 58(3b):1259-1263

Cother EJ, 1977. Identification and control of root-rot fungi in Cicer arietinum (chickpea). Plant Disease Reporter, 61(9):736-740

Couvreur L; Herman JL, 1994. Protection of winter rape against diseases in Belgium. Mededelingen - Faculteit Landbouwkundige en Toegepaste Biologische Wetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, 59(3a):1133-1139

Coyne DP; Steadman JR; Anderson FN, 1974. Effect of modified plant architecture of Great Northern dry bean varieties (Phaseolus vulgaris) on white mold severity, and components of yield. Plant Disease Reporter, 58:4, 379-382.

Coyne DP; Steadman JR; Schwartz H, 1977. Inheritance and breeding strategy for white mold disease (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) resistance and avoidance in beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). HortScience, 12:397.

Creelman DW (compiler), 1962. Diseases of vegetables and field crops- potato. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 42:57-65

Crete R, 1979. Diseases of lettuce. Canadex, 251.630, Agriculture Canada.

Crispin A; Campos J, 1976. Bean diseases of importance in Mexico in 1975. Plant Disease Reporter, 60(6):534-535

Cristea S; Jurcoane S, 2016. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary - first report on cultivated Camelina sativa in Romania. Romanian Biotechnological Letters, 21(4):11682-11683. http://www.rombio.eu/rbl4vol21/8..pdf

Csengery P, 1989. Inhibition of apothecium formation in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum using calcium cyanamide (Perkla). No^umlaut~ve^acute~nyve^acute~delem, 25(6):263-265; 5 ref.

CzyZewska S, 1991. Occurrence of pathogenic seed-borne fungi in the sowing material of green pea. Biuletyn Warzywniczy, 37:29-42; 26 ref.

CzyZewska S, 1993. Survival of the pathogenic seedborne fungi in green pea seeds (Pisum sativum L.). Biuletyn Instytutu Hodowli i Aklimatyzacji RoSlin, No. 188:289-299; 28 ref.

de Bary A, 1884. Vergleichend Morphologie und Biologie der Pilze, Mycetozoen und Bacterien. (Comparative morphology and biology of the fungi, mycetozoa and bacteria. Translated by H.E.F. Garnsey, revised by I.B. Balfour, the Clarendon Press, Oxford. 1887).

Dedio W, 1992. Variability among cultivated sunflower genotypes to Sclerotinia head rot. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 72(1):13-16

Dedio W; Hoes JA; Huang HC, 1983. Registration of sunflower parental lines CM 338 and CM 361 (Reg. No. PL 32 and PL 33). Crop Science, 23:195.

Delhey R; Kiehr M; Allievi MI; Lusto J; Frayssinet S; Hartmann BS; Kröger I; Paoloni PJ; Zappacosta D; Servera A, 2009. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum infecting cultivated and invasive plants in the southern Pampas and northern Patagonia, Argentina. (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum en plantas cultivadas e invasoras del sur pampeano y norte patagónico, Argentina.) Phyton (Buenos Aires), 78:111-115. http://www.revistaphyton.fund-romuloraggio.org.ar/

Denmark, State Plant Pathology Institute. , 1974. Plant diseases in Denmark in 1973. 90th annual survey, compiled by the State phytopathological Experiment Station, Lyngby. Plantesygdomme i Danmark 1973. 90. Arsoversigt samlet ved Statens plantepatologiske Forsoeg, Lyngby. State Plant Pathology Inst. Lyngby Denmark, 68pp.

Denner FDN; Theron DJ; Serfontein S, 1992. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on potatoes in South Africa. Phytophylactica, 24(2):221-223

Dennis RWG, 1974. Whetzelinia Korf & Dumont, a superfluous name. Kew Bulletin, 29(1):89-91

Deshpande RY; Hubbard KG; Coyne DP; Steadman JR; Parkhurst AM, 1995. Estimating leaf wetness in dry bean canopies as a prerequisite to evaluating white mold disease. Agronomy Journal, 87(4):613-619

Dias MR de S; Lucas MT, 1978. Portuguese fungi. XXVI. Agronomia Lusitana, 38(4):285-295

Dilip Monga, 1988. Peduncle rot of Motihari tobacco in Cooch Behar district. Indian Phytopathology, 41(3):504

Dillard HR; Hunter JE, 1986. Association of common ragweed with Sclerotinia rot of cabbage in New York State. Plant Disease, 70(1):26-28

Dillard HR; Ludwig JW; Hunter JE, 1995. Conditioning sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum for carpogenic germination. Plant Disease, 79(4):411-415

Dorrell DG; Huang HC, 1978. Influence of Sclerotinia wilt on seed yield and quality of sunflower wilted at different stages of development. Crop Science, 18(1):974-976

Dueck J, 1977. Sclerotinia in rapeseed. Canada Agriculture, 22(3):7-9

Duwadi VR; Paneru RB; Bhattarai MR, 1993. An estimate of yield loss of cauliflower (cv. Kibo Giant) seed caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. PAC Working Paper - Pakhribas Agricultural Centre, No. 52:4 pp.

Elazari-Volcani Z, 1944. Observations on Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Palestine. Palestine Journal of Botany, R. Series, 4 (2):206-207. (In:RAM 24:253)

El-Helaly AF; Elarosi HM; Assawah MW; Abol-Wafa MT, 1970. Studies on damping-off and root rots of bean in U.A.R. (Egypt). United Arab Republic Journal of- hytopathology, 2:41-57.

Elmhirst JF; Joshi V, 1995. Diseases diagnosed on commercial crops submitted to the British Columbia Plant Diagnostic Laboratory in 1994. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 75:59-67.

Esiyok D; Onogur E; Duman i; cetinkaya N, 1996. The effects of cultivation methods, and disease incidence on seed yield of cauliflower. Cruciferae Newsletter, No. 18:52-53; 5 ref.

Ester A; Gerlagh M, 1984. Resistance breeding. Zaadbelangen, 38(4):73-74.

Evenhuis A; Verdam B; Gerlagh M; Goossen-Geijn HM van de, 1995. Studies on major diseases of caraway (Carum carvi) in the Netherlands. Industrial Crops and Products, 4(1):53-61

Expert JM; Digat B, 1995. Biocontrol of Sclerotinia wilt of sunflower by Pseudomonas fluorescens and Pseudomonas putida strains. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 41(8):685-691

Faure R; Hooghe L, 1979. Iprodione (Rovral) and its uses in vegetable and flower crops. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 44(2):575-583

Felix S, 1962. Investigations on Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, the fungus causing sclerotial disease of vegetables and ornamentals in Mauritius. Review of Agriculture Sucriere Lile Maurice, 41:205-207.

Fenwick, 1969. Diseases of Austrian winter peas in Idaho. Plant Disease Reporter, 53(11):918-920.

Fernando WGD; Nakkeeran S; Zhang Y; Savchuk S, 2007. Biological control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary by Pseudomonas and Bacillus species on canola petals. Crop Protection, 26(2):100-107. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/02612194

Ferrada EE; Díaz GA; Zoffoli JP; Latorre BA, 2014. First report of blossom blight caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on Japanese plum, nectarine, and sweet cherry orchards in Chile. Plant Disease, 98(5):695. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Figueirêdo GSde; Figueirêdo LCde; Cavalcanti FCN; Santos ACdos; Costa AFda; Oliveira NTde, 2010. Biological and chemical control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum using Trichoderma spp. and Ulocladium atrum and pathogenicity to bean plants. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 53(1):1-9. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1516-89132010000100001&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

Finck G; Borner H, 1985. Effect on the sclerotial germination of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, the rape white stalk pathogen, of transformation products of calcium cyanamide. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 92(5):449-454

Finlayson JE; Pritchard MK; Rimmer SR, 1989. Electrolyte leakage and storage decay of five carrot cultivars in response to infection by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 11(3):313-316

Finlayson JE; Rimmer SR; Pritchard MK, 1989. Infection of carrots by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 11(3):242-246

Fitt BDL; Gladders P; Turner JA; Sutherland KG; Welham SJ; Davies JML, 1997. Prospects for developing a forecasting scheme to optimise use of fungicides for disease control on winter oilseed rape in the UK. Aspects of Applied Biology, No. 48:135-142; 11 ref.

Fivawo NC, 1987. Diseases and pests of sunflower in Tanzania. TARO Newsletter, 2(3):6-8

Folk G; Tusnadi CsK, 1985. A new disease of Gerbera in Hungary, Sclerotinia wilt. Novenyvedelem, 21(12):557-561

Foucart G, 1954. Observations on some fungus diseases of pyrethrum (Chrysanthemum cinerariifolium (Trev.) Bocc. Bulletin of Agriculture Congo Belge, 45(3):599-614. (In:RAM 33:756).

Fu SZ, 1990. New thinking on rape breeding for high yield and disease resistance breeding a petalless genotype. Acta Agriculturae Shanghai, 6(3):76-77

Fuckel L, 1870. Symbolic mycologicae Beitrage zur Kenntniss der Rheinischen Pilze. Jahrb. Nassauischen Vercins Naturk, 23-24:1-459.

Fuller PA; Coyne DP; Steadman JR, 1984b. Inheritance of resistance to white mold disease in a diallel cross of dry beans. Crop Science, 24(5):929-933

Fuller PA; Coyne DP; Steadman JR; Mumm RF, 1984a. Inter- and intra-row inter-genotypic competition influences selection for avoidance of white mold disease in dry edible beans. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 109(4):567-572

Gabrielson RL; Anderson WC; Nyvall RF, 1973. Control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in cabbage seed fields with aerial application of benomyl and ground application of cyanamide. Plant Disease Reporter, 57(2):164-166

Garibaldi A; Bertetti D; Ortu G; Gullino ML, 2015. First report of sclerotinia blight caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on Gaillardia × grandiflora in Northern Italy. Plant Disease, 99(5):729-730. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Garibaldi A; Bertetti D; Pensa P; Ortega SF; Gullino ML, 2015. First report of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on butterfly lavender in Italy. Journal of Plant Pathology, 97(2):397. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3362/2032

Garibaldi A; Bertetti D; Poli A; Gullino ML, 2011. First report of sclerotinia blight caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on fan columbine (Aquilegia flabellata) in Italy. Plant Disease, 95(11):1481. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Garibaldi A; Pensa P; Bertetti D; Poli A; Gullino ML, 2013. First report of sclerotinia blight caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on spearmint in northern Italy. Plant Disease, 97(10):1384-1385. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Garrabrandt LE; Johnston SA; Peterson JL, 1983. Tan sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum from lettuce. Mycologia, 75(3):451-456

Gasparotto L; Chaves GM, 1982. Chemical control of lettuce rot. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 7(2):261-267

Gerlach WWP, 1988. Plant diseases of Western Samoa. Apia, Western Samoa: Samoan German Crop Protection Project, 215 pp.

Ghaffar A, 1972. Some observations on the parasitism of Coniothyrium minitans on the sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Pakistan Journal of Botany, 4(1):85-87.

Gheorghies C; Roman GhV, 1988. The effect of some crop production practices on diseases of sunflower on reddish-brown soil. Lucrari stiintifice, Institutul Agronomic' Nicolp Balcescu', Bucuresti, Seria A, Agronomie, 31(1):73-79

Gilbert RG, 1987. Crown and stem rot of alfalfa caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Plant Disease, 71(8):739-742

Gilbert RG, 1991. Burning to reduce sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in alfalfa seed fields of southeastern Washington. Plant Disease, 75(2):141-142

Gill HS, 1975. An unusual outbreak of Whetzelinia rot on African daisies in California. Plant Disease Reporter, 59(1):82-83

Ginoux G; Blancard D, 1984. Sclerotinia disease of aubergine. Contribution to the setting up of a strategy of control. Revue Horticole, No.245:45-50

Gladdens P; Ginsburg D; Smith JA, 2008. Sclerotinia in oilseed rape - a review of the 2007 epidemic in England. HGCA Project Report, No.433:44 pp.

Godoy G; Steadman JR; Dickman MB; Dam R, 1990. Use of mutants to demonstrate the role of oxalic acid in pathogenicity of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on Phaseolus vulgaris. Physiological and Molecular Plant Pathology, 37(3):179-191

Gomes DP; Bringel JMM; Moraes MFH; Kronka AZ; Silva GC; Leite RMVBC, 2005. Sanitary quality of sunflower seeds from Embrapa Soybean assays in the State of Maranhão, Brazil. (Sanidade de sementes de girassol provenientes de ensaios da Embrapa Soja no Estado do Maranhão.) Documentos - Embrapa Soja [XVI Reunião Nacional de Pesquisa de Girassol, IV Simpósio Nacional sobre a Cultura do Girassol, Londrina-PR, Brazil, 4-6 de outubro de 2005.], No.261:1-3.

Gossen BD, 1997. Blossom blight, a new constraint to alfalfa seed production in Western Canada. Seed production of lucerne. Proceedings of the 12th Eucarpia Meeting of the Group Medicago, Brno, Czech Republic, 2-5 July 1996., 111-113; 4 ref.

Gossen BD; Harrison; LM; Holley J; Smith SR, 1996. Survey of blossom blight of alfalfa on the Canadian Prairies in 1995. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 76(1):123-125.

Gossen BD; Platford G, 1999. Blossom blight in alfalfa seed fields in Saskatchewan and Manitoba 1998. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 79(1):94-95.

Gourley CO; Delbridge RW, 1972. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on horsechestnut trees. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 52(3):97-98

Grau CR; Bissonnette HL, 1974. Whetzelinia stem rot of soybean in Minnesota. Plant Disease Reporter, 58:693-695.

Grau CR; Radke VL, 1984. Effects of cultivars and cultural practices on Sclerotinia stem rot of soybean. Plant Disease, 68(1):56-58

Greathead DJ; Greathead AH, 1992. Biological control of insect pests by insect parasitoids and predators: the BIOCAT database. Biocontrol News and Information, 13(4):61N-68N.

Grezes-Besset B; Tournade G; Arnauld O; Urs R; George P; Castellanet P; Toppan A, 1994. A greenhouse method to assess sunflower resistance to sclerotinia root and basal stem infections. Plant Breeding, 112(3):215-222

Griffin MJ; Hims MJ; Smith JR, 1980. Getting on top of bottom rot; Rovral regime for bottom rot. Grower, 94( 1; 2):26-29; 19-23.

Grill D, 1979. Botrytis and Sclerotinia on lettuce. Revue Horticole, No.198:47-48

Guba EF, 1961. Parsnip diseases in Massachusetts. Massachusetts Agriculture Experiment Station, Bulletin 522. 35 pp. (In; RAM 41:267)

Gugel RK; Morrall RAA, 1986. Inoculum-disease relationships in Sclerotinia stem rot of rapeseed in Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 8(1):89-96

Gulya TJ; MacArthur RA, 1984. Incidence and severity of sunflower diseases in the Dakotas and Minnesota during the 1984 growing season. In: Proceedings of Sunflower Research Workshop, Fargo, North Dakota, USA.

Gulya TJ; Vick BA; Nelson BD, 1989. Sclerotinia head rot of sunflower in North Dakota: 1986 incidence, effect on yield and oil components, and sources of resistance. Plant Disease, 73(6):504-507

Gupta SK; Dohroo NP, 1993. Sclerotinia rot of cauliflower. International Journal of Tropical Plant Diseases, 11(2):131-138

Gurdip-Singh; Gill AS, 1979. Screening of gram varieties against stem rot, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. Journal of Research, Punjab Agricultural University, 16:465-466.

Görgen CA; Silveira Neto ANda; Carneiro LC; Ragagnin V; Lobo Junior M, 2009. White mold control with mulch and Trichoderma harzianum 1306 on soybean. (Controle do mofo-branco com palhada e Trichoderma harzianum 1306 em soja.) Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 44(12):1583-1590. http://www.scielo.br/pab

Haas JH; Bolwyn B, 1972. Ecology and epidemiology of sclerotinia wilt of white beans in Ontario. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 52:525-533.

Haas JH; Bolwyn B, 1973. Predicting and controlling white mold epidemics in white beans. Canada Agriculture, 18(1):28-29

Halkilahti AM, 1962. The survival of sclerotia of Sclerotinia trifoliorum Erikss. on the soil and the occurrence of clover rot in various years. Annales Agriculturae Fenniae, 34:154-161.

Hall R, 1988. White mold update. In: The Emerging Bean, Ontario Bean Producers' Marketing Board, Summer Issue 1988, 18-20.

HAMPTON RO; FORD RE, 1965. Pea diseases in Washington and Oregon, 1964. Plant Disease Reporter, 49:235-8.

HAMPTON RO; FORD RE, 1965. Pea diseases in Washington and Oregon, 1964. Plant Disease Reporter, 49:235-8.

Han KS; Kim JY; Park JH; Shin HD, 2013. First report of sclerotinia stem rot of anemone caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Korea. Plant Disease, 97(7):997. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Han KS; Park MJ; Park JH; Cho SE; Shin HD, 2015. First report of sclerotinia stem rot of Ranunculus asiaticus caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Korea. Plant Disease, 99(11):1653-1654. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Hardin B, 1991. Confronting a new fungal nightmare. Agriculture Research, USDA, November 1991, 21-23.

Harrison LM, 1989. Canola disease survey in the Peace River Region in 1988. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 69(1):59.

Harrison LM; Laflamme P, 1996. Field pea root rot disease survey in the Peace River region of Alberta in 1995. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 76(1):114-115.

Hartill WFT; Campbell JM, 1973. Control of Sclerotinia in tobacco seedbeds. Plant Disease Reporter, 57:932-934.

Hartill WFT; Campbell JM, 1974. Effects of flower removal on the development of the Sclerotinia/Botrytis complex of tobacco. New Zealand Journal of Agricultural Research, 17:147-152.

Haware MP, 1990. Fusarium wilt and other important diseases of chickpea in the Mediterranean area. Options Méditerranéennes Série A: Séminaires Méditerranéens, No. 9:61-64; [Proceedings of a seminar on the present status and future prospects of chickpea crop production and improvement in the Mediterranean countries 11-13 July, 1988, Zaragoza, Spain]; 17 ref.

Heimes R; Locher F, 1977. Results of trials with Ronilan for the control of Botrytis spp. and Sclerotinia spp. in vegetables and ornamentals. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent., 42:2, I, 1169-1180.

Henderson RM, 1962. Some aspects of the life cycle of the plant apthogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in western Australia. Royal Society of Western Australia Journal,, 45:133-135.

Henneberg L; Jaccoud Filho Dde S; Ruaro L; Panobianco M, 2012. Efficiency of methods to detect Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in commercial soybean seed lots. Revista Brasileira de Sementes, 34(1):61-69. http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0101-31222012000100008&lng=en&nrm=iso&tlng=en

Herd GW; Phillips AJL, 1988. Control of seed-borne Sclerotinia sclerotiorum by fungicidal treatment of sunflower seed. Plant Pathology, 37(2):202-205

Hildebrand AA, 1948. Soybean diseases in Ontario. Soybean Digest, 10:16-17.

Hims MJ, 1979. Damping-off of Brassica napus ('mustard and cress') by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Plant Pathology, 28(4):201-202

Hockey JF, 1955. Blight and rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum). 34th Annual Report of the Canadian Plant Disease Survey 1954, Canada Department of Agriculture, 70.

Hoes JA; Huang HC, 1975. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum: viability and separation of sclerotia from soil. Phytopathology, 65(12):1431-1432

Hoes JA; Huang HC, 1976. Importance of disease to sunflower in Manitoba in 1975. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 56(3):75-76

Hoes JA; Huang HC, 1985. Effect of between-row and within-row spacings on development of Sclerotinia wilt and yield of sunflower. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 7(1):98-102

Hoffman DD; Hartman GL; Mueller DS; Leitz RA; Nickell CD; Pedersen WL, 1998. Yield and seed quality of soybean cultivars infected with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Plant Disease, 82(7):826-829; 25 ref.

Holcomb GE; Motsinger RE, 1968. An unusual occurrence of sclerotinia flower rot on chrysanthemum in Louisiana. Plant Disease Reporter, 52:120-121.

Holcomb GE; Reed MJ, 1994. Stem rot of basil caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Plant Disease, 78(9):924

Holley JD; Linowski R; Gossen B; Harrison L, 1996. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causes blossom blight of alfalfa. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 18(4):489.

Honda Y; Yunoki T, 1977. Control of Sclerotinia disease of greenhouse eggplant and cucumber by inhibition of development of apothecia. Plant Disease Reporter, 61(12):1036-1040

Hori S, 1899. No. Sclerotinia disease of oil rape. Imperial Agricultural Experiment Station, Tokyo. Bulletin 14, 141. (In Japanese)

Howard R; Schaupmeyer C, 1979. Effect of crop rotation on Sclerotinia white mold of carrots. 1979 Annual Report of Alberta Horticultural Research Centre, Brooks, Alberta, Alberta Agriculture, 120-121.

Hua ZF; Liu XM; Li Y; Li H; Zhang GJ; Zhang JH; Wang CB; Lu YX, 1994. Study on integrated control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum of sunflower in Jilin Province. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 21(2):127-134

Hua ZF; Zhang XW; Ren XY; Wang CB, 1987. Occurrence of and damage by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in sunflower. Oil Crops of China, No. 2:51-54

Huang HC, 1977. Importance of Coniothyrium minitans in survival of sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in wilted sunflower. Canadian Journal of Botany, 55(3):289-295

Huang HC, 1978. Gliocladium catenulatum: hyperparasite of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Fusarium species. Canadian Journal of Botany, 56(18):2243-2246

Huang HC, 1980a. Control of Sclerotinia wilt of sunflower by hyperparasites. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 2(1):26-32

Huang HC, 1980b. Screening sunflower inbred lines for resistance to Sclerotinia wilt. Technical and scientific papers,, Proceedings of the Manitoba Agronomists' Annual Conference, 1980, pp 78-81. December 10 & 11, 1980, Winnipeg, Canada.

Huang HC, 1981. Tan sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 3(3):136-138

Huang HC, 1982. Morphologically abnormal sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 28(1):87-91

Huang HC, 1983a. Sclerotinia wilt and head rot of sunflower. Canadex 632.145. Agriculture Canada.

Huang HC, 1983b. Histology, amino acid leakage, and chemical composition of normal and abnormal sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Canadian Journal of Botany, 61(5):1443-1447

Huang HC, 1983c. Pathogenicity and survival of the tan-sclerotial strain of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 5(4):245-247

Huang HC, 1985. Factors affecting myceliogenic germination of sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Phytopathology, 75(4):433-437

Huang HC, 1991. Induction of myceliogenic germination of sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum by exposure to sub-freezing temperatures. Plant Pathology, 40(4):621-625

Huang HC; Blackshaw RE, 1995. Influence of herbicides on the carpogenic germination of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum sclerotia. Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica, 36(1):59-64

Huang HC; Dorrell DG, 1978. Screening sunflower seedlings for resistance to toxic metabolites produced by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 58(4):1107-1110

Huang HC; Dueck J, 1980. Wilt of sunflower from infection by mycelial-germinating sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 2(2):47-52

Huang HC; Erickson RS, 1996. Survey of diseases of pea in southern Alberta in 1995. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 76(1):116-117.

Huang HC; Erickson RS, 2000. Survey of diseases of dry bean in southern Alberta in 1999. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 80(1):73-74.

Huang HC; Hoes JA, 1976. Penetration and infection of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum by Coniothyrium minitans. Canadian Journal of Botany, 54(5/6):406-410

Huang HC; Hoes JA, 1980. Importance of plant spacing and sclerotial position to development of Sclerotinia wilt of sunflower. Plant Disease (formerly Plant Disease Reporter), 64(1):81-84

Huang HC; Janzen HH, 1991. Control of carpogenic germination of sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum by volatile substances from urea. Plant Protection Bulletin, Taiwan, 33(3):283-289

Huang HC; Kemp GA, 1989. Growth habit of dry beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and incidence of white mold (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum). Plant Protection Bulletin, Taiwan, 31(3):304-309

Huang HC; Kokko EG, 1987. Ultrastructure of hyperparasitism of Coniothyrium minitans on sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Canadian Journal of Botany, 65(12):2483-2489

Huang HC; Kokko EG, 1988. Penetration of hyphae of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum by Coniothyrium minitans without the formation of appressoria. Journal of Phytopathology, 123(2):133-139

Huang HC; Kokko EG, 1992. Pod rot of dry peas due to infection by ascospores of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Plant Disease, 76(6):597-600

Huang HC; Kokko EG, 1993. Infection of pea pollen by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Plant Pathology (Trends in Agricultural Sciences), 1:13-17.

Huang HC; Kokko EG; Phillippee LM, 1988. White mold of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in southern Alberta, 1983-87. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 68:11-13.

Huang HC; Kokko EG; Yanke LJ; Phillippe RC, 1993. Bacterial suppression of basal pod rot and end rot of dry peas caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 39(2):227-233; 19 ref.

Huang HC; Kokko MJ; Phillippe LM, 1988. White mold of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in southern Alberta, 1983-87. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 68(1):11-13

Huang HC; Kozub GC, 1989. A simple method for production of apothecia from sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Plant Protection Bulletin, Taiwan, 31(4):333-345

Huang HC; Kozub GC, 1990. Cyclic occurrence of Sclerotinia wilt of sunflower in western Canada. Plant Disease, 74(10):766-770

Huang HC; Kozub GC, 1991a. Temperature requirements for carpogenic germination of sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates of different geographic origin. Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica, 32(4):279-286

Huang HC; Kozub GC, 1991b. Monocropping to sunflower and decline of Sclerotinia wilt. Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica, 32(3):163-170

Huang HC; Kozub GC, 1993. Influence of inoculum production temperature on carpogenic germination of sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Canadian Journal of Microbiology, 39(5):548-550

Huang HC; Kozub GC, 1994. Germination of immature and mature sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Botanical Bulletin of Academia Sinica, 35(4):243-247

Huang HC; Kozub GC, 1994. Longevity of normal and abnormal sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Plant Disease, 78(12):1164-1166

Huang HC; Merrifield KE; Collard NB; Kawchuk LM; Lynch DR, 1996. Survey of sclerotinia stem blight of seed potato in southern Alberta, 1992-95. Can. Plant Disease Survey, 76(1):130-131.

Huang HC; Phillippe LM, 1989. Survey of irrigated canola for Sclerotinia stem rot in southern Alberta in 1988. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 69(1):58.

Huang HC; Phillippe LM, 1990. Survey for Sclerotinia wilt and head rot of sunflower in southern Alberta in 1989. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 70(1):84.

Huang HC; Sun SK, 1991. Effects of S-H mixture or Perlka on carpogenic germination and survival of sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.. Soil Biology & Biochemistry, 23(9):809-813; 27 ref.

Huang HC; Topinka AK; Kokko MJ, 1988b. Survey for Sclerotinia stem rot of irrigated canola in southern Alberta in 1984. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 68(1):104.

Hungerford CW, 1953. The sclerotinia disease of beans in Idaho. Phytopathology, 43: 519-521.

Hunter JE; Abawi GS; Crosier DC, 1978. Effects of timing, coverage, and spray oil on control of white mold of snap bean with benomyl. Plant Disease Reporter, 62(7):633-637

Hunter JE; Pearson RC; Seem RC; Smith CA; Palumbo DR, 1984. Relationship between soil moisture and occurrence of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and white mold disease on snap beans. Protection Ecology, 7(4):269-280

Hutchins JD; Archer SA, 1994. Biocontrol of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum by manipulation of petal microflora. Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Pests and Diseases - 1994. Volume 2 Farnham, UK; British Crop Protection Council, 935-936

Iliescu H; Csep N; Dragoescu E, 1980. Research on the possibilities of prevention and control of sunflower diseases by chemical treatment. Bulletin de l'Academie des Sciences Agricoles et Forestieres, No. 10:85-92

Illipronti RA Jr; Machado J da C, 1993. Antagonism of fungi to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in soybean and common bean. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 18(2):162-166

Ilumäe E; Kastanje V; Hansson A; Akk E, 2007. Distribution and control of Sclerotinia stem rot. (Valgemädaniku (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) De Bary) levik suvirapsil (Brassica napus) ja selle tõrje.) In: Agronomy 2007 [ed. by Kadaja, J.]. Sacu, Estonia: Estonian Research Institute of Agriculture, 117-120.

Irzykowski W; Sun JunMing; Li QiangSheng; Gao TongChun; Hou ShuMin; Âguedo A; Jedryczka M, 2004. DNA polymorphism in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolates from oilseed rape in China. Bulletin OILB/SROP [Proceedings of the IOBC/WPRS Working Group "Integrated Control in Oilseed Crops", Rothamsted, UK, 30-31 March, 2004.], 27(10):67-74.

Ivancheva-Gabrovska T; Ilieva E; Kadir SR, 1978. Pathogens of damping-off of tobacco seedlings in Bulgaria. Rasteniev"dni Nauki, 15(8):113-120

Ivanov P; Shindrova P; Penchev E; Ivanov I; Nikolova V, 1989. Effect of the basal form of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on sunflower seeds. Rasteniev'dni Nauki, 26(8):26-32

Jackson N; Campanini JT, 1975. A dieback of Euonymus alatus caused by Whetzelinia sclerotiorum. Plant Disease Reporter, 59(4):310-311

Jamalainen EA, 1978. Wintering of field crops in Finland. Journal of the Scientific Agricultural Society of Finland, 50: 468-519.

James C, 1974. Assessment of plant diseases and losses. Annual Review of Phytopathology, 12:27-48.

Jarvis WR, 1985. Sclerotinia minor as the cause of lettuce drop in southwestern Ontario. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 65(1):7

Jellis GJ; Scott ES; Smith DB, 1984. The causal organism of stem rot disease of faba beans. FABIS Newsletter, Faba Bean Information Service, ICARDA, No.10:24-27

Jiao HS; Cheng ZM; Xu XH; Zou LB; Lu XD; Cong PF; Liu JP; Ding TF, 1994. Studies on evaluation for resistance of soyabean germplasm resource to Sclerotium sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. Soybean Science, 13(4):349-356

Johnson DA, 1994. Sclerotinia stem rot on potato. Extension Bulletin - Cooperative Extension, College of Agriculture & Home Economics, Washington State University, No. EB1790:2 pp.

Jones D, 1970. Ultrastructure and composition of the cell walls of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Transaction British Mycological Society, 54:351-360.

Jones D, 1976. Infection of plant tissue by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum: a scanning electron microscope study. Micron, 7(4):275-279

Jones D; Gordon AH; Bacon JSD, 1974. Co-operative action by endo- and exo- beta -(1 'right arrow' 3)-glucanases from parasitic fungi in the degradation of cell-wall glucans of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Biochemical Journal, 140(1):47-55

Jones D; Gray EG, 1973. Factors affecting germination of sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum from peas. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 60(3):495-500

Jones D; Gray EG, 1977. Crop losses due to the soil-borne fungus, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. ARC Research Review, 3(3):79-81

Kapoor AS; Dhanbir Singh; Singh BM, 1990. A technique for artificial inoculation of pea seedling with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Indian Phytopathology, 43(3):469-470

Kapoor KS, 1988. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum - a threat to seed production of eggplant. Capsicum Newsletter, No. 7:92

Kerr ED; Steadman JR; Nelson LA, 1978. Estimation of white mould disease reduction of yield and yield components of dry edible beans. Crop Science, 18(2):275-279

Khatua DC; Mondal B; Hansda S, 2014. White rot of Coreopsis drummondii - a new record from West Bengal India. Journal of Mycopathological Research, 52(1):157-158. http://www.imskolkata.org/

Kirchner HA; Pluschkell HJ, 1973. On the occurrence of rape stalk break (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary) in the Rostock district. Nachrichtenblatt fur den Pflanzenschutzdienst in der DDR, 27(2):38-40

Klasse HJ, 1993. Successful control of Sclerotinia and clubroot. Gemuse (Munchen), 29(7):389-390

Koehler A; Shew H, 2014. First report of stem rot of Stevia caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in North Carolina. Plant Disease, 98(10):1433. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Kohn LM, 1979. Delimitation of the economically important plant pathogenic Sclerotinia species. Phytopathology, 69:881-886

Kohn LM; Petsche DM; Bailey SR; Novak LA; Anderson JB, 1988. Restriction fragment length polymorphisms in nuclear and mitochondrial DNA of Sclerotinia species. Phytopathology, 78(8):1047-1051

Kola K, 1980. Comparative study of sunflower varieties to assess their resistance to fungal diseases in the Zadrima area. Buletini i Shkencave Bujqesore, 19:87-94.

Kondo N; Kodama F; Ozaki M; Akai J, 1988. Occurrence and control of Sclerotinia head rot of sunflower in Hokkaido. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 54(2):198-203

Kopmans E, 1993. Influence of irrigation on formation of apothecia from sclerotia of the stem rot pathogen, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Vaxtskyddsnotiser, 57(3):75-77

Korf RP; Dumont KP, 1972. Whetzelinia, a new generic name for Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and S. tuberosa. Mycologia, 64:248-251.

Kosasih BD; Willetts HJ, 1975. Types of abnormal apothecia produced by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Mycologia, 67(1):89-97

Kovßcik A; Skaloud V; Vrabec J, 1993. Yield and oil production potential of sunflower hybrids tested in the Czech Republic. Rostlinna^acute~ Vy^acute~roba, 39(5):429-435; 9 ref.

Krexner R, 1969. Sklerotienkrankheit der sonnenblume (Sclerotial disease of sunflower). Pflanzenarzt, 22: 20-22.

Kruger W, 1973 Measures for controlling Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib. ) de Bary on rape. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 77(2):125-137.

Kruger W, 1983. White stalk (rape canker). Information or integrated plant protection. Nachrichtenblatt des Deutschen Pflanzenschutzdienstes, 35(10):159-160

Kruger W; Stoltenberg J, 1983. Control of rape diseases II. Measures for disease reduction of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum with regard to economic factors. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 108(2):114-126

Kubota M; Misawa T, 2014. Gray mold and sclerotinia rot of okra plants. Annual Report of the Kanto-Tosan Plant Protection Society, No.61:43-46. http://www.ktpps.org/

Lagarde F, 1994. Phytosanitary balance sheet for the 1994 sunflower season. Phomopsis, Phoma, Sclerotinia... and Albugo. Phytoma, No. 468:34-35

Laguna IG; Salazar LG, 1984. Banana fruit rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary (Whetzelinia sclerotiorum) in Costa Rica. Turrialba, 34(1):105-106

Lamarque C, 1983. Climatic conditions necessary for sunflower infection by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum: forecasting of local epidemics. EPPO Bulletin, 13(2):75-78

Lamarque C; Rapilly F; Choisnel E; Payen D; Gerbier N; Lobregeat C; Nouallet J; Regnault Y, 1981. Forecasting of Sclerotinia epidemics on sunflower. An agrometeorological approach. Informations Techniques CETIOM, No. 75, 32 pp.

Lamey HA, 1995. Survey of blackleg and Sclerotinia stem rot of canola in North Dakota in 1991 and 1993. Plant Disease, 79(3):322-324

Lamey HA, 1999. Incidence of Sclerotinia stem rot on canola in North Dakota and Minnesota, 1991-1997. In: Proceedings of the 1998 International Sclerotinia Workshop, Fargo, ND, 9-12 September, 1998. Nelson BD, (ed.), Gulya TJ, (ed.) Department of Plant Pathology, North Dakota State University; Fargo, USA, 7-9.

Lazarev AM, 1993. Sclerotiniosis of potato stems in the Primorskii Krai. Zashchita Rastenii (Moskva), No. 8:17

Lee YA; Wu WS, 1986. Chemical and biological controls of sunflower Sclerotinia disease. Plant Protection Bulletin, Taiwan, 28(1):101-109

Letham DB; Huett DO; Trimboli DS, 1976. Biology and control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in cauliflower and tomato crops in coastal New South Wales. Plant Disease Reporter, 60(4):286-289

Li GuoQing; Wang DaoBen; Huang HC; Zhou Qi, 1996. Polymorphisms of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum isolated from eggplant in Jiamusi, Heilongjiang Province. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica, 26(3):237-242; 13 ref.

Li GuoQing; Wang DaoBen; Jiang DaoHong; Huang HC; Laroche A, 2000. First report of Sclerotinia nivalis on lettuce in central China. Mycological Research, 104(2):232-237; 12 ref.

Li H; Fu C, 1981. Studies on the sclerotinial rot of soybean. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica, 11(3):19-24

Li LL; Zhou BW, 1979. Sclerotinia disease of rapeseed. Beijing, China: China Agriculture Press.

Libert MA, 1837. Plante Crytogamicae arduennae (Exsiccati) No. 326. Published by MA Libert.

Lindblad M, 1994. Agricultural pests and diseases in Sweden 1993. Vaxtskyddsnotiser, 58(1):27-32

Liu CQ; Du DZ; Huang YJ; Wang CH, 1991. Study on the tolerance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Brassica napus and its genetic effects. Scientia Agricultura Sinica, 24(3):43-49

Liu HY; Sun SK, 1984. Some ecological studies on Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary, the causal agent of sclerotinia disease of crop plants. Plant Protection Bulletin, Taiwan, 26(2):81-86

Liu L; Li X, 1988. The geographical distribution of sunflower diseases in China. Plant Pathology, 37(4):470-474

Liu SY; Ma CS, 1998. Color Illustrations of Control of Diseases, Insects and Weeds of Oilseed Rape. Beijing, China: China Agriculture Press.

Lo K; Zhou BW, 1994. Diseases of Oilseed Rape and their Control. Beijing, China: China Commercial Press.

Lockwood JL; deZeeuw DJ; Andersen AL; Hagedorn DJ, 1957. Pea diseases in Michigan, 1955 and 1956. Plant Disease Reporter, 41(5):478-480.

Lopez MPB; Spadaro D; Gullino ML, 2015. First report of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causing postharvest Sclerotinia rot on highbush blueberry in Europe. Plant Disease, 99(11):1648. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Lumsden RD; Adams PB; Abawi G; and Steadman JR, 1975. Report on a Sclerotinia Workshop Conference, Beltsville, Maryland, USA, 1974. Bulletin of International Society of Plant Pathology, No. 5.

Lumsden RD; Lewis JA; Millner PD, 1983. Effect of composted sewage sludge on several soilborne pathogens and diseases. Phytopathology, 73(11):1543-1548

Lumsden RD; Wergin WP, 1980. Scanning-electron microscopy of infection of bean by species of Sclerotinia. Mycologia, 72(6):1200-1209

Lüth P; Schulz RR; Pfeffer H, 1993. The influence of bacterial antagonists on the infestation of a soil as well as on the yield of winter oilseed rape affected by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.. Zentralblatt für Mikrobiologie, 148(1):32-38; 12 ref.

Madjid A, 1981. Inheritance of resistance to drop (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) in lettuce. Dissertation Abstracts International, B. 42: 6, 2157B-2158B.

Madjid A; Honma S; Lacy ML, 1983. A greenhouse method for screening lettuce for resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Scientia Horticulturae, 18(3):201-206

Maire R, 1927. Algeria: plant disease observed in March, 1927. International Bulletin of Plant Protection, pp 51-52.

Maiti S, 1982. Sclerotinia foot and stem rot of Stylosanthes in India. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 12(2):224

Malinina VM, 1981. Control measures for Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea in sunflower. Vestnik Sel'skokhozyaistvennoi Nauki, No. 6:134-137

Marcum DB; Grogan RG; Greathead AS, 1977. Fungicide control of lettuce drop caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum 'minor'. Plant Disease Reporter, 61(7):555-559

Marinelli A; March GJ, 1996. Epidemias de "tizon" del mani (Arachis hypogaea L.) causado por Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary y S. minor Jagger en Argentina. Boletin de Sanidad Vegetal, Plagas, 22(3):501-510.

Marinelli A; March GJ; Rago A; Giuggia J, 1998. Assessment of crop loss in peanut caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, S. minor, and Sclerotium rolfsii in Argentina. International Journal of Pest Management, 44(4):251-254; 19 ref.

Martens JW; Seaman WLl; Atkinson TG(Editors), 1984. Diseases of field crops in Canada. An illustrated compendium. Harrow, Ontario, Canada; Canadian Phytopathological Society, viii + 159 pp.

Martens YW; Ravagan G; McDonald WC, 1970. Diseases of sunflowers in Kenya. East African Agriculture and Forestry Journal, 35:389-395.

Martin RA; Arsenault WJ, 1987. Prevalence and severity of Sclerotinia stalk rot of tobacco on Prince Edward Island, 1985 and 1986. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 67(2):41-43

Martínez de la Parte E; Cantillo Pérez T; García D, 2014. Fungi associated with Phaseolus vulgaris L. seeds cultivated in Cuba. (Hongos asociados a semillas de Phaseolus vulgaris L. cultivadas en Cuba.) Biotecnología Vegetal, 14(2):99-105. http://revista.ibp.co.cu/2014/vol-14-no2-2014.html

Martínez-de la Parte E; Trujillo M; Cantillo-Pérez T; García D, 2013. First report of white mould of beans caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Cuba. New Disease Reports, 27:5. http://www.ndrs.org.uk/article.php?id=027005

Matheron ME; Matejka JC, 1989. In vitro and field comparison of six new fungicides with iprodione and vinclozolin for control of leaf drop of lettuce caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Plant Disease, 73(9):727-730

Mathur S; Platford RG, 1994. Distribution, prevalence and incidence of canola diseases in Manitoba 1993. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 74(1):84-87.

Maxwell DP, 1973. Oxalate formation in Whetzelinia sclerotiorum by oxaloacetate acetylhydrolase. Physiological Plant Pathology, 3(2):279-288

McKenzie DL; Morrall RAA, 1973. Diseases of three specialty legume crops in Saskatchewan in 1972: field pea, lentil and fababean. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 53(4):187-190

McKenzie DL; Morrall RAA, 1975. Diseases of specialty crops in Saskatchewan: II. Notes on field pea in 1973-74 and on lentil in 1973. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 55(3):97-100

McLaren DL; Huang HC; Kozub GC; Rimmer SR, 1994. Biological control of Sclerotinia wilt of sunflower with Talaromyces flavus and Coniothyrium minitans. Plant Disease, 78(3):231-235

McLaren DL; Platford RG, 1999. Distribution, prevalence and incidence of canola diseases in Manitoba, 1998. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 79(1):99-101.

McPartland JM, 1995. Cannabis pathogens XII: lumper's row. Mycotaxon, 54:273-280

McQuilken MP; Mitchell SJ; Archer SA, 1994. Origin of early attacks of Sclerotinia stem rot on winter oilseed rape (Brassica napus sub. sp. oleifera var. biensis) in the UK. Journal of Phytopathology, 140(3):179-186

Melouk HA; Singleton LL; Owens FN; Akem CN, 1989. Viability of sclerotia of Sclerotinia minor after passage through the digestive tract of a crossbred heifer. Plant Disease, 73(1):68-69; 8 ref.

Melzer MS; Boland GJ, 1996. Transmissible hypovirulence in Sclerotinia minor. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 18(1):19-28; 28 ref.

Melzer MS; Smith EA; Boland GJ, 1993. Survey of lettuce drop at Holland Marsh, Ontario. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 73:105.

Menegaz J; Huerta H; Meredith DS, 1980. Controlling fungus in Brazilian fields. Tobacco International, 182(7):34,73

Merriman PR; Pywell M; Harrison G; Nancarrow J, 1979. Survival of sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and effects of cultivation practices on disease. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 11(6):567-570

Michailides TJ; Morgan DP, 1994. Occurrence of Sclerotinia and Botrytis shoot blights on pistachio in California. Plant Disease, 78(6):641

Middleton KJ; Tatnell J; Redden RJ, 1995. Germplasm screening of Phaseolus vulgaris for resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Australasian Plant Pathology, 24(2):118-125

Mirza MS; Ahmad Y, 1988. Cabbage: a new host of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum for Pakistan. Agronomie, 8(1):85-87

Mitidieri IMde, 1994. The main diseases which affect horticultural crops grown under cover in northern Buenos Aires, Argentina. Acta Horticulturae, No.357:143-152; 8 ref.

Moghaddam SAMH; Izadyar M, 1994. Bud and twig dieback of mulberry in Gilan. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 30(1-4):5-6 En; 18-24 Pe

Mohan L, 1994. Sclerotinia rot in rosemary. Indian Phytopathology, 47(4):443

Mondal B; Sunita Mahapatra; Khatua DC, 2012. Records of some new diseases of horticultural plants of West Bengal. Journal of Interacademicia, 16(1):36-43.

Moore WD; Conover RA; Stoddard DL, 1949. The sclerotiniose disease of vegetable crops in Florida. Florida Agriculture Experiment Station, Bulletin 457.

Morral RAA; McKenzie DL, 1975. Diseases of specialty crops in Saskatchewan: 1. Notes on buckwheat and sunflower 1972-73. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 55(2):69-72

Morrall RAA, 1977. A preliminary study of the influence of water potential on sclerotium germination in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Canadian Journal of Botany, 55(1):8-11

Morrall RAA; Dueck J, 1982. Epidemiology of Sclerotinia stem rot of rapeseed in Saskatchewan. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 4(2):161-168

Morrall RAA; Dueck J; McKenzie DL; McGee DC, 1976. some aspects of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Saskatchewan, 1970-75. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 56(2):56-62

Morrall RAA; Dueck J; Verma PR, 1984. Yield losses due to Sclerotinia stem rot in western Canadian rapeseed. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 6(3):265.

Morrall RAA; Verma PR; Dueck J, 1985. Recent progress in chemical control of Sclerotinia stem rot of rape in Western Canada. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 50(3b):1189-1194

Morwood RB, 1956. Notes on plant diseases listed for Fiji. Agriculture Journal of Fiji, 27(3-4): 83-86.

Mueller DS; Hartman GL; Pedersen WL, 1999. Development of sclerotia and apothecia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum from infected soybean seed and its control by fungicide seed treatment. Plant Disease, 83(12):1113-1115; 22 ref.

Muendel HH; Huang HC; Burch LD; Kiehn F, 1985. Saffire safflower. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 65:1079-1081.

Muendel HH; Huang HC; Burch LD; Kiehn F, 1987. Registration of `Saffire' safflower. Crop Science, 27:364-365.

Muendel HH; Huang HC; Kozub GC, 1985. Sclerotinia head rot in safflower: Assessment of resistance and effects on yield and oil content. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 65: 259-265.

Mukerji KG, 1973. Additions to plant diseases of Delhi. Angewandte Botanik, 47 (5-6): 205-213.

Mukula J, 1957. Decay of stored carrots in Finland. ACTA Agriculturae Scandinavica Supplement 2. 132 pp.

Muller AS, 1935. Brazil: Preliminary list of diseases of plants in the state of Minas Gereas. International Bulletin of Plant Protection, 8: 67-77.

Mullins E; Quinlan C; Jones P, 1995. Analysis of mechanisms of partial physiological resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum using induced mutants of Brassica napus. Aspects of Applied Biology, No. 42:307-314

Murray GA; Auld DL; Kraft JM; Lee GA; Muehlbauer FJ; O'keeffe LE, 1978. Dry pea and lentil production in the Pacific Northwest. University of Idaho Agricultural Experiment Station, Bulletin No. 578, 8pp.

Mushi CS; Ngulu FS, 1995. Screening for white mold resistance in common bean in Tanzania. Breeding for disease resistance with emphasis on durability. Proceedings of a regional workshop for eastern, central and southern Africa, held at Njoro, Kenya, October 2-6, 1994 [edited by Danial, D. L.] Wageningen, Netherlands; Landbouwuniversiteit Wageningen (Wageningen Agricultural University), 262-267

Naito N; Kimura T, 1954. Sclerotinia disease of Mitsumata (Edgeworthia papyrifera Sieb. et Zucc.). Plant Protection, 8:401-405. (In Japanese).

Nasser LCB; Sutton JC; Boland GJ, 1995. Influence of crop residues and soil moisture on Sclerotinia sclerotiorum from the Cerrados region in Brazil. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 17{4):360-361.

Newton HC; Sequeira L, 1972a. Ascospores as the primary infective propagule of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Wisconsin. Plant Disease Reporter, 56:798-802.

Newton HC; Sequeira L, 1972b. Possible sources of resistance in lettuce to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Plant Disease Reporter, 56: 875-878.

Nicholson JF; Dhingra OD; Sinclair JB, 1973. Soil temperatures and inoculation techniques affect emergence and reisolation of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum from soybean. Mycopathologia et Mycologia Applicata, 50:257-260.

Noyes RD; Hancock JG, 1981. Role of oxalic acid in the Sclerotinia wilt of sunflower. Physiological Plant Pathology, 18(2):123-132

Oethybridge GH, 1911. Potato diseases in Ireland. Journal of the Department of Agriculture, 11 (3): 431.

Okamoto H, 1938. On the production of apothecia of Sclerotinia libertiana Fuck. in the Loochoo Island. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 8:249-250. (In Japanese).

Oliveira RR; Braz GBP; Oliveira Júnior RS; Hentges M; Takano HK; Vida JB, 2015. First report of sclerotinia blight caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on Crotalaria spectabilis in Brazil. Plant Disease, 99(7):1037. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Ondrej M, 1983. The occurrence of fungi on caraway (Carum carvi L.) in Czechoslovakia. Sborník úVTIZ, Ochrana Rostlin, 19(3):235-237; [2 fig.]; 5 ref.

Orellana RG, 1975. Photoperiod influence on the susceptibility of sunflower to Sclerotinia stalk rot. Phytopathology, 65(11):1293-1298

Orellana RG; Bailey WK, 1964. Blight of peanuts in Maryland and Virginia in 1963. Plant Disease Reporter, 48:519-521.

Orr DD; Burnett PA, 1993. Survey of Radley pea in central Alberta-1992. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 73(1):100.

Oshima N; Dickens L, 1968. Diseaes of canning crops in Colorado. Plant Disease Reporter, 52(7):542-544.

Pachico D, 1989. Trends in world common bean production. In: Schwartz HF, Pastor-Corrales MA, eds. Bean Production Problems in the Tropics. Cali, Columbia: CIAT.

Pagliarini NC; Berberovic H; Okanovic M, 2007. Pests and diseases of tomatoes under hydroponic cultivation. (?tetnici i bolesti rajcice u hidroponskom uzgoju.) Glasilo Biljne Za?tite, 7(4):220-226.

Pandotra VR, 1976. Wilt of stocks (Matthiola sp.) in Jammu. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 6(2):183

Park KJ, 1985. Sclerotinia species causing ginseng white rot in Korea. M. Sc. Thesis, Seoul National University, Korea, 42 pp.

Patterson CL; Grogan RG, 1985. Differences in epidemiology and control of lettuce drop caused by Sclerotinia minor and S. sclerotiorum. Plant Disease, 69(9):766-770

Payen D, 1983. Modelling the epidemiology of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on sunflower. EPPO Bulletin, 13(2):277-281

Pearse PG; Morrall RAA; Kutcher DA; Kaminski DA; Duczek LJ; Gugel RK; Rimer SR; Berard R, 2000. Survey of canola diseases in Saskatchewan, 1999. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 80(1):81-82.

Pearse PG; Morrall; RAA; Kutcher DA; Kaminski DA; Duczek LJ; Gugel RK; Rimmer SR; Berard R, 2000. Survey of canola diseases in Saskatchewan, 1999. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 80(1):81-82.

Pegg KG, 1972. Control of Sclerotinia rot in beans with benomyl. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture and Animal Husbandry, 12(54):81-82.

Pegg KN, 1965. Bean Sclerotinia Control. Queensland Agricultural Journal, 91:262-264.

Pennycook SR, 1982. Sclerotinia rot of kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis). Orchardist of New Zealand, 55(10):407-408

Peres GP; Nasser LCB; Machado Jda C, 2002. Use of semi-selective media for detection of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on bean and soybean seeds. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 27(2):123-127; 12 ref.

Perez BA; Farinon OM; Berretta MF, 2011. First report of sclerotinia rot on blueberry caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Argentina. Plant Disease, 95(6):774. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Petrenkova VP, 1994. Survival of the sclerotia of the causal agent of white rot. Zashchita Rastenii (Moskva), No. 4:20

Petrie GA, 1974. Fungi associated with seeds of rape, turnip rape, flax, and safflower in western Canada, 1968-73. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 54(4):155-165

Petrie GA, 1985. Yield losses in Saskatchewan rapeseed/canola crops from basal stem cankers of blackleg (Leptosphaeria maculans) in 1982, with notes on other diseases. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 65(2):43-46; 1 ref.

Petrie GA, 1995. 1994 survey for blackleg and other diseases of canola. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 75(1):142-144.

Pfeffer H; Luth P, 1990. Effect of a red clover monoculture on the anti-phytopathogenic potential of soil with regard to Sclerotinia trifoliorum Erikss. Nachrichtenblatt Pflanzenschutz, 44(9):214-216

Phipps PM; Porter DM, 1982. Sclerotinia blight of soybean caused by Sclerotinia minor and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Plant Disease, 66(2):163-165

Pieta D; Patucha A, 1993. Fungi infecting soyabean (Glycine max L.) seeds and effect of some fungicides on seed treatment. Biuletyn Warzywniczy, 40:101-109; 15 ref.

Pimakhin VF; Solovov PN; Arkhangel'skii VN, 1984. Protecting sunflower from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea. Identifying resistant forms. Maslichnye Kul'tury, No. 3:30

Pirvu N; Vranceanu AV; Stoenescu F, 1985. Genetic mechanisms of sunflower resistance to white rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum Lib. de By.). Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenzuchtung, 95(2):157-163

Platford RG, 1988. Incidence of plant diseases in field peas in Manitoba in 1987. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 68(1):122.

Polizzi G; Aiello D; Scuderi G; Cirvilleri G, 2011. First report of Sclerotinia stem and twig blight caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on Citrus volkameriana rootstock in Italy. Plant Disease, 95(8):1030-1031. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Ponce GF; Mendoza ZC, 1983. Fungal diseases and insect pests of rapeseed in the high valleys of Mexico. Revista Chapingo, 8(39):53-61

Pons N; Alvarado H de; Castro JL, 1979. Whetzelinia sclerotiorum, a new pathogen in Venezuela, on lettuce, cabbage and bean. Fitopatologia, 14(1):10-14

Pontis RE; Feldman JM, 1959. A new host of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Argentina. Plant Disease Reporter, 43:421.

Poole RF, 1922. The Sclerotinia rot of celery. New Jersey Agricultural Experiment Stations, Bulletin 359:1-27.

Porter DM; Beute MK, 1974. Sclerotinia blight of peanuts. Phytopathology, 64:261-264.

Porter DM; Beute MK; and Wynne JC, 1975. Resistance of peanut germplasm to sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Peanut Science, 2:78-80.

Porter IJ; Merriman PR, 1985. Evaluation of soil solarization for control of root diseases of row crops in Victoria. Plant Pathology, 34(1):108-118; [11 ref.]; 19 ref.

Pratt RG; Dabney SM; Mays DA, 1988. New forage legume hosts of Sclerotinia trifoliorum and S. sclerotiorum in the southeastern United States. Plant Disease, 72(7):593-596

Pratt RG; Rowe DE, 1995. Comparative pathogenicity of isolates of Sclerotinia trifoliorum and S. sclerotiorum on alfalfa cultivars. Plant Disease, 79(5):474-477

Pritchard MK; Boese DE; Rimmer SR, 1992. Rapid cooling and field-applied fungicides for reducing losses in stored carrots caused by cottony soft rot. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 14(2):177-181

Prova A; Akanda MAM; Islam S; Sultana F; Islam MT; Hossain MM, 2014. First report of stem and pod blight of hyacinth bean caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Bangladesh. Journal of Plant Pathology, 96(3):607. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3193/1865

Purdy LH, 1956. Factors affecting apothecial production by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Phytopathology, 46:409-410.

Purdy LH, 1979. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum: history, diseases and symptomatology, host range, geographic distribution, and impact. Phytopathology, 69:875-880

Purdy LH; Bardin R, 1953. Mode of infection of tomato plants by the ascospores of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Plant Disease Reporter, 37:361-362.

Radke VL; Grau CR, 1986. Effects of herbicides on carpogenic germination of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Plant Disease, 70(1):19-23

Rahman MME; Dey TK; Hossain DM; Nonaka M; Harada N, 2015. First report of white mould caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on jackfruit. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 10(1):10. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13314-014-0155-9/fulltext.html

Rai JN; Dhawan S, 1978. Lysis of sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and its possible relation with chitinase activity. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 8(1):103-107

Rajender Singh; Tripathi NN, 1994. Assured method of inoculation and screening of Brassica spp. against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. Crop Research (Hisar), 8(3):570-574

Ran HongChang; Liu LiJiang; Li Bo; Cheng JiaSen; Fu YanPing; Jiang DaoHong; Xie JiaTao, 2016. Co-infection of a hypovirulent isolate of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum with a new botybirnavirus and a strain of a mitovirus. Virology Journal, 13(92):(6 June 2016). http://virologyj.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12985-016-0550-2

Rankin L, 1987. Lettuce disease survey in New Brunswick, 1986. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 67(2):25-30

Rashid K; Swanson J, 1999. Seed treatment for the control of early Sclerotinia infection in sunflower. In: Proceedings of the 1998 International Sclerotinia Workshop, Fargo, ND, 9-12 September, 1998. Fargo, USA: Department of Plant Pathology, North Dakota State University.

Rashid KY; Platford RG, 1995. Diseases of sunflower in Manitoba in 1994. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 75(1):158-159.

Rashid KY; Platford RG, 1996. Diseases of sunflower in Manitoba in 1995. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 76(1):120-122.

Reeleder RD; Charbonneau F, 1987. Incidence and severity of diseases caused by Botrytis cinerea, Pythium tracheiphilum and Sclerotinia spp. on lettuce in Quebec, 1985-1986. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 67(2):45-46

Rhodes LH; Gilbert RG, 1990. Sclerotinia crown and stem rot. In: Compendium of Alfalfa Diseases. 2nd ed. Stuteville DL, Erwin DC, eds. St. Paul, Minnesota, USA: American Phytopathological Society.

Richardson LT; Bond EJ, 1978. Methyl bromide fumigation of rapeseed infested with sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Canadian Journal of Plant Science, 58(1):267-268

Robinson RA, 1960. Notes on Kenya agriculture. VIII. Important plant diseases. East African Agriculture Journal, 25:131-146.

Roed H, 1954. Mitrula sclerotiorum Rostr, and its relations to Sclerotinia trifoliorum Erikss. Acta Agriculturae Scandinavica, 4:78.

Rogozheva MF; Dubovitskaya ZI; Vetrova MF, 1984. Protecting sunflower from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and Botrytis cinerea. Identifying resistant forms. Maslichnye Kul'tury, No. 3:31

Rothwell A, 1972. Ground-nut diseases in Rhodesia. Rhodesia Agricultural Journal, 69(2):35-38

Rowe DE, 1993. Oxalic acid effects in exudates of Sclerotinia trifoliorum and S. sclerotiorum and potential use in selection. Crop Science, 33(6):1146-1149

Roy AK, 1985. Fungal diseases of ornamentals and flowers in Assam. Indian Horticulture, 30(1):19-21

Rudolph M, 1986. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary on Phaseolus vulgaris L. Nachrichtenblatt fur den Pflanzenschutz in der DDR, 40(9):195-196

Sackston WE, 1957. Dise ases of sunflowers in Uruguay. Plant Disease Reporter, 41:885-889.

Saindon G; Huang HC; Kozub GC, 1995. White-mold avoidance and agronomic attributes of upright common beans grown at multiple planting densities in narrow rows. Journal of the American Society for Horticultural Science, 120(5):843-847

Saito I, 1997. Sclerotinia nivalis, sp. nov., the pathogen of snow mould of herbaceous dicots in northern Japan. Mycoscience, 38(2):227-236; 21 ref.

Saito M, 1990. Transition of chemical control tests on major diseases of rice plant and vegetable fruits in Shikoku district. Proceedings of the Association for Plant Protection of Shikoku, No. 3, 1-6. (In Japanese).

Sala CA; Vßzquez AN; Romano ABde; Piubello S, 1994. Sclerotinia mid-stalk rot of sunflower: effect on yield components and oil content. Helia, 17(21):41-44; 3 ref.

Sala CA; Vßzquez AN; Romano ABde; Piubello S, 1996. Yield losses in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) due to head rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. Helia, 19(25):95-104; 14 ref.

Salazar H; Castro Castano R, 1994. Evaluation and control of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) diseases in the greenhouse. Fitopatología Colombiana, 18(1-2):84-89; 20 ref.

Sandys-Winsch C; Whipps JM; Gerlagh M; Kruse M, 1993. World distribution of the sclerotial mycoparasite Coniothyrium minitans. Mycological Research, 97(10):1175-1178

Sanogo S; Lujan PA; Baucom D, 2015. First report of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on cabbage in New Mexico. Plant Disease, 99(6):891-892. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Sanogo S; Puppala N, 2007. Characterization of a darkly pigmented mycelial isolate of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on Valencia peanut in New Mexico. Plant Disease, 91(9):1077-1082. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

Saur R, 1983. Experiments with spore traps for timing the control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on winter rape. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 90(3):225-231

Saxena VC; Rai JN, 1987. Survey of occurrence of white rot of crucifers caused by Sclerotina sclerotiorum in Uttar Pradesh and Bihar. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 17(1):89-91

Schwartz HF; Steadman JR, 1989. White mold. In: Schwartz HF, Pastor-Corrales MA, eds. Bean Production Problems in the Tropics. Cali, Columbia: CIAT.

Schwartz HF; Steadman JR; Coyne DP, 1978. Influence of Phaseolus vulgaris blossoming characteristics and canopy structure upon reaction to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Phytopathology, 68(3):465-470

Scott SW, 1981. Serological relationships of three Sclerotinia species. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 77(3):674-676

Sedun FS; Brown JF, 1989. Comparison of three methods to assess resistance in sunflower to basal stem rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and S. minor. Plant Disease, 73(1):52-55

Sesan T; Csep N, 1992. Prevention of white rot (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary) of sunflower and soybean by the biological control agent Coniothyrium minitans Campbell. Bulletin OILB/SROP, 15(1):60-63

Sharma AK, 1985. Epidemiological studies on white rot (Sclerotinia rot ) of pea. Indian Phytopathology, 38(2):319-321

Sharma AK; Kanwar V, 1989. Assessment of losses in pod yield of garden peas due to white rot (Sclerotinia rot) diseases. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 19(1):18-21.

Sharma RC; Gill SS, 1996. Cultural control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum under irrigated rice farming system. Seed Research, 24(2):171-173; 4 ref.

Sharma RC; Gill SS; Gill BS; Rewal HS; Brar SS, 1992. Disease and insect pest status of onion seed crop in Punjab. Onion Newsletter for the Tropics, No. 4:61-62

Sharma RC; Sharma SL, 1984. Evaluation and economics of fungicidal spray against Sclerotinia rot of cauliflower seed crop. Seed Research, 12(2):95-97

Sharma SL; Kaith DS; Khan MA, 1983. Cultural control of Sclerotinia stalk rot of cauliflower. Indian Phytopathology, 36(4):601-603

Shavrova LA, 1972. Infection of introduced plants by fungi of the genus Sclerotinia in the Arctic North. Byulleten' Glavnogo Botanicheskogo Sada, No. 84, 106-109.

Shen WZ, 1992. Control of Sclerotinia rot of rape (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum de Bary) with 40% carbendazim LS. Plant Protection, 18(3):50

Shen YM; Chao CH; Wang FC; Liu HL; Huang TC, 2012. First report of stem and leaf blight caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on eustoma in Taiwan. Plant Disease, 96(6):910. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Shyam KR; Gupta SK; Mandraia RK, 1994. Prevalence of different types of curd rots and extent of yield loss due to plant mortlity in cauliflower seed crop. Indian Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 24:172-175.

Sigvald R, 1985. Plant protection year 1984 agriculture. Vaxtskyddsnotiser, 49(1/2):2-5, 8

Singh HB, 1988. Sclerotinia rot of knol-khol. Indian Journal of Plant Pathology, 6(1):81

Singh RB; Agrawat JM, 1989. Outbreaks of Sclerotinia white mould disease in India. Current Science, 58(8):456

Singh UP; Pathak KK; Khare MN; Singh RB, 1979. Effect of leaf extract of garlic on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. ciceri, Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and on gram seeds. Mycologia, 71(3):556-564

Sitepu K; Wallace HR, 1984. Biological control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in lettuce by Fusarium lateritium.. Australian Journal of Experimental Agriculture & Animal Husbandry, 24(125):272-276; [1 fig., 3 tab.]; 13 ref.

Slopek SW; Anderson M, 1991. Survey of Sclerotinia stem rot in south-central Alberta, 1990. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 71(1):101.

Smith AM, 1972. Biological control of fungal sclerotia in soil. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, 4(2):131-134

Spenner W, 1982. Normal and abnormal formation of apothecia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum dependent on exposure to light. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 89(7):419-421

Starzycka E; Starzycki M; Cichy H; Mikolajczyk K, 1998. Examination of resistance of winter oilseed rape to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. Ros^acute~liny Oleiste, 19(2):493-500; 23 ref.

Staunton WP, 1971. Control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on chicory. Mededelingen Fakulteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Gent, 36:1022-1026.

Steadman JR, 1975. Nature and epidemiological significance of infection of bean seed by Whetzelinia sclerotiorum. Phytopathology, 65(11):1323-1324

Steadman JR, 1979. Control of plant diseases caused by Sclerotinia species. Phytopathology, 69:904-907

Steadman JR, 1983. White mold -- a serious yield-limiting disease of bean. Plant Disease, 67(4):346-350

Steadman JR; Coyne DP; Cook GE, 1973. Reduction of severity of white mold disease on Great Northern beans by wider row spacing and determinate plant growth habit. Plant Disease Reporter, 57:1070-1071.

Steadman JR; Kerr ED; Weihing JL, 1972. White mold disease of field beans in Nebraska. Publication, Agricultural Experiment Station, University of Nebraska, No. SB518, 10pp.

Steadman JR; Maier CR; Schwartz HF; Kerr ED, 1975. Pollution of surface irrigation waters by plant pathogenic organisms. Water Resources Bulletin, 11(4):796-804

Steadman JR; Marcinkowska J; Rutledge S, 1994. A semi-selective medium for isolation of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 16(1):68-70

Steekelenburg NAM van, 1978. Chemical control of Mycosphaerella [Didymella] in cucumbers. Groenten en Fruit, 33(49):45.

Stelfox D; Williams JR; Soehngen U; Topping RC, 1978. Transport of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum ascospores by rapeseed pollen in Alberta. Plant Disease Reporter, 62(7):576-579

Stone GE; Smith RE, 1898. Report of the botanists. Tenth Annual Report of the Massachusetts Agriculture Experiment Station, No. 33:47-70.

Sumar SP; Mohyuddin M; Howard RJ, 1982. Diseases of pulse crops in Alberta, 1978-79. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 62(2)33-40.

Sun HG; Chen FR; Qian MZ, 1982. A brief note on the breeding of a new low erucic acid rape line "264". Zhongguo Youliao, Chinese Oil Crops, No. 2, 17-19.

Sun SK; Huang JW, 1985. Formulated soil amendment for controlling Fusarium wilt and other soilborne diseases. Plant Disease, 69(11):917-920; [8 col. fig., 3 tab.]; 14 ref.

Suojala T; Tahvonen R, 1999. Effect of crop rotation on storage diseases of carrot. In: Proceedings of Agri-Food Quality II: Quality Management of Fruits and Vegetables - from Field to Table, Turku, Finland, 22-25 April, 1998, 76-78.

Sutton DC; Deverall BJ, 1983. Studies on infection of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and soybean (Glycine max) by ascospores of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Plant Pathology, 32(3):251-261

Sweet JB; Pope SJ; Thomas JE, 1992. Resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in linseed, oilseed rape and sunflower cultivars, and its role in integrated control. Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Pests and Diseases - 1992. Volume 1 Farnham, UK; British Crop Protection Council, 117-126

Swingle DB, 1921. Sunflower wilt. Montana Agriculture Experiment Station, Annual Report, 28:42-44.

Tanas T, 2004. The results of examination safeguard cucumbers in plastic houses from attack by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. (Rezultati istrazivanja mjera za?tite krastavca u plastenicima od napada: Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Libert) de Bary.) Glasnik Za?tite Bilja, 27(4):63-69.

Tapio E, 1972. Sclerotinia disease of stocks (Matthiola incana R. Brown). Annales Agriculturae Fenniae, 11(2):111-114

Tapio E; Pohto-Lahdenperä A, 1991. Scanning electron microscopy of hyphal interaction between Streptomyces griseoviridis and some plant pathogenic fungi. Journal of Agricultural Science in Finland, 63(5):435-441; 18 ref.

Tarabeih AM; Abou-el-Fadl IA, 1979. Effect of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on the volatile oil content of some medicinal plants. Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricp, 14(1/2):31-35

Tariq VN; Jeffries P, 1984. Appressorium formation by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum: scanning electron microscopy. Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 82(4):645-651

Tasca G; Giurea M; Popa E; Millim K, 1979. Results obtained in preventing losses of produce caused by microorganisms in vegetables and fruits during storage by applying fungicide treatments. Lucrari Stiintifice, Institutul de Cercetari pentru Valorificarea Legumelor si Fructelor, 10:125-132.

Tasca G; Hulea A; Wekerle J, 1976. Effectiveness of certain pesticides in preventing storage rots of carrots. Lucrari Stiintifice, Institul de Cercetari pentru Valorificarea Legumelor si Fructelor, 7:53-67.

Taskin T; Yikilmazsoy G, 2015. First report of white mold of the globe artichoke caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Turkey. In: Sixth International Scientific Agricultural Symposium "Agrosym 2015", Jahorina, Bosnia and Herzegovina, October 15-18, 2015. Book of Proceedings [ed. by Kovacevuc, D.]. Lukavica, Bosnia-Herzegovina: University of East Sarajevo, 1031-1034.

Tate KG, 1980. Sclerotinia in baby carrots. New Zealand Commercial Grower, 35(3):24-25.

Taubenhaus JJ; Ezekiel WN, 1931. A Sclerotinia limb blight of figs. Phytopathology 21:1195-1197.

Temkin-Gorodeiski N; Katchanski M, 1974. Control of storage rots of zucchini squashes by thiabendazole. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 13(3):172-173

Teo BK; Morrall RAA, 1985. Influence of matric potentials on carpogenic germination of sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. I. Development of an inclined box technique to observe apothecium production. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 7(4):359-364

Teo BK; Morrall RAA, 1985. Influence of matric potentials on carpogenic germination of sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. II. A comparison of results obtained with different techniques. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 7(4):365-369

Thanassoulopoulos CC, 1987. Outbreaks and new records. Greece. New diseases on various crops in Greece. FAO Plant Protection Bulletin, 35(4):164; 7 ref.

Thompson AH; Westhuizen GCAVan der, 1979. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) De Bary on soybean in South Africa. Phytophylactica, 11(3):145-148

Tokumaru J; Kato N; Hasama W, 1989. Occurrence of Sclerotinia rot of edible burdock in Oita Prefecture. Proceedings of the Association for Plant Protection of Kyushu, 35:10-11

Tores JA; Moreno R, 1991. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum: epidemiological factors affecting infection of greenhouse aubergine crops. Journal of Phytopathology, 132(1):65-74

Totir C, 2000. Seed transmission and control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in soybean seeds. Ms. Thesis, Iowa State University, Ames, Iowa, USA.

Tribe HT, 1957. On the parasitism of Sclerotinia trifoliorum by Coniothyrium minitans. Transaction of the British Mycological Society, 40:489-499.

Trinh HX; Quan MV; Groenewald JZ; Burgess LW, 2012. First report of stub dieback of poinsettia (Euphorbia pulcherrima) caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Vietnam. Australasian Plant Disease Notes, 7(1):55-57. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13314-012-0047-9/fulltext.html

Tronsmo A, 1989. Trichoderma harzianum used for biological control of storage rot on carrots. Norwegian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 3(2):157-161

Tsai YP, 1991. List of plant diseases in Taiwan. Taichung, Taiwan, China: The Plant Protection Society of the Republic of China, 604 pp.

Tu JC, 1983. Efficacy of iprodione against Alternaria black pod and white mold of white beans. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 5(2):133-135

Tu JC, 1984. Mycoparasitism by Coniothyrium minitans on Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and its effect on sclerotial germination. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 109(3):261-268

Tu JC, 1985. Tolerance of white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) to white mold (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) associated with tolerance to oxalic acid. Physiological Plant Pathology, 26(1):111-117

Tu JC, 1986. Integrated disease control of white mold (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) in navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 51(2b):731-740

Tu JC, 1987. Epidemiology of white mold (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) in navy bean (Phaseolus vulgaris). Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Rijksuniversiteit Gent, 52(3a):787-796

Tu JC, 1988. The role of white mold-infected white bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds in the dissemination of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. Journal of Phytopathology, 121(1):40-50

Turkington TK; Harrison LM, 1994. Survey of canola diseases in the Peace River Region of Alberta, 1993. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 74(1):94-95.

Turkington TK; Morrall RAA, 1993. Use of petal infestation to forecast Sclerotinia stem rot of canola: the influence of inoculum variation over the flowering period and canopy density. Phytopathology, 83(6):682-689

Turkington TK; Morrall RAA; Baker RJ, 1988. Sample sizes in relation to forecasting Sclerotinia stem rot of canola. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 10(2):159-165

Turkington TK; Morrall RAA; Gugel RK, 1991. Use of petal infestation to forecast Sclerotinia stem rot of canola: evaluation of early bloom sampling, 1985-90. Canadian Journal of Plant Pathology, 13(1):50-59

Turner JA; Elcock SJ; Walters KFA; Wright DM; Gladders P, 2002. A review of pest and disease problems in winter oilseed rape in England and Wales. In: The BCPC Conference: Pests and diseases, Volumes 1 and 2. Proceedings of an international conference held at the Brighton Hilton Metropole Hotel, Brighton, UK, 18-21 November 2002. Farnham, UK: British Crop Protection Council, 555-562.

Tylkowska K, 1984. Occurrence of fungi on bean seeds reproduced in different regions of Poland. Biuletyn Instytutu Hodowli i Aklimatyzacji RoSlin, No.153:185-202; [2 maps, 8 tab.]; 17 ref.

Uhm JY; Fujii H, 1986. Course of meiosis in Sclerotinia sclerotiorum and related species. Transactions of the Mycological Society of Japan, 27(2):129-141

Uloth MB; You MingPei; Finnegan PM; Banga SS; Banga SK; Sandhu PS; Yi Huang; Salisbury PA; Barbetti MJ, 2013. New sources of resistance to Sclerotinia sclerotiorum for crucifer crops. Field Crops Research, 154:40-52. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03784290

Vaughan D; Jones D, 1979. Effects of dazomet on phenolase activity in sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Journal of Experimental Botany, 30(117):751-758

Vavrac J; Kubova A, 1992. The successes and the problems of the growing of soybeans in Czechoslovakia. Eurosoya, No. 9:58-61.

Velastegui JR; Ball SFL, 1991. First record of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on tree tomato in Ecuador. Plant Pathology, 40(3):476-477

Verdam B; Gerlagh M; Geijn HM van de, 1993. Biological control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in caraway (Carum carvi). Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, 58(3b):1343-1347

Vernescu I; Iliescu H, 1977. The control of mould fungi in sunflower by seed treatment. Probleme de Protectia Plantelor, 5(4):423-429

Vidic M; Jasnic S; Ammar M, 1983. Susceptibility of some varieties of soyabean to white mould (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum). Zastita Bilja, 34(4):503-512

Vinod KS; Ponnusamy Rajeshkumar; Sevugaperumal Nakkeeran; Eraivan AAK, 2015. Developmental biology and infection cycle of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causing stem rot of carnation in India. African Journal of Microbiology Research, 9(49):2328-2336. http://academicjournals.org/journal/AJMR/article-full-text-pdf/8B784A656539

Voros J, 1983. Increasing biological contamination of agricultural soils with Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Agrokemia es Talajtan, 32(3/4):426-429

Vrataric M; Bilandzic M; Jurkovic D; Prodanovic G; Krizmanic M; Sudaric A, 1991. A study of principal diseases affecting several soyabean varieties and genotypes and their control with fungicide combinations. Znanost i Praksa u Poljoprivredi i Prehrambenoj Tehnologiji, 21(Supplement):85-94

Wadsworth DF, 1979. Sclerotinia blight of peanuts (Arachis hypogpa cultivar Comet) in Oklahoma, USA, and occurrence of the sexual stage of the pathogen. Peanut Science, 6(2):77-79

Wadsworth DF; Melouk HA, 1985. Potential for transmission and spread of Sclerotinia minor by infected peanut seed and debris. Plant Disease, 69(5):379-381

Wakefield EN, 1924. On the names Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) Massee and S. Libertiana Fuckel. Phytopathology, 14:126-127.

Walcz I; Pacsa AS; Emody L; Szabo LGy, 1985. Detection of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in sunflower by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Transactions of the British Mycological Society, 85(3):485-488

Wallen VR, 1961. 1961 disease survey in the Ottawa Valley. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 41(5):365.

Wallen VR; Sutton MD, 1967. Observation of Sclerotinia rot of field beans in southwestern Ontario and its effect on yield. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 47:116.

Wang DS; Kuang KY; Wu SC; Zhu ZY; Yuan YD; Chen YL; Yang XQ, 2000. The occurrence and control of dominant insect pests and diseases on sweet pepper in advanced greenhouses. Acta Agriculturae Shanghai, 16(Supplement):10-16.

Wang GS; Wang CG; Wu YS; Wang ZM; Niu WW, 1990. Studies on the sunflower seeds bearing Sclerotinia sclerotiorum de Bary. Journal of Shenyang Agricultural University, 21(2):146-149

Waterston JM, 1947. The fungi of Bermuda. Bull. Dep. Agric. Bermuda, 23, 305 pp.

Watson AK; Miltimore JE, 1975. Parasitism of the sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum by Microsphaeropsis centaurep. Canadian Journal of Botany, 53(21):2458-2461

Weiss A; Hipps LE; Blad BL; Steadman JR, 1980. Comparison of within-canopy microclimate and white mold disease (Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) development in dry edible beans as influenced by canopy structure and irrigation. Agricultural Meteorology, 22(1):11-21

Wheeler BEJ, 1969. Disease assessment and losses. In: Wheeler BEJ, ed. An Introduction to Plant Diseases. London, UK: John Wiley & Son Ltd.

Whipps JM; Budge SP, 1992. Biological control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in glasshouse crops. Brighton Crop Protection Conference, Pests and Diseases - 1992. Volume 1 Farnham, UK; British Crop Protection Council, 127-132

Whipps JM; Budge SP, 1993. Transmission of the mycoparasite Coniothyrium minitans by collembolan Folsomia candida (Collembola: Entomobryidae) and glasshouse sciarid Bradysia sp. (Diptera: Sciaridae). Annals of Applied Biology, 123(1):165-171

Whipps JM; Gerlagh M, 1992. Biology of Coniothyrium minitans and its potential for use in disease biocontrol. Mycological Research, 96(11):897-907

Willetts HJ; Wong JA-L, 1980. The biology of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, S. trifoliorum, and S. minor with emphasis on specific nomenclature. Botanical Review, 46(2):101-165

Williams GH; Western JH, 1965. The biology of Sclerotinia trifoliorum Erikss. and other species of sclerotium-forming fungi. II. The survival of sclerotia in soil. Annales Apply Biology, 56:261-268.

Williams JR; Stelfox D, 1979. Dispersal of ascospores of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in relation to Sclerotinia stem rot of rapeseed. Plant Disease Reporter, 63(5):395-399

Williams JR; Stelfox D, 1980. Occurrence of ascospores of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in areas of central Alberta. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 60(4):51-53

Willis CB, 1966. Sclerotinia crown rot of forage legumes in Prince Edward Island. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 46:96-98.

Winter W; Burkhard L; Banziger I; Krebs H; Gindrat D; Frei P; Brandle G; Hirner M; Forrer HR; Hogger C; Schwarz A, 1993. Rape diseases: occurrence on rape varieties, effect of fungicides and preventive control measures. Landwirtschaft Schweiz, 6(10):589-596

Wong BL; Gossen BD; Bassendowski K, 2000. Blossom blight in alfalfa seed fields in Saskatchewan, 1999. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 80(1):72.

Wong JA; Cox JI; Maynard JR, 1980. White mould in green beans: research progress. Journal of Agriculture, Tasmania, 51(4):108-111

Wong JAL, 1978. Green beans and white mould. Journal of Agriculture, Tasmania, 49(4):195-201

Woodard KE; Simpson CE, 1993. Characterization of growth and sclerotial production of Sclerotinia minor isolated from peanut in Texas. Plant Disease, 77(6):576-579

Wu WS, 1982. Soilborne plant pathogen: Biology and control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Taipei, Taiwan: Jenguan Publishing Co., 226 pp. (In Chinese).

Wu WS, 1990. Etiology of Soilborne Plant Pathogen: Biology and Control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Taipei, Taiwan: Jen Guan Press.

Xue AG; Tuey HJ; Wolfe ID, 1997. Diseases of field bean in Manitoba in 1996. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 77(1):72-73.

Xue AG; Warkentin; TD; Rashid KY; Kenaschuck EO; Platford RG, 1995. Diseases of field pea in Manitoba in 1994. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 75(1):156-157.

Xue Zhiyong; Zhang Jinqiu; He Fuheng; Zhang Canshen; Yang Aqing, 1991. The effect of liquid preparation of Bacillus cereus on rape (Barssica napus L.). Oil Crops of China, (4):55-58. [SOURCE: SDIC, China]

Yakutkin VI, 1978. Harmful diseases of sunflower. Zashchita Rastenii, No.5:48-49

Yakutkin VI; Tavolzhanskri NP, 1999. Disease control in sunflower crops in Russia. In: Research Progress in Plant Protection and Plant nutrition. Beijing, China: China Agriculture Press.

Yamamoto W, 1959. Species of the Sclerotiniaceae in Japan. Mycological Society of Japan, 2:2-8. (In Japanese).

Yan LY; Kang YP; Lei Y; Huang JQ; Wan LY; Liao BS, 2014. First report of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum causing sclerotinia blight on peanut (Arachis hypogaea) in northeastern China. Plant Disease, 98(1):156-157. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Yanar Y; Sahin F; Miller SA, 1996. First report of stem and fruit rot of pepper caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in Ohio. Plant Disease, 80(3):342.

Yang XB; Lundeen P; Uphoff MD, 1999. Soybean varietal response and yield loss caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. Plant Disease, 83(5):456-461; 28 ref.

Yang XB; Workneh F; Lundeen P, 1998. First report of sclerotium production by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in soil on infected soybean seeds. Plant Disease, 82(2):264; 2 ref.

Yarden O; Ben-Yephet Y; Katan J; Aharonson N, 1986. Fungicidal control of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum in soil with a combination of benomyl and thiram. Plant Disease, 70(8):738-742

Young HM; Srivastava P; Paret ML; Dankers H; Wright DL; Marois JJ; Dufault NS, 2012. First report of sclerotinia stem rot caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum on Brassica carinata in Florida. Plant Disease, 96(10):1581. http://apsjournals.apsnet.org/loi/pdis

Young PA, 1933. Fruit rot of squash and pumpkin in Montana. Plant Disease Reporter, 17:156.

Young PA; Morris HE, 1927. Sclerotinia wilt of sunflower. Agricultural Experiment Station, Bozeman, Montana, Bulletin 208, 1-32.

Yousefdoost V; Ghosta Y, 2013. First report of Sclerotinia head rot of cabbage in Iran. Iranian Journal of Plant Pathology, 49(3):Pe361-Pe362, En123. http://www.irjpp.ir/browse.php?a_id=712&sid=1&slc_lang=en

Yucer MM; Karaca I, 1978. Investigations on sunflower diseases in Thrace, their rate of existence, their fungal pathogens and their pathogenicities. Journal of Turkish Phytopathology, 7(1):39-50

Zad SJ, 1992. Safflower seed-borne diseases. Mededelingen van de Faculteit Landbouwwetenschappen, Universiteit Gent, 57(2a):161-163; 11 ref.

Zalewska ED; Machowicz-Stefaniak Z; Król ED, 2015. Fungi colonizing caraway (Carum carvi L.) in different regions of cultivation. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum - Hortorum Cultus, 14(6):175-188. http://www.acta.media.pl/pl/full/7/2015/000070201500014000060017500188.pdf

Zaumeyer WJ; Thomas RH, 1957. A Monographic Study of Bean Diseases and Methods for their Control. Technical Bulletin No. 868, Washington, DC, USA: USDA.

Zazzerini A, 1980. Sunflower diseases in Italy. Helia, 3:45-46.

Zazzerini A; Tosi L, 1985. Observations on the antagonistic activity of some fungi and bacteria against Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. Difesa delle Piante, 8(2):163-168; [Proceedings of the conference on biological control, Turin, Italy, 16 February 1985 [edited by Roberti, R.]]; 10 ref.

Zazzerini A; Tosi L, 1985. Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary: a new parasite of rape (Brassica napus L. subsp. oleifera DC.) in Italy. Informatore Fitopatologico, 35(2):31-33

Zazzerini A; Tosi L, 1985. Tests of antagonism of some bacterial isolates towards Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary. Informatore Fitopatologico, 35(1):27-30; [8 fig. (2 col.)]; 12 ref.

Zhang YT; Li AM; Hui FH; Fang FZ, 1999. Effect of weather on Sclerotinia sclerotiorum of rape and threshold of control. Acta Phytophylacica Sinica, 26(2):125-128.

Zhou T; Reeleder RD, 1989. Application of Epicoccum purpurascens spores to control white mold of snap bean. Plant Disease, 73(8):639-642

Zhou T; Reeleder RD, 1991. Colonization of bean flowers by Epicoccum purpurascens. Phytopathology, 81(7):774-778

Zimmer RC; Platford RG, 1993. Diseases of field pea and field bean in southern Manitoba in 1992. Canadian Plant Disease Survey, 73(1):96-97.

Distribution Maps

Top of page
You can pan and zoom the map
Save map