Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Sclerocarya birrea
(marula)

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Datasheet

Sclerocarya birrea (marula)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 24 November 2019
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Sclerocarya birrea
  • Preferred Common Name
  • marula
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Uses List
  • Beverage base
  • Dye/tanning
  • Fruits
  • Live feed
  • Seeds

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
S. birrea in its natural environment (Tsholotsho, Zimbabwe). Round, spreading crown, 30 m tall and 70 cm dbh.
TitleMature tree
CaptionS. birrea in its natural environment (Tsholotsho, Zimbabwe). Round, spreading crown, 30 m tall and 70 cm dbh.
CopyrightD.P. Gwaze
S. birrea in its natural environment (Tsholotsho, Zimbabwe). Round, spreading crown, 30 m tall and 70 cm dbh.
Mature treeS. birrea in its natural environment (Tsholotsho, Zimbabwe). Round, spreading crown, 30 m tall and 70 cm dbh.D.P. Gwaze
15 m tall S. birrea subsp. caffra tree in rural homestead. Bushbuckridge, South Africa
TitleHabit
Caption15 m tall S. birrea subsp. caffra tree in rural homestead. Bushbuckridge, South Africa
CopyrightSheona E. Shackleton
15 m tall S. birrea subsp. caffra tree in rural homestead. Bushbuckridge, South Africa
Habit15 m tall S. birrea subsp. caffra tree in rural homestead. Bushbuckridge, South Africa Sheona E. Shackleton
S. birrea subsp. caffra truncheons planted as part of a live fence.
TitleLive fencing
CaptionS. birrea subsp. caffra truncheons planted as part of a live fence.
CopyrightCharlie M. Shackleton
S. birrea subsp. caffra truncheons planted as part of a live fence.
Live fencingS. birrea subsp. caffra truncheons planted as part of a live fence.Charlie M. Shackleton
S. birrea bark, smooth, grey with obvious scars on young branches; grey and flaking in patches on older branches.
TitleBark
CaptionS. birrea bark, smooth, grey with obvious scars on young branches; grey and flaking in patches on older branches.
CopyrightD.P. Gwaze
S. birrea bark, smooth, grey with obvious scars on young branches; grey and flaking in patches on older branches.
BarkS. birrea bark, smooth, grey with obvious scars on young branches; grey and flaking in patches on older branches.D.P. Gwaze
Typical, unevenly compound S. birrea foliage, with 7-13 pairs of leaflets and one terminal leaflet; young leaves mostly toothed.
TitleBranches and leaves
CaptionTypical, unevenly compound S. birrea foliage, with 7-13 pairs of leaflets and one terminal leaflet; young leaves mostly toothed.
CopyrightD.P. Gwaze
Typical, unevenly compound S. birrea foliage, with 7-13 pairs of leaflets and one terminal leaflet; young leaves mostly toothed.
Branches and leavesTypical, unevenly compound S. birrea foliage, with 7-13 pairs of leaflets and one terminal leaflet; young leaves mostly toothed.D.P. Gwaze
Fruit of S. birrea subsp. caffra on tree.
TitleFruits
CaptionFruit of S. birrea subsp. caffra on tree.
CopyrightSheona E. Shackleton
Fruit of S. birrea subsp. caffra on tree.
FruitsFruit of S. birrea subsp. caffra on tree.Sheona E. Shackleton
Terminal leaf arrangement of S. birrea, showing the red-yellow flowers (50-80 mm long).
TitleFlowers and leaves
CaptionTerminal leaf arrangement of S. birrea, showing the red-yellow flowers (50-80 mm long).
CopyrightD.P. Gwaze
Terminal leaf arrangement of S. birrea, showing the red-yellow flowers (50-80 mm long).
Flowers and leavesTerminal leaf arrangement of S. birrea, showing the red-yellow flowers (50-80 mm long).D.P. Gwaze
Range in fruit size of Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra from 12 g to over 35 g (Note camera lens cap for scale, ca. 50mm in diameter)
TitleRange in fruit size
CaptionRange in fruit size of Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra from 12 g to over 35 g (Note camera lens cap for scale, ca. 50mm in diameter)
CopyrightCharlie M. Shackleton
Range in fruit size of Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra from 12 g to over 35 g (Note camera lens cap for scale, ca. 50mm in diameter)
Range in fruit sizeRange in fruit size of Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra from 12 g to over 35 g (Note camera lens cap for scale, ca. 50mm in diameter)Charlie M. Shackleton
Selling beer/wine from fruits of Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra.  Bushbuckridge, South Africa
TitleFruit products
CaptionSelling beer/wine from fruits of Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra. Bushbuckridge, South Africa
CopyrightSheona E. Shackleton
Selling beer/wine from fruits of Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra.  Bushbuckridge, South Africa
Fruit productsSelling beer/wine from fruits of Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra. Bushbuckridge, South AfricaSheona E. Shackleton

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Sclerocarya birrea (A. Rich.) Hochst.

Preferred Common Name

  • marula

Other Scientific Names

  • Chemiphar subgaluca Engl.
  • Commiphora subglauca Engl.
  • Poupartia birrea (A. Rich.) Aubrev.
  • Poupartia caffra (Sond.) H. Perrier
  • Sclerocarya caffra Sond.
  • Sclerocarya caffra var. dentata (Sond.) Engl.
  • Sclerocarya caffra var. oblongifoliata (Sond.) Engl.
  • Sclerocarya schweinfurthiana Schinz
  • Spondias birrea A. Rich.

International Common Names

  • French: prunier
  • Arabic: el hamaidai; hameid; homeid

Local Common Names

  • Angola: gongo; hongo; kaxama; mjong; mungongo; muongo; ngongo; omuogo; ongo; ongongo; uongo
  • Botswana: marula; morula; ufuongo
  • Chad: gna; kuna; n'guna
  • Congo Democratic Republic: kamukungu; kani; muhonga; muonga; mwongo; tshikosokoso
  • Ghana: mu-mugga
  • Kenya: didissa; mngongo; mura; muua; oroluo
  • Madagascar: sakoa; sakoana; saokao
  • Malawi: mfula; mtondowoko; musele; musewe
  • Mali: gna; kuna; kunan
  • Mozambique: inhamarre; isi-lignamaash; mefula; mepepo; m'kôko; muchangua; mudangua; muganu; mutual; nkanye; ocanheiras; ocanho; okania; tsula; umkanya; unganu
  • Namibia: goaros; omuongo; omwoongo; ongongo
  • Senegal: ber; beri; birr; edi; eri; hedehi; hedi; kede
  • South Africa: amaganu; dikôkô; iganu; ikanyi; kanye; lehlabula; lerula; maroela; marula; mongo; morula; mufula; murula; nganu; nkanya; nkanyi; thambo; thebvu; umganu; umkano
  • Sudan: homeid
  • Swaziland: marula; umganu
  • Tanzania: gulgurchandi; mbwegele; mbwejele; mng'ongo; mng'ong'o; mn'gongo; monyangu; mtondoko; muhuri; mungango; ngongo; ng'ongo; olmang'oi; omengwe; omongwe
  • West Africa: arik; bambara; béri; birr; dania; edi; eri; findibasu; kunan; namabu; nobega; touhila
  • Zambia: mgamu; mongwe; msewe; mubongo; mugongo; mulula; muongo; musebe; muyombo
  • Zimbabwe: bufuna; ganyi; iganu; ikanyi; manganu; mapfura; marula; mufuna; mufura; mukwakwa; munogo; mupfura; mushomo; musomo; mutsomo; pfura; umganu; umkano

EPPO code

  • SLCBB (Sclerocarya birrea)
  • SLCCA (Sclerocarya caffra)

Subspecies

  • Sclerocarya birrea subsp. birrea
  • Sclerocarya birrea subsp. caffra
  • Sclerocarya birrea subsp. multifoliata

Trade name

  • marula

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Sapindales
  •                         Family: Anacardiaceae
  •                             Genus: Sclerocarya
  •                                 Species: Sclerocarya birrea

List of Pests

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Major host of:

Bactrocera dorsalis (Oriental fruit fly)

Wild host of:

Ceratitis cosyra (mango fruit fly)

Host of (source - data mining):

Lasiodiplodia iraniensis

Uses List

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Animal feed, fodder, forage

  • Live feed

Human food and beverage

  • Beverage base
  • Fruits
  • Seeds

Materials

  • Dye/tanning
  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical

Wood Products

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Containers

  • Boxes
  • Crates

Furniture

Sawn or hewn building timbers

  • Exterior fittings
  • Fences

Woodware

  • Cutlery
  • Industrial and domestic woodware
  • Tool handles
  • Wood carvings