Ciborinia camelliae (flower blight)
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Risk of Introduction
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Means of Movement and Dispersal
- Seedborne Aspects
- Plant Trade
- Detection and Inspection
- Similarities to Other Species/Conditions
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Ciborinia camelliae L.M. Kohn
Preferred Common Name
- flower blight
Other Scientific Names
- Sclerotinia camelliae H.H. Hansen and H.E. Thomas, 1940
- Sclerotinia camelliae Hara, 1919
International Common Names
- English: petal blight; sclerotinia blight: Camellia spp.
- SCLECA (Ciborinia camelliae)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Fungi
- Phylum: Ascomycota
- Subphylum: Pezizomycotina
- Class: Leotiomycetes
- Subclass: Leotiomycetidae
- Order: Helotiales
- Family: Sclerotiniaceae
- Genus: Ciborinia
- Species: Ciborinia camelliae
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page
DescriptionTop of page
Variations in published morphological measurements exist for sclerotia and ascospores. Hansen and Thomas (1940) list sclerotia up to 20 x 30 mm and Gill (1954) gives dimensions of 12-25 mm diameter. Ascospore measurements of Hansen and Thomas (1940) were 5.3-7.0 x 2.5-3.5 Ám and are smaller than those listed by Kohn and Nagasawa (1984). Yoshimi (1979) described a large-spored form of the fungus with ascospores 12-13 x 6-8 Ám.
DistributionTop of page
See also CABI/EPPO (1998, No. 184).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.Last updated: 12 May 2022
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Bulgaria||Absent, Confirmed absent by survey|
|United Kingdom||Present, Localized|
|Canada||Absent, Invalid presence record(s)|
|United States||Present, Localized|
|-Virginia||Present||Original citation: Brown, 1954|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page
C. camellia is on the EPPO A1 list of quarantine pests although it is now known to occur in several European countries including the UK (Taylor and Long, 2000). In areas where the fungus does not occur, it was recommended that camellia flowers, plants with open flowers and plants with soil should not be imported from areas or countries where C. camellia does occur (Brooks, 1979).
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
Growth StagesTop of page
SymptomsTop of page
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Inflorescence / blight; necrosis|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
Flower infections can occur at 8oC, but disease development may be very slow. Infections are more numerous and symptoms develop faster at temperatures from 12° to 16°C. Heavy flower infection occurs at 20°C, but at 24°C infection no longer takes place (Haasis and Winstead, 1954). A similar temperature response was also observed for vegetative growth of C. camelliae when grown in culture. Growth occurred over a range of 8-20°C. The fungus made little or no growth at 24° and 28°C and was killed after 8 days at 32°C (Haasis and Winstead, 1954).
Means of Movement and DispersalTop of page
Seedborne AspectsTop of page
Plant TradeTop of page
|Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transport||Pest stages||Borne internally||Borne externally||Visibility of pest or symptoms|
|Flowers/Inflorescences/Cones/Calyx||fungi/hyphae; fungi/spores||Yes||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually invisible|
|Growing medium accompanying plants||fungi/spores||Yes||Pest or symptoms usually visible to the naked eye|
ImpactTop of page
DiagnosisTop of page
The fungus is easy to isolate and grow in culture (Holcomb, 1980; Kohn and Nagasawa, 1984). Sections from blighted petals (2-4 mm²), disinfected in 70% ethyl alcohol for 1-3 min, often yield pure cultures of the fungus when incubated on acidified potato-dextrose agar. In culture, mycelium is at first white to cream coloured, later turning grey and forming masses of black microconidia and scattered, flat, black sclerotia that are attached to the mycelium. Cultures of the fungus can be stored for up to 14 years on sterilized wheat seeds in parafilm-sealed, screw-capped bottles (Holcomb, 1994).
A diagnostic protocol is given in OEPP (2003).
Detection and InspectionTop of page
Similarities to Other Species/ConditionsTop of page
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.There is no satisfactory method for controlling camellia flower blight at present. Plant quarantine measures were not successful in preventing its spread in the USA. Cultural methods such as collecting diseased flowers and the use of various mulches are of limited value unless practised on a community-wide basis (Young and Milbrath, 1950; Zummo and Plakidas, 1960; Baxter and Epps, 1981). Host plant resistance has offered little hope as all C. japonica cultivars appear to be susceptible (Baxter and Berly, 1956; Baxter and Epps, 1981; Taylor and Long, 2000). Fungicide soil applications to prevent sclerotial germination may be useful in some situations, such as isolated plantings, but in general must be practised community-wide (Anzalone and Plakidas, 1958; Baxter and Epps, 1981). The use of flower protectant fungicides such as triadimefon can reduce blight by 50%, but the level of control is not great enough to justify their use (Holcomb, 1983, 1990, 1991, 1997). There is no indication that a satisfactory control procedure will be developed in the near future.
ReferencesTop of page
Alford DM; Sinclair JB; Pirone TP, 1961. Spread and distribution of camellia flower blight in Louisiana. Plant Disease Reporter, 45:856-857.
Anzalone L; Plakidas AG, 1958. Control of flower blight of camellias in Louisiana with fungicides. Plant Disease Reporter, 42:804-806.
Baxter LW; Berly JA, 1956. Flower blight of camellia in South Carolina. Plant Disease Reporter, 40:831.
Baxter LW; Epps WM, 1981. Camellia flower blight caused by Ciborinia camelliae Kohn. American Camellia Yearbook, 1981:107-113.
Baxter LW; Fagan SG, 1975. Camellia flower blight - 1975. American Camellia Yearbook, 1975:91-95.
Brooks A, 1979. Camellia flower blight. The Garden, Journal of the Royal Horticultural Society, 104:214-216.
Brown AC, 1954. Camellia flower blight. American Camellia Yearbook, 1954:34-40.
Cochran JH, 1962. A report of the occurrence of camellia flower blight in Mississippi. Plant Disease Reporter, 46:617.
Cook R, 1999. Fight the blight. Horticulture Week August, 12:20-21.
EPPO, 2014. PQR database. Paris, France: European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization. http://www.eppo.int/DATABASES/pqr/pqr.htm
Garibaldi, A., Gilardi, G., Bertetti, D., Gullino, M. L., 2001. Proof for the occurrence of flower blight caused by Ciborinia camelliae in Italy. Plant Disease, 85(8), 924. doi: 10.1094/PDIS.2001.85.8.924A
Gill DL, 1948. Camellia flower blight in the south. Plant Disease Reporter, 32:317-318.
Gill DL, 1954. Camellia flower blight. Camellian, 5(4):12-13,15,25.
Haasis FA; Winstead NN, 1954. Some characteristics of two Sclerotinia pathogens and their relationship to flower blight of camellia. American Camellia Yearbook, 1954:22-33.
Hansen HH; Thomas HE, 1940. Flower blight of camellias. Phytopathology, 30:166-170.
Hara K, 1919. A sclerotial disease of camellia (Camellia japonica). Dainppon Sanrin Kaiho, 436:29-31.
Holcomb GE, 1997. Louisiana flower blight tests in 1997. American Camellia Yearbook, 1997:32-33.
IPPC, 2006. IPP Report No. NL-3/2. Rome, Italy: FAO.
Iriyama K, 1980. Camellia petal blight research in Japan. American Camellia Yearbook, 1980:95-101.
Ito K, 1973. Pathology of Forest Trees, Part 2. Tokyo, Japan: Norin Shuppan Co., Ltd.
Kohn LM; Nagasawa E, 1984. A taxonomic reassessment of Sclerotinia camellip Hara (= Ciborinia camellip Kohn), with observations on flower blight of camellia in Japan. Transactions of the Mycological Society of Japan, 25(2):149-161
Mansilla JP; Pintos C; Salinero MC, 1999. Ciborinia camelliae Kohn: Marchitamiento de la flor de camelia. Leaflet. Pontevedra, Spain: Estaci=n de Fitopatologia "Do Areeiro", Servicio Agrario.
Mansilla JP; Pintos C; Salinero MC, 1999. Detecci=n en Espa±a de Ciborinia camelliae Kohn. Phytoma, 109:24-27.
Peper K, 1999. Die BraunfSulen der Kamelienblnte: Ciborinia camelliae Kohn. Die Kamelie Nr. 1, November 1999.
Plakidas AG, 1957. Camellia petal blight found in Texas. Plant Disease Reporter, 41:547.
Plakidas AG, 1961. Present status of control of camellia petal blight. Camellian, 12(3):4-6.
Raabe RD; McCain AH; Paulus AO, 1978. Diseases and pests. In: Feathers DL, Brown MH, eds. The camellia. Its History, Culture, Genetics and a look into its Future Development. Columbia, South Carolina, USA: Southern Californian Camellia Society, Inc., 279-285.
Richmond RG, 1949. Camellia flower spot in Oregon. Plant Disease Reporter, 33:404.
Scott M, 1999. Camellia flower blight - Ciborinia camelliae. Horticultural Development Corp. News, 57:18.
Stewart TM; Neilson H, 1993. Flower blight, a new disease of camellias in New Zealand. New Zealand Camellia Bulletin, 116:29-33.
Thomas HE; Hansen HN, 1946. Camellia flower blight. Phytopathology, 36:380-381.
Wilby RB, 1954. The camellia blight and me. Camellian, 5(1):12.
Winstead NN; Nelson EC; Haasis FA, 1954. Distribution of Sclerotinia camelliae in North Carolina. Plant Disease Reporter, 38:670-672.
Yoshimi S, 1979. Tsubaki-no-chawan-take (Sclerotinia camelliae Hara forma macrospora). In: Aoki M, Yoshimi S, eds. Illustrations of Japanese Mushrooms Vol. 5, No. 1027. Japan, Tokorozawa-shi and Kyoto: The Amateur Mushroom Association for Mushroom Research.
Young RA; Milbrath JA, 1950. Camellia flower blight. Oregon Agricultural Experiment Station Bulletin, 474:1-4.
Zummo N; Plakidas AG, 1960. Distances of spread of petal blight by wind blown spores. American Camellia Yearbook, 1960:40-43.
Alford DM, Sinclair JB, Pirone TP, 1961. Spread and distribution of camellia flower blight in Louisiana. In: Plant Disease Reporter, 45 856-857.
CABI, Undated. Compendium record. Wallingford, UK: CABI
CABI, Undated a. CABI Compendium: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI
Cochran JH, 1962. A report of the occurrence of camellia flower blight in Mississippi. In: Plant Disease Reporter, 46 617.
Cook R, 1999. Fight the blight. In: Horticulture Week August, 12 20-21.
IPPC, 2006. IPP Report No. NL-3/2., Rome, Italy: FAO.
Kohn L M, Nagasawa E, 1984. A taxonomic reassessment of Sclerotinia camelliae Hara (= Ciborinia camelliae Kohn), with observations on flower blight of camellia in Japan. Transactions of the Mycological Society of Japan. 25 (2), 149-161.
Mansilla JP, Pintos C, Salinero MC, 1999. (Ciborinia camelliae Kohn: Marchitamiento de la flor de camelia. Leaflet)., Pontevedra, Spain: Estación de Fitopatologia "Do Areeiro", Servicio Agrario.
Mansilla JP, Pintos C, Salinero MC, 1999a. (Detección en España de Ciborinia camelliae Kohn). In: Phytoma, 109 24-27.
NPPO of the Netherlands, 2013. Pest status of harmful organisms in the Netherlands., Wageningen, Netherlands:
Peper K, 1999. (Die Braunfäule der Kamelienblnte: Ciborinia camelliae Kohn). In: Die Kamelie Nr. 1, November 1999,
Raabe RD, McCain AH, Paulus AO, 1978. Diseases and pests. In: The camellia. Its History, Culture, Genetics and a look into its Future Development, [ed. by Feathers DL, Brown MH]. Columbia, South Carolina, USA: Southern Californian Camellia Society, Inc. 279-285.
Scott M, 1999. Camellia flower blight - Ciborinia camelliae. In: Horticultural Development Corp. News, 57 18.
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