Invasive Species Compendium

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Datasheet

Scirtothrips dorsalis
(chilli thrips)

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Datasheet

Scirtothrips dorsalis (chilli thrips)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 11 December 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Natural Enemy
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Scirtothrips dorsalis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • chilli thrips
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
TitleAdult male
Caption
CopyrightYu Yan-Fen
Adult maleYu Yan-Fen
S. dorsalis almost white on emergence, turning yellowish subsequently.
TitleAdult female
CaptionS. dorsalis almost white on emergence, turning yellowish subsequently.
CopyrightYu Yan-Fen
S. dorsalis almost white on emergence, turning yellowish subsequently.
Adult femaleS. dorsalis almost white on emergence, turning yellowish subsequently.Yu Yan-Fen
Damage symptoms on mandarin fruits.
TitleCrop damage
CaptionDamage symptoms on mandarin fruits.
CopyrightElizabeth Asteraki/CABI SEARC
Damage symptoms on mandarin fruits.
Crop damageDamage symptoms on mandarin fruits.Elizabeth Asteraki/CABI SEARC
TitleAdult female - line drawing
Caption
CopyrightChen Rui-jin
Adult female - line drawingChen Rui-jin

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood 1919

Preferred Common Name

  • chilli thrips

Other Scientific Names

  • Anaphothrips andreae Karny 1925
  • Heliothrips minutissimus Bagnall 1919
  • Neophysopus fragariae Girault 1927
  • Scirtothrips padmae Ramakrishna 1942

International Common Names

  • English: assam thrips; castor thrips; strawberry thrips; yellow tea thrips
  • French: thrips jaune du théier

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Nordindischer Tee-Blasenfuss
  • Japan: tya-na-kiiro-azamiuma

EPPO code

  • ANAPFR (Neophysopus fragariae)
  • SCITDO (Scirtothrips dorsalis)

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Thysanoptera
  •                         Family: Thripidae
  •                             Genus: Scirtothrips
  •                                 Species: Scirtothrips dorsalis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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Scirtothrips dorsalis is a widespread pest, described as a new species by Hood in 1919 from 34 females collected in India on castor and chillies and subsequently recorded by Ramakrishna Ayyar (1928) and Shumsher Singh (1944). Bailey (1945) and Priesner (1932), in their work on Scirtothrips, mention S. dorsalis as a distinct species. Mound (1968) recognized Heliothrips minutissimus from Bombay as the same species, and Jacot-Guillarmod (1971) also lists Anaphothrips andreae and S. dorsalis var. padmae as synonyms. The strawberry thrips S. fragariae from Australia was also recognized as S. dorsalis after studying Girault's material, as well as other material by Mound and Palmer (1981).

Scirtothrips oligochaetus, which has been regarded by several authors as the same species as S. dorsalis, has been recognized as a distinct valid species. In S. oligochaetus, which is sympatric with S. dorsalis in India, the tergal antecostal ridges of the female are pale and the tergal microtrichial fields bear four discal setae. However, in both species the sternites bear one or many rows of microtrichia medially, although the metanotal sculpture appears to differ slightly between them (Mound and Palmer, 1981).

An identification system, fully illustrated with photomicrographs of structural details, together with a molecular method for distinguishing this species from related species, is provided by Moritz et al. (2004). Hoddle and Mound (2003) provided keys to 21 species of Scirtothrips from Australia, and the full synonymy of S. dorsalis together with references is available at: http://www.ento.csiro.au/thysanoptera/worldthrips.html.

The most recent information on S. dorsalis, including host range, distribution and methods of control, is available through the website: http://mrec.ifas.ufl.edu/lso/thripslinks.htm.

Description

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Egg

Typically oval, whitish to yellowish, narrow anteriorly, incubation period 4-6 days.

Larva

First instar
Larva transparent; body short, legs longer; antennae short, swollen; mouth cone bent and short; and antennae seven-segmented and cylindrical. Sclerotization not distinct, head and thorax, reticulate.

Second instar
Antennae longer, cylindrical, seven-segmented; mouth cone longer; maxillary palpi three-segmented; body setae longer than the first instar; head and thorax reticulate with sclerotization of head.

Prepupa

Yellowish; antennae swollen, short, with distinct segmentation; two pairs of external wing buds on each meso- and meta-thorax.

Pupa

Dark yellow with eyes and ocelli bearing red pigmentation; wing buds are elongate; antennae short and reflected over the head; female pupae with larger pointed abdomen, that of male smaller, with blunt abdomen.

Adult

Almost white on emergence, turning yellowish subsequently; abdominal tergites with median dark patch, tergites and sternites with dark antecostal ridge; ocellar setae pair III situated between posterior ocelli; 2 pairs of median post-ocular setae present; pronotum with four pairs of posteromarginal setae, major setae 25-30 µm long; metanotum medially with elongate recticles or striations, arcuate in anterior third, median setae not at anterior margin; forewing first vein with three setae distally, second vein with two setae, posteromarginal cilia straight; tergal microtrichial fields with 3 discal setae, VIII and IX with microtrichia medially; sternites with numerous microtrichia, more than two complete rows medially; male without drepanae on tergite IX (Palmer and Mound, 1983).

Distribution

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S. dorsalis is a highly polyphagous pest widespread between Pakistan, Japan, the Solomon Islands and Australia, but it is now established in South Africa, Israel, the Caribbean and Florida (USA).

See also CABI/EPPO (1998, No. 142).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 25 Feb 2021
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

Côte d'IvoirePresent, Localized
KenyaPresent, Localized
South AfricaAbsent, Invalid presence record(s)
UgandaPresent

Asia

BangladeshPresentNative
BruneiPresent
CambodiaAbsent, Unconfirmed presence record(s)
ChinaPresent, Localized
-AnhuiPresent
-FujianPresent
-GuangdongPresent, Widespread
-GuangxiPresent
-HainanPresent
-HenanPresent
-HunanPresent
-JiangsuPresent
-JiangxiPresent
-SichuanPresent
-YunnanPresent
-ZhejiangPresent
Hong KongPresent
IndiaPresent, Widespread
-Andhra PradeshPresent
-Arunachal PradeshPresent
-AssamPresent
-ChhattisgarhPresent
-DelhiPresent
-GoaPresent
-GujaratPresent
-HaryanaPresent
-Himachal PradeshPresent
-Jammu and KashmirPresent
-KarnatakaPresent
-KeralaPresent
-Madhya PradeshPresent
-MaharashtraPresent
-ManipurPresent
-MeghalayaPresent
-OdishaPresent
-PunjabPresent
-RajasthanPresent
-Tamil NaduPresent
-Uttar PradeshPresent
-UttarakhandPresent
-West BengalPresent
IndonesiaPresent
-JavaPresent
-SulawesiPresent
-SumatraPresent
IranPresentJahrom, Fars province
IsraelPresent, Widespread
JapanPresent, Widespread
-HonshuPresent
-KyushuPresent
-Ryukyu IslandsPresent
MalaysiaPresent
-Peninsular MalaysiaPresent
MyanmarPresentNative
North KoreaPresent
PakistanPresentNative
PhilippinesPresent
South KoreaPresent
Sri LankaPresentNative
TaiwanPresentNative
ThailandPresentNative
VietnamPresent

Europe

AustriaAbsent
BelgiumAbsent, Intercepted only
LithuaniaAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
NetherlandsPresent, Few occurrences
SloveniaAbsent, Confirmed absent by survey
SpainPresent, Localized
United KingdomAbsent, Eradicated
-EnglandPresent, Few occurrences

North America

BarbadosPresentIntroduced
GuadeloupePresent
JamaicaPresentIntroduced
MexicoPresent
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced
Saint LuciaPresentIntroduced2004Invasive
Saint Vincent and the GrenadinesPresentIntroduced
Trinidad and TobagoPresent, Few occurrencesIntroduced
United StatesPresent, Localized
-FloridaPresent, Localized
-GeorgiaPresent
-HawaiiPresent
-TexasPresentIntroduced

Oceania

AustraliaPresent, Localized
-New South WalesPresent, Localized
-Northern TerritoryPresent, Localized
-QueenslandPresent, Localized
Papua New GuineaPresentNative
Solomon IslandsPresentNative

South America

Brazil
-CearaPresent, Few occurrences, Only undercover/indoors
SurinamePresent
VenezuelaPresentIntroduced

Risk of Introduction

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S. dorsalis already has a very wide distribution between Pakistan and the Pacific. Apparently, since 2000 it has been introduced to Israel and the Caribbean area including Venezuela, and in late 2005 it was found to be established in Florida, USA. It is causing severe problems in all of these areas. It must be considered a serious quarantine risk to many other countries, including those in southern Europe and the USA on field and tree crops and in the cooler areas of both Europe and North America on greenhouse crops.

Hosts/Species Affected

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S. dorsalis is recorded from more than 100 plant species in 40 families, although the original wild host plants were probably Acacia species. In India this thrips is particularly important on chillies (Ramakrishna Ayyar, 1932; Ramakrishna Ayyar and Subbiah, 1935; Chakraborti, 2004), although in recent years it has become a commercial problem on cultivated roses (Duraimuragan and Jagadish, 2004). Amin (1979, 1980) records S. dorsalis as a pest of Arachis, and it is also serious on Ricinus, and in southern India it has been reported damaging both cassava and taro (Rajamma et al., 2004). In Bangladesh it is recorded from Mangifera, and it sometimes causes damage to this crop in northern Australia. In Malaysia, S. dorsalis is sometimes a pest on leaves of Hevea and has been found in large numbers on Mimosa pudica. In Thailand this species was collected on sacred lotus (Nelumbo), although some came from orange, beans and roses (Mound and Palmer, 1981). In Taiwan (Chang, 1991) it is recorded damaging mango, citrus, sugar apple, tea, peppers and groundnuts; it is also a serious pest of lotus (Wang et al., 1999). In Java, long series were collected at Bogor Botanic Gardens on young tender leaves of Brownea, in flowers of Saraca minor, and on Acacia leaves. In southern China, where it is known as the yellow tea thrips, it causes damage to the shoots of litchi (Li et al., 2004). In Japan, S. dorsalis is regarded as a pest of citrus (Tatara and Furuhashi, 1992) and tea (Kodomari, 1978), as it is in India (Dev, 1964). S. dorsalis occurs as a pest of grapevines in Japan and India (Miyahara et al., 1976), and since 2000 it has become a pest of vines in Venezuela. In Goa S. dorsalis has been recorded on cashew (Sundararaju, 1984) and also on onion (Thiramurthi et al., 1989). On the West Indian islands of St Vincent and St Lucia a wide range of vegetable crops are reported to be damaged, particularly Capsicums but including aubergine, squash, cucumber, cantaloupe, watermelon, pumpkin, bean and tomato (Seal and Ciomperlik, 2004).

Host Plants and Other Plants Affected

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Plant nameFamilyContextReferences
Abelmoschus esculentus (okra)MalvaceaeMain
    Acacia (wattles)FabaceaeUnknown
    Acacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle)FabaceaeMain
      Acacia baileyana (cootamundra wattle)FabaceaeUnknown
      Acacia browniiFabaceaeMain
        Acca sellowianaMyrtaceaeUnknown
        Acer buergerianum (trident maple)AceraceaeUnknown
        Acer palmatum (Japanese maple)AceraceaeUnknown
        Acer sieboldianumAceraceaeUnknown
        Actinidia arguta (tara vine)ActinidiaceaeUnknown
        Actinidia chinensis (Chinese gooseberry)ActinidiaceaeUnknown
        Actinidia deliciosa (kiwifruit)ActinidiaceaeMain
          Actinidia polygamaActinidiaceaeUnknown
          Aesculus turbinata (Japanese horse-chestnut)HippocastanaceaeUnknown
          Akebia quinata (five-leaf akebia)LardizabalaceaeUnknown
          Akebia trifoliataLardizabalaceaeUnknown
          Albizia julibrissin (silk tree)FabaceaeUnknown
          Allium cepa (onion)LiliaceaeMain
            Allium cepa (onion)LiliaceaeMain
              Allium sativum (garlic)LiliaceaeMain
                Alnus firmaBetulaceaeUnknown
                Alnus japonica (Japanese alder)BetulaceaeUnknown
                Alternanthera sessilis (sessile joyweed)AmaranthaceaeWild host
                  Amaranthus (amaranth)AmaranthaceaeOther
                    Amaranthus blitum (livid amaranth)AmaranthaceaeUnknown
                    Ampelopsis brevipedunculata (Amur amelopsis)VitaceaeUnknown
                    Anacardium occidentale (cashew nut)AnacardiaceaeMain
                    AnnonaAnnonaceaeUnknown
                    Annona cherimola (cherimoya)AnnonaceaeUnknown
                    Annona squamosa (sugar apple)AnnonaceaeOther
                    ArachisFabaceaeOther
                      Arachis hypogaea (groundnut)FabaceaeMain
                      Aralia elata (Japanese aralia)AraliaceaeUnknown
                      Ardisia japonicaPrimulaceaeUnknown
                      Asimina triloba (Pawpaw-apple)AnnonaceaeUnknown
                      Asparagus officinalis (asparagus)LiliaceaeMain
                        Aucuba japonica (Japanese aucuba)CornaceaeUnknown
                        Beta vulgaris (beetroot)ChenopodiaceaeMain
                          BrowneaOther
                            Buxus microphylla (little-leaf box)BuxaceaeUnknown
                            Calliandra surinamensisFabaceaeUnknown
                            Callicarpa japonicaLamiaceaeUnknown
                            Camellia japonica (camellia)TheaceaeUnknown
                            Camellia sasanqua (Sasanqua)TheaceaeUnknown
                            Camellia sinensis (tea)TheaceaeMain
                            Campsis grandifloraBignoniaceaeUnknown
                            Capsella bursa-pastoris (shepherd's purse)BrassicaceaeUnknown
                            Capsicum (peppers)SolanaceaeOther
                            Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)SolanaceaeMain
                            Capsicum frutescens (chilli)SolanaceaeMain
                              Carya illinoinensis (pecan)JuglandaceaeUnknown
                              Castanea crenata (Japanese chestnut)FagaceaeUnknown
                              Castanopsis cuspidata (chinkapin)FagaceaeUnknown
                              Castanopsis sieboldiiFagaceaeUnknown
                              Celtis sinensis (Chinese elm)UlmaceaeUnknown
                              Cercidiphyllum japonicum (katsura)CercidiphyllaceaeUnknown
                              Chaenomeles japonica (Japanese quince)RosaceaeUnknown
                              Chionanthus retususOleaceaeUnknown
                              Cinnamomum camphora (camphor laurel)LauraceaeUnknown
                              Cinnamomum insulari-montanumLauraceaeUnknown
                              Citrullus lanatus (watermelon)CucurbitaceaeOther
                                CitrusRutaceaeMain
                                Citrus aurantiifolia (lime)RutaceaeMain
                                  Citrus junos (yuzu)RutaceaeUnknown
                                  Citrus maxima (pummelo)RutaceaeUnknown
                                  Citrus natsudaidai (natsudaidai)RutaceaeUnknown
                                  Citrus sinensis (navel orange)RutaceaeMain
                                    Citrus tachibanaUnknown
                                    Citrus unshiu (satsuma)RutaceaeUnknown
                                    Clerodendrum trichotomumLamiaceaeUnknown
                                    Clethra barbinervisClethraceaeUnknown
                                    Cleyera japonicaTheaceaeUnknown
                                    Colocasia esculenta (taro)AraceaeOther
                                      Conyza canadensis (Canadian fleabane)AsteraceaeUnknown
                                      Crataegus pinnatifidaRosaceaeUnknown
                                      Cucumis melo (melon)CucurbitaceaeOther
                                        Cucumis sativus (cucumber)CucurbitaceaeOther
                                          Cucurbita pepo (marrow)CucurbitaceaeMain
                                            Cytisus scoparius (Scotch broom)FabaceaeUnknown
                                            Dahlia pinnata (garden dahlia)AsteraceaeMain
                                              Daphne odora (Winter daphne)ThymelaeaceaeUnknown
                                              Deutzia crenataUnknown
                                              Dimocarpus longan (longan tree)SapindaceaeMain
                                              Diospyros kaki (persimmon)EbenaceaeMain
                                              Distylium racemosum (isu)HamamelidaceaeUnknown
                                              Elaeagnus umbellata (autumn olive)ElaeagnaceaeUnknown
                                              Elaeocarpus sylvestrisElaeocarpaceaeUnknown
                                              Enkianthus campanulatusUnknown
                                              Enkianthus cernuusUnknown
                                              Enkianthus perulatus (white enkianthus)EricaceaeUnknown
                                              Eriobotrya deflexaRosaceaeUnknown
                                              Eriobotrya japonica (loquat)RosaceaeUnknown
                                              Eucalyptus globulus (Tasmanian blue gum)MyrtaceaeUnknown
                                              Euonymus alatus (winged spindle)CelastraceaeUnknown
                                              Euonymus japonicus (Japanese spindle tree)CelastraceaeUnknown
                                              Euphorbia pulcherrima (poinsettia)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
                                              Eurya emarginataTheaceaeUnknown
                                              Eurya japonicaUnknown
                                              Fagopyrum esculentum (buckwheat)Main
                                                Fatsia japonica (Japanese aralia)AraliaceaeUnknown
                                                FicusMoraceaeMain
                                                  Ficus carica (common fig)MoraceaeUnknown
                                                  Ficus erectaMoraceaeUnknown
                                                  Ficus sarmentosa var. nipponicaUnknown
                                                  Firmiana simplexSterculiaceaeUnknown
                                                  Forsythia suspensaOleaceaeUnknown
                                                  Forsythia viridissimaOleaceaeUnknown
                                                  Fortunella japonica (round kumquat)RutaceaeUnknown
                                                  Fragaria (strawberry)RosaceaeMain
                                                    Fragaria ananassa (strawberry)RosaceaeMain
                                                    Fragaria chiloensis (Chilean strawberry)RosaceaeMain
                                                      Gardenia jasminoides (cape jasmine)RubiaceaeUnknown
                                                      Ginkgo biloba (kew tree)GinkgoaceaeUnknown
                                                      Glycine max (soyabean)FabaceaeMain
                                                      Gossypium (cotton)MalvaceaeMain
                                                      Gossypium hirsutum (Bourbon cotton)MalvaceaeMain
                                                      Hamamelis japonicaHamamelidaceaeUnknown
                                                      Helianthus annuus (sunflower)AsteraceaeMain
                                                        Helicia cochinchinensisUnknown
                                                        HeveaOther
                                                          Hevea brasiliensis (rubber)EuphorbiaceaeMain
                                                            Hibiscus mutabilis (cottonrose)MalvaceaeUnknown
                                                            Hibiscus syriacus (shrubby althaea)MalvaceaeUnknown
                                                            Hydrangea (hydrangeas)HydrangeaceaeMain
                                                            Hydrangea involucrataUnknown
                                                            Hydrangea macrophylla (French hydrangea)HydrangeaceaeUnknown
                                                            Hypericum monogynumUnknown
                                                            Hypericum patulumClusiaceaeUnknown
                                                            Ilex crenata (Japanese holly)AquifoliaceaeUnknown
                                                            Ilex integra (mochi)AquifoliaceaeUnknown
                                                            Ilex micrococcaAquifoliaceaeUnknown
                                                            Ilex rotunda (kurogane holly)AquifoliaceaeUnknown
                                                            Illicium anisatum (Japanese star-anise tree)IlliciaceaeUnknown
                                                            Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato)ConvolvulaceaeMain
                                                              Juglans mandshurica (Manchurian walnut)JuglandaceaeUnknown
                                                              Kadsura japonicaSchisandraceaeUnknown
                                                              Lablab purpureus (hyacinth bean)FabaceaeMain
                                                                Lagerstroemia indica (Indian crape myrtle)LythraceaeUnknown
                                                                Lantana camara (lantana)VerbenaceaeUnknown
                                                                Laurus nobilis (sweet bay)LauraceaeUnknown
                                                                Leptospermum scoparium (manuka)MyrtaceaeUnknown
                                                                Ligustrum japonicum (Japanese privet)OleaceaeUnknown
                                                                Liriodendron tulipifera (tuliptree)MagnoliaceaeUnknown
                                                                Litchi chinensis (lichi)SapindaceaeOther
                                                                Lithocarpus edulisFagaceaeUnknown
                                                                Litsea acuminataLauraceaeUnknown
                                                                Lonicera japonica (Japanese honeysuckle)CaprifoliaceaeUnknown
                                                                Lycium chinense (chinese wolfberry)SolanaceaeUnknown
                                                                Lyonia ovalifoliaEricaceaeUnknown
                                                                Magnolia hypoleuca (japanese big-leaved magnolia)MagnoliaceaeUnknown
                                                                Magnolia kobusMagnoliaceaeUnknown
                                                                Magnolia liliiflora (Lily magnolia)MagnoliaceaeUnknown
                                                                Mahonia bealeiBerberidaceaeUnknown
                                                                Mahonia japonica (Japanese mahonia)BerberidaceaeUnknown
                                                                Mallotus japonicusEuphorbiaceaeUnknown
                                                                Malus domestica (apple)RosaceaeUnknown
                                                                Malus micromalusRosaceaeUnknown
                                                                Mangifera indica (mango)AnacardiaceaeMain
                                                                Manihot esculenta (cassava)EuphorbiaceaeOther
                                                                  Manilkara zapota (sapodilla)SapotaceaeUnknown
                                                                  Melia azedarach (Chinaberry)MeliaceaeUnknown
                                                                  Melilotus indica (Indian sweetclover)FabaceaeMain
                                                                    Millettia japonicaFabaceaeUnknown
                                                                    Mimosa (sensitive plants)FabaceaeMain
                                                                      Mimosa pudica (sensitive plant)FabaceaeOther
                                                                        Morus (mulberrytree)MoraceaeMain
                                                                          Morus australisMoraceaeUnknown
                                                                          Murraya paniculata (orange jessamine)RutaceaeUnknown
                                                                          Myrica rubraMyricaceaeUnknown
                                                                          Nandina domestica (Nandina)BerberidaceaeUnknown
                                                                          NelumboMain
                                                                            NelumboOther
                                                                              Nelumbo luteaMain
                                                                                Nelumbo nucifera (sacred lotus)NelumbonaceaeMain
                                                                                Nelumbo nucifera (sacred lotus)NelumbonaceaeOther
                                                                                  Nephelium lappaceum (rambutan)SapindaceaeMain
                                                                                    Nerium oleander (oleander)ApocynaceaeUnknown
                                                                                    Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)SolanaceaeMain
                                                                                      Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)SolanaceaeMain
                                                                                        Olea europaeaOleaceaeUnknown
                                                                                        OsmanthusOleaceaeUnknown
                                                                                        Osmanthus fragransOleaceaeUnknown
                                                                                        Osmanthus heterophyllus (holly olive)OleaceaeUnknown
                                                                                        Parthenocissus tricuspidata (Boston ivy)VitaceaeUnknown
                                                                                        Passiflora edulis (passionfruit)PassifloraceaeMain
                                                                                          Paulownia tomentosa (paulownia)ScrophulariaceaeUnknown
                                                                                          Perilepta dyerianaUnknown
                                                                                          Persea americana (avocado)LauraceaeUnknown
                                                                                          Persea thunbergiiLauraceaeUnknown
                                                                                          Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean)FabaceaeMain
                                                                                          Phellodendron amurense (amur cork tree)RutaceaeUnknown
                                                                                          Photinia glabraRosaceaeUnknown
                                                                                          Photinia serratifoliaRosaceaeUnknown
                                                                                          Pieris japonica (Lily-of-the-valley shrub)PieridaeUnknown
                                                                                          Pittosporum tobira (Japanese pittosporum)PittosporaceaeUnknown
                                                                                          Platanus orientalis (plane)PlatanaceaeUnknown
                                                                                          Podocarpus macrophyllus (Long-leaf podocarpus)PodocarpaceaeUnknown
                                                                                          Podocarpus nagiPodocarpaceaeUnknown
                                                                                          Poncirus trifoliata (Trifoliate orange)RutaceaeUnknown
                                                                                          Populus deltoides (poplar)SalicaceaeMain
                                                                                            Portulaca oleracea (purslane)PortulacaceaeMain
                                                                                              Pouteria campechiana (canistel)SapotaceaeUnknown
                                                                                              Prunus armeniaca (apricot)RosaceaeUnknown
                                                                                              Prunus avium (sweet cherry)RosaceaeUnknown
                                                                                              Prunus jamasakuraRosaceaeUnknown
                                                                                              Prunus japonica (Japanese bush cherry tree)RosaceaeUnknown
                                                                                              Prunus mume (Japanese apricot tree)RosaceaeUnknown
                                                                                              Prunus persica (peach)RosaceaeMain
                                                                                              Prunus salicina (Japanese plum)RosaceaeUnknown
                                                                                              Prunus tomentosa (Nanking cherry tree)RosaceaeUnknown
                                                                                              Prunus yedoensisRosaceaeUnknown
                                                                                              Prunus zippelianaUnknown
                                                                                              Pseudocydonia sinensis (Chinese quince)RosaceaeUnknown
                                                                                              Punica granatum (pomegranate)PunicaceaeMain
                                                                                              Pyracantha angustifolia (Narrow-leaf firethorn)RosaceaeUnknown
                                                                                              Pyrus (pears)RosaceaeMain
                                                                                              Pyrus calleryana (bradford pear)RosaceaeUnknown
                                                                                              Pyrus communis (European pear)RosaceaeUnknown
                                                                                              Pyrus pyrifolia (Oriental pear tree)RosaceaeUnknown
                                                                                              Quercus acutissima (sawtooth oak)FagaceaeUnknown
                                                                                              Quercus dentata (daimyo oak)FagaceaeUnknown
                                                                                              Quercus gilvaFagaceaeUnknown
                                                                                              Quercus glauca (ring-cup oak)FagaceaeUnknown
                                                                                              Quercus phillyraeoides (ubame oak)FagaceaeUnknown
                                                                                              Quercus serrata (glandbearing oak)FagaceaeUnknown
                                                                                              Rhododendron (Azalea)EricaceaeUnknown
                                                                                              Rhododendron indicum (Satsuki azalea)EricaceaeUnknown
                                                                                              Rhododendron japonicum (Japanese azalea)EricaceaeUnknown
                                                                                              Rhododendron metternichiiEricaceaeUnknown
                                                                                              Rhododendron mucronulatumEricaceaeUnknown
                                                                                              Rhus chinensis (nutgal sumac)AnacardiaceaeUnknown
                                                                                              RicinusEuphorbiaceaeOther
                                                                                                Ricinus communis (castor bean)EuphorbiaceaeMain
                                                                                                Ricinus communis (castor bean)EuphorbiaceaeMain
                                                                                                  Rosa (roses)RosaceaeOther
                                                                                                  Rosa multiflora (multiflora rose)RosaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                  Rosa rugosa (rugosa rose)RosaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                  Rubus (blackberry, raspberry)RosaceaeMain
                                                                                                    Rubus buergeriRosaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                    Rubus crataegifoliusRosaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                    Rubus palmatusRosaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                    Salix gracilistyla (big catkin willow)SalicaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                    Sambucus racemosa (red-berried elder)CaprifoliaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                    SaracaMain
                                                                                                      Sciadopitys verticillata (parasol pine)TaxodiaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                      Solanum (nightshade)SolanaceaeMain
                                                                                                        Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)SolanaceaeMain
                                                                                                          Solanum melongena (aubergine)SolanaceaeOther
                                                                                                            Solanum nigrum (black nightshade)SolanaceaeMain
                                                                                                              Spiraea cantoniensis (Reeves spirea)RosaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                              Spiraea japonica (Japanese spirea)RosaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                              Spiraea thunbergii (Thunberg's spiraea)RosaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                              Stachyurus praecoxStachyuraceaeUnknown
                                                                                                              Stauntonia hexaphyllaUnknown
                                                                                                              Stewartia monadelphaTheaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                              Stewartia pseudocamelliaTheaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                              Styrax japonicaStyracaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                              Synsepalum dulcificumSapotaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                              Syzygium samarangense (water apple)MyrtaceaeMain
                                                                                                                Tamarindus indica (tamarind)FabaceaeMain
                                                                                                                  Toxicodendron succedaneum (wax tree)AnacardiaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                  Triadica sebifera (Chinese tallow tree)EuphorbiaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                  Ulmus parvifolia (lacebark elm)UlmaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                  Vaccinium bracteatumEricaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                  Vaccinium corymbosum (blueberry)EricaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                  ViburnumCaprifoliaceaeMain
                                                                                                                    Viburnum odoratissimumCaprifoliaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                    Viburnum plicatumCaprifoliaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                    Viburnum sieboldiiCaprifoliaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                    Vicia sativa subsp. nigraUnknown
                                                                                                                    Vigna radiata (mung bean)FabaceaeMain
                                                                                                                      Vitis (grape)VitaceaeMain
                                                                                                                        Vitis ficifoliaVitaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                        Vitis vinifera (grapevine)VitaceaeMain
                                                                                                                        Weigela floribundaCaprifoliaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                        Weigela hortensisCaprifoliaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                        Wisteria floribunda (Japanese wisteria)FabaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                        Zanthoxylum ailanthoidesRutaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                        Zanthoxylum piperitumRutaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                        Zanthoxylum schinifoliumRutaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                        Zea mays subsp. mays (sweetcorn)PoaceaeMain
                                                                                                                          Zelkova serrata (Japanese selkova)UlmaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                          Ziziphus jujuba (common jujube)RhamnaceaeUnknown
                                                                                                                          Ziziphus mauritiana (jujube)RhamnaceaeMain

                                                                                                                            Growth Stages

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                                                                                                                            Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

                                                                                                                            Symptoms

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                                                                                                                            As is typical of species in the genus Scirtothrips, eggs are laid in the youngest tissues of plants, and feeding by adults and larvae can result in extensive cell damage to these developing tissues, leading to leaf and fruit distortion, and flower fall.

                                                                                                                            A serious pest on castor, S. dorsalis infests shoots, leaves, flowers and young fruits. The growing tips, particularly the young leaves and axillary leaf branches, are the main targets of attack. The infested plant parts turn brown to black and in extreme cases there is total deformation and defoliation. Although infestation occurs throughout the year, it peaks during drier months.

                                                                                                                            On chillies S. dorsalis causes 'leaf curl disease'. The pest occurs in such large numbers that the young leaves shrivel; heavy infestation of the tender shoots, buds and flowers causes the leaves to curl badly and the leaves are shed, fresh buds becoming brittle, subsequently dropping down. The damage is essentially due to the retardation, and in some cases to the complete cessation, of the physiological functions of the leaves (Ramakrishna Ayyar and Subbiah, 1935). Ramakrishna Ayyar (1932) recorded this species as a major pest in southern India causing the so-called 'Murda disease', or dying back, of the young seedlings. S. dorsalis causes damage to almost any soft part of the plant particularly in the shoots and leaves. Damage ranges from the slight disruption of the tissues to total deformation and disruption. The growing tip of the plant and young leaves, especially the axillary leaves, are the main points of attack. The damage is due to continuous sucking of the cell sap, leading to necrosis of the cell tissues. Eggs are also laid inside the soft tissues and the larvae leave large circular holes causing deformation of plant parts. As a result the plants may remain stunted due to the defoliation and deformation of the leaves. Leaf curl disease is called 'mudatha' (leaf curl) or 'korivi' when the plant presents a stag-headed appearance (burnt faggot).

                                                                                                                            Dev (1964) recorded S. dorsalis on tea causing damage to buds, young leaves, tender shoots and occasionally to older leaves. The injured tissues turn brown and as a result of feeding in more or less continuous lines on the buds, marks appear as sand-paper lines in the epidermis of leaves. In acute infestations, the growth of the shoot is arrested, the leaves remain small, hard and brittle, and the affected leaves become crinkled and curly, and fall from the plant.

                                                                                                                            Heavy infestation of cotton plants at the early seedling stage, in particular the cotyledons and other young leaves, results in the leaves becoming brittle and falling prematurely. S. dorsalis is also evident in mixed cropping of cotton, chillies and onion. The incidence and infestation of this species in different ecological conditions in cotton fields is also known (Ananthakrishnan, 1969, 1971, 1984).

                                                                                                                            List of Symptoms/Signs

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                                                                                                                            SignLife StagesType
                                                                                                                            Growing point / dead heart
                                                                                                                            Growing point / distortion
                                                                                                                            Growing point / external feeding
                                                                                                                            Inflorescence / fall or shedding
                                                                                                                            Leaves / abnormal colours
                                                                                                                            Leaves / abnormal forms
                                                                                                                            Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
                                                                                                                            Leaves / external feeding
                                                                                                                            Leaves / wilting
                                                                                                                            Whole plant / distortion; rosetting
                                                                                                                            Whole plant / dwarfing
                                                                                                                            Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

                                                                                                                            Biology and Ecology

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                                                                                                                            In India, where the life cycle has been studied particularly, females start ovipositing on Ricinus 3-5 days after emergence, and the total number of eggs laid ranges from 40 to 68. The life cycle is completed in 15-20 days, and the sex ratio is 6:1 females to males. On chillies, a single female lays 2-4 eggs per day for a period of about 32 days. The prepupa lasts for 24 hours and the pupa 3-5 days. Pupation takes place in the axils of leaves, in leaf curls and under the calyces of flower and fruits. In the Guntur area of India, S. dorsalis appears in two distinct periods: in the nurseries in August-September, when it is not serious, and from the third week of November to March.

                                                                                                                            S. dorsalis is a vector of Groundnut chlorotic fan-spot virus, Groundnut yellow spot virus and Tobacco streak virus.

                                                                                                                            Natural enemies

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                                                                                                                            Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
                                                                                                                            Aduncothrips asiaticus Predator Adults/Larvae
                                                                                                                            Carayonocoris indicus Predator Adults/Larvae
                                                                                                                            Franklinothrips megalops Predator Adults/Larvae
                                                                                                                            Geocoris ochropterus Predator Adults/Larvae
                                                                                                                            Mymarothrips garuda Predator Adults/Larvae
                                                                                                                            Orius maxidentex Predator Adults/Larvae
                                                                                                                            Scolothrips indicus Predator Adults/Larvae

                                                                                                                            Notes on Natural Enemies

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                                                                                                                            Studies on natural enemies are recorded mainly from India, including the following reports. Franklinothrips megalops is a common predator of S. dorsalis on castor plants, each larva consuming 4-5 thrips a day. Erythrothrips asiaticus, a highly seasonal species, is also a predator on S. dorsalis, along with Mymarothrips garuda (Ananthakrishnan, 1984). The predaceous species Scolothrips indicus feeds on the larvae of S. dorsalis (Raizada Usha, 1965). Geocoris ochropterus is also reported as a potential predator of S. dorsalis (Sannigrahi and Mukhopadhyay, 1992). In Japan, parasitism of larval S. dorsalis at rates of up to 52% by the trichogrammatid, Megaphragma sp. have been recorded on grapes (Shibao et al., 2000).

                                                                                                                            Impact

                                                                                                                            Top of page
                                                                                                                            Chillies suffer badly through heavy infestation by S. dorsalis of the tender shoot, buds and flowers. S. dorsalis is responsible for leaf curl disease of chillies. Heavy infestation causes the leaves to curl badly and the leaves to be shed, fresh buds become brittle and subsequently fall. During bad seasons, 25-55% of the total yield is lost (Ramakrishna Ayyar, 1932; Ramakrishna Ayyar and Subbiah, 1935).

                                                                                                                            Prevention and Control

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                                                                                                                            Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

                                                                                                                            Chemical Control

                                                                                                                            Suitable measures for the control of S. dorsalis on chillies include dusting or spraying with fenitrothion or malathion. The application of phosalone (Nandihalli and Thontadarya, 1986) and permethrin (Sanap and Nawale, 1987) were effective in reducing the population of S. dorsalis. The most recent information on chemical control is available through the website: http://mrec.ifas.ufl.edu/lso/thripslinks.htm.

                                                                                                                            Host-Plant Resistance

                                                                                                                            Host-plant resistance studies are limited to work in India with chillies. The basis of resistance in four chilli cultivars tested appeared to be biochemical factors that impart specific response modulation the thrips (Gopichandran and Ananthakrishnan, 1996). A specific pattern of variation was evident in the population build-up in young, mature and senescent stages and the variations were also consistent in terms of varietal choice. Infestation induced a change in the profile of phenolic acids and flavonoids, and gallic acid was a predominant fraction in the resistant cultivars, substantiating its role in resistance to S. dorsalis. Of 308 accessions of chilli germplasm, only 17 were found to be promising in providing resistance to leaf curl resulting from thrips feeding damage (Babu et al., 2002).

                                                                                                                            Cultural Control

                                                                                                                            Inter-cropping chilli with tomatoes was found to increase the yield of chillies and to reduce the populations of S. dorsalis on this crop (Manjunatha et al., 2001).

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                                                                                                                            Shetgar SS; Bilapate GG; Puri SN; Patil VV; Londhe GM, 1992. Critical time of application of insecticide against foliage pests of groundnut. Indian Journal of Entomology, 54(4):461-464; 6 ref.

                                                                                                                            Shibao M; Hosomi A; Tanaka H, 2000. Seasonal fluctuation in percentage parasitism of the yellow tea thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) by an egg parasitoid of Megaphragma (Hymenoptera: Trichogrammatidae) on grapes. Entomological Science, 3(4):611-613; 7 ref.

                                                                                                                            Shumsher Singh, 1944. Studies of some Indian Thysanoptera. Proceedings of Royal Entomological Society, London (P), 13:139-144.

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                                                                                                                            Wang C-L; Hsu M-Y; Young C-H; Jian Y-L, 1999. Toxicity of insecticides for Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) on Lotus. Chinese Journal of Entomology, 19: 377-380.

                                                                                                                            Waterhouse DF, 1993. The Major Arthropod Pests and Weeds of Agriculture in Southeast Asia. ACIAR Monograph No. 21. Canberra, Australia: Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research, 141 pp.

                                                                                                                            Wen HungChich, Lu FengMing, Hao HsiouHwa, Liou TsungDao, 2002. Insects pests and their injuries and control on longan in Southern Taiwan. Journal of Agricultural Research of China, 51(3), 56-64.

                                                                                                                            Yamaguchi, T., 2007. Seasonal prevalence of Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood and Selenothrips rubrocinctus (Giard) on the flower buds, inflorescences, and fruits of mango (Mangifera indica) plants cultivated in greenhouses on Amami-Oshima Island, Japan. Kyushu Plant Protection Research, 53, 103-106.

                                                                                                                            Zhang, W. Q., Lu, Y. F., Tong, X. L., 2004. A new insect pest of Lotus Flower - Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood and its control strategies. Journal of Chinese Landscape Architecture, 4, 33-35. http://en.cnki.com.cn/Article_en/CJFDTOTAL-ZGYL200404011.htm

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