Scirtothrips dorsalis (chilli thrips)
- Taxonomic Tree
- Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature
- Distribution Table
- Risk of Introduction
- Hosts/Species Affected
- Host Plants and Other Plants Affected
- Growth Stages
- List of Symptoms/Signs
- Biology and Ecology
- Natural enemies
- Notes on Natural Enemies
- Prevention and Control
- Distribution Maps
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PicturesTop of page
IdentityTop of page
Preferred Scientific Name
- Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood 1919
Preferred Common Name
- chilli thrips
Other Scientific Names
- Anaphothrips andreae Karny 1925
- Heliothrips minutissimus Bagnall 1919
- Neophysopus fragariae Girault 1927
- Scirtothrips padmae Ramakrishna 1942
International Common Names
- English: assam thrips; castor thrips; strawberry thrips; yellow tea thrips
- French: thrips jaune du théier
Local Common Names
- Germany: Nordindischer Tee-Blasenfuss
- Japan: tya-na-kiiro-azamiuma
- ANAPFR (Neophysopus fragariae)
- SCITDO (Scirtothrips dorsalis)
Taxonomic TreeTop of page
- Domain: Eukaryota
- Kingdom: Metazoa
- Phylum: Arthropoda
- Subphylum: Uniramia
- Class: Insecta
- Order: Thysanoptera
- Family: Thripidae
- Genus: Scirtothrips
- Species: Scirtothrips dorsalis
Notes on Taxonomy and NomenclatureTop of page Scirtothrips dorsalis is a widespread pest, described as a new species by Hood in 1919 from 34 females collected in India on castor and chillies and subsequently recorded by Ramakrishna Ayyar (1928) and Shumsher Singh (1944). Bailey (1945) and Priesner (1932), in their work on Scirtothrips, mention S. dorsalis as a distinct species. Mound (1968) recognized Heliothrips minutissimus from Bombay as the same species, and Jacot-Guillarmod (1971) also lists Anaphothrips andreae and S. dorsalis var. padmae as synonyms. The strawberry thrips S. fragariae from Australia was also recognized as S. dorsalis after studying Girault's material, as well as other material by Mound and Palmer (1981).
Scirtothrips oligochaetus, which has been regarded by several authors as the same species as S. dorsalis, has been recognized as a distinct valid species. In S. oligochaetus, which is sympatric with S. dorsalis in India, the tergal antecostal ridges of the female are pale and the tergal microtrichial fields bear four discal setae. However, in both species the sternites bear one or many rows of microtrichia medially, although the metanotal sculpture appears to differ slightly between them (Mound and Palmer, 1981).
An identification system, fully illustrated with photomicrographs of structural details, together with a molecular method for distinguishing this species from related species, is provided by Moritz et al. (2004). Hoddle and Mound (2003) provided keys to 21 species of Scirtothrips from Australia, and the full synonymy of S. dorsalis together with references is available at: http://www.ento.csiro.au/thysanoptera/worldthrips.html.
The most recent information on S. dorsalis, including host range, distribution and methods of control, is available through the website: http://mrec.ifas.ufl.edu/lso/thripslinks.htm.
DescriptionTop of page Egg
Typically oval, whitish to yellowish, narrow anteriorly, incubation period 4-6 days.
Larva transparent; body short, legs longer; antennae short, swollen; mouth cone bent and short; and antennae seven-segmented and cylindrical. Sclerotization not distinct, head and thorax, reticulate.
Antennae longer, cylindrical, seven-segmented; mouth cone longer; maxillary palpi three-segmented; body setae longer than the first instar; head and thorax reticulate with sclerotization of head.
Yellowish; antennae swollen, short, with distinct segmentation; two pairs of external wing buds on each meso- and meta-thorax.
Dark yellow with eyes and ocelli bearing red pigmentation; wing buds are elongate; antennae short and reflected over the head; female pupae with larger pointed abdomen, that of male smaller, with blunt abdomen.
Almost white on emergence, turning yellowish subsequently; abdominal tergites with median dark patch, tergites and sternites with dark antecostal ridge; ocellar setae pair III situated between posterior ocelli; 2 pairs of median post-ocular setae present; pronotum with four pairs of posteromarginal setae, major setae 25-30 µm long; metanotum medially with elongate recticles or striations, arcuate in anterior third, median setae not at anterior margin; forewing first vein with three setae distally, second vein with two setae, posteromarginal cilia straight; tergal microtrichial fields with 3 discal setae, VIII and IX with microtrichia medially; sternites with numerous microtrichia, more than two complete rows medially; male without drepanae on tergite IX (Palmer and Mound, 1983).
DistributionTop of page S. dorsalis is a highly polyphagous pest widespread between Pakistan, Japan, the Solomon Islands and Australia, but it is now established in South Africa, Israel, the Caribbean and Florida (USA).
See also CABI/EPPO (1998, No. 142).
Distribution TableTop of page
The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.
|Continent/Country/Region||Distribution||Last Reported||Origin||First Reported||Invasive||Reference||Notes|
|Bangladesh||Present||Native||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|Brunei Darussalam||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|Cambodia||Absent, unreliable record||EPPO, 2014|
|China||Restricted distribution||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|-Guangdong||Widespread||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|-Guangxi||Present||Chen et al., 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|-Hainan||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|-Hong Kong||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|-Sichuan||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|-Zhejiang||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|India||Widespread||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|-Andhra Pradesh||Present||Ramakrishna Ayyar & Subbiah, 1935; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|-Assam||Present||Dev, 1964; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|-Chhattisgarh||Present||Vikas et al., 2005; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|-Delhi||Present||Raizada, 1965; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|-Goa||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|-Gujarat||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|-Haryana||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|-Himachal Pradesh||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014; Kaomud and Vikas, 2014|
|-Jammu and Kashmir||Present||Abrol et al., 2006|
|-Karnataka||Present||Ananthakrishna & Sen, 1980; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|-Kerala||Present||Ramakrishna Ayyar & Margabandhu, 1931; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|-Madhya Pradesh||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|-Maharashtra||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|-Manipur||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|-Odisha||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|-Rajasthan||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|-Tamil Nadu||Present||Ananthakrishnan, 1969; Ananthakrishnan, 1971; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|-Uttar Pradesh||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|-West Bengal||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|Indonesia||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|-Java||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|-Sulawesi||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|-Sumatra||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|Iran||Present||Minaei et al., 2015||Jahrom, Fars province|
|Israel||Widespread||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|Japan||Widespread||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|-Honshu||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|-Kyushu||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|-Ryukyu Archipelago||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|Korea, Republic of||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|Malaysia||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|-Peninsular Malaysia||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|Myanmar||Present||Native||APPPC, 1987; Waterhouse, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|Pakistan||Present||Native||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|Philippines||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|Sri Lanka||Present||Native||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|Taiwan||Present||Native||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|Thailand||Present||Native||APPPC, 1987; Waterhouse, 1993; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|Vietnam||Present||Le et al., 2008; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|Côte d'Ivoire||Restricted distribution||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|Kenya||Absent, unreliable record||EPPO, 2014|
|South Africa||Absent, invalid record||IPPC, 2007; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|USA||Restricted distribution||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|-Florida||Restricted distribution||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|-Georgia||Present||Diffie and Srinivasan, 2010|
|-Hawaii||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|-Texas||Present||Introduced||Holtz, 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
Central America and Caribbean
|Barbados||Present||Introduced||Collins et al., 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|Jamaica||Present||Introduced||Collins et al., 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|Puerto Rico||Present||Introduced||Cabrera-Asencio and Ramirez, 2007; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|Saint Lucia||Present||Introduced||2004||Invasive||Seal and Ciomperlik, 2004; Collins et al., 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2010; Mathurin, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|Saint Vincent and the Grenadines||Present||Introduced||Seal and Ciomperlik, 2004; Collins et al., 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|Trinidad and Tobago||Present, few occurrences||Introduced||Collins et al., 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|Suriname||Present||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|Venezuela||Present||Introduced||Collins et al., 2006; CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|Austria||Absent, no pest record||EPPO, 2014|
|Belgium||Absent, intercepted only||EPPO, 2014|
|Netherlands||Absent, confirmed by survey||NPPO of the Netherlands, 2013; EPPO, 2014|
|UK||Present, few occurrences||IPPC, 2009; EPPO, 2014|
|-England and Wales||Present, few occurrences||EPPO, 2014|
|Australia||Restricted distribution||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|-Australian Northern Territory||Restricted distribution||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|-New South Wales||Restricted distribution||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|-Queensland||Restricted distribution||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|Papua New Guinea||Present||Native||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
|Solomon Islands||Present||Native||CABI/EPPO, 2010; EPPO, 2014|
Risk of IntroductionTop of page S. dorsalis already has a very wide distribution between Pakistan and the Pacific. Apparently, since 2000 it has been introduced to Israel and the Caribbean area including Venezuela, and in late 2005 it was found to be established in Florida, USA. It is causing severe problems in all of these areas. It must be considered a serious quarantine risk to many other countries, including those in southern Europe and the USA on field and tree crops and in the cooler areas of both Europe and North America on greenhouse crops.
Hosts/Species AffectedTop of page S. dorsalis is recorded from more than 100 plant species in 40 families, although the original wild host plants were probably Acacia species. In India this thrips is particularly important on chillies (Ramakrishna Ayyar, 1932; Ramakrishna Ayyar and Subbiah, 1935; Chakraborti, 2004), although in recent years it has become a commercial problem on cultivated roses (Duraimuragan and Jagadish, 2004). Amin (1979, 1980) records S. dorsalis as a pest of Arachis, and it is also serious on Ricinus, and in southern India it has been reported damaging both cassava and taro (Rajamma et al., 2004). In Bangladesh it is recorded from Mangifera, and it sometimes causes damage to this crop in northern Australia. In Malaysia, S. dorsalis is sometimes a pest on leaves of Hevea and has been found in large numbers on Mimosa pudica. In Thailand this species was collected on sacred lotus (Nelumbo), although some came from orange, beans and roses (Mound and Palmer, 1981). In Taiwan (Chang, 1991) it is recorded damaging mango, citrus, sugar apple, tea, peppers and groundnuts; it is also a serious pest of lotus (Wang et al., 1999). In Java, long series were collected at Bogor Botanic Gardens on young tender leaves of Brownea, in flowers of Saraca minor, and on Acacia leaves. In southern China, where it is known as the yellow tea thrips, it causes damage to the shoots of litchi (Li et al., 2004). In Japan, S. dorsalis is regarded as a pest of citrus (Tatara and Furuhashi, 1992) and tea (Kodomari, 1978), as it is in India (Dev, 1964). S. dorsalis occurs as a pest of grapevines in Japan and India (Miyahara et al., 1976), and since 2000 it has become a pest of vines in Venezuela. In Goa S. dorsalis has been recorded on cashew (Sundararaju, 1984) and also on onion (Thiramurthi et al., 1989). On the West Indian islands of St Vincent and St Lucia a wide range of vegetable crops are reported to be damaged, particularly Capsicums but including aubergine, squash, cucumber, cantaloupe, watermelon, pumpkin, bean and tomato (Seal and Ciomperlik, 2004).
Host Plants and Other Plants AffectedTop of page
|Abelmoschus esculentus (okra)||Malvaceae||Main|
|Acacia auriculiformis (northern black wattle)||Fabaceae||Main|
|Actinidia deliciosa (kiwifruit)||Actinidiaceae||Main|
|Allium cepa (onion)||Liliaceae||Main|
|Allium cepa (onion)||Liliaceae||Main|
|Allium sativum (garlic)||Liliaceae||Main|
|Alternanthera sessilis (sessile joyweed)||Amaranthaceae||Wild host|
|Anacardium occidentale (cashew nut)||Anacardiaceae||Main|
|Annona squamosa (sugar apple)||Annonaceae||Other|
|Arachis hypogaea (groundnut)||Fabaceae||Main|
|Asparagus officinalis (asparagus)||Liliaceae||Main|
|Beta vulgaris (beetroot)||Chenopodiaceae||Main|
|Camellia sinensis (tea)||Theaceae||Main|
|Capsicum annuum (bell pepper)||Solanaceae||Main|
|Capsicum frutescens (chilli)||Solanaceae||Main|
|Citrullus lanatus (watermelon)||Cucurbitaceae||Other|
|Citrus aurantiifolia (lime)||Rutaceae||Main|
|Citrus sinensis (navel orange)||Rutaceae||Main|
|Colocasia esculenta (taro)||Araceae||Other|
|Cucumis melo (melon)||Cucurbitaceae||Other|
|Cucumis sativus (cucumber)||Cucurbitaceae||Other|
|Cucurbita pepo (marrow)||Cucurbitaceae||Main|
|Dahlia pinnata (garden dahlia)||Asteraceae||Main|
|Dimocarpus longan (longan tree)||Sapindaceae||Main|
|Diospyros kaki (persimmon)||Ebenaceae||Main|
|Fagopyrum esculentum (buckwheat)||Main|
|Fragaria ananassa (strawberry)||Rosaceae||Main|
|Fragaria chiloensis (Chilean strawberry)||Rosaceae||Main|
|Glycine max (soyabean)||Fabaceae||Main|
|Gossypium hirsutum (Bourbon cotton)||Malvaceae||Main|
|Helianthus annuus (sunflower)||Asteraceae||Main|
|Hevea brasiliensis (rubber)||Euphorbiaceae||Main|
|Ipomoea batatas (sweet potato)||Convolvulaceae||Main|
|Lablab purpureus (hyacinth bean)||Fabaceae||Main|
|Litchi chinensis (lichi)||Sapindaceae||Other|
|Mangifera indica (mango)||Anacardiaceae||Main|
|Manihot esculenta (cassava)||Euphorbiaceae||Other|
|Melilotus indica (Indian sweetclover)||Fabaceae||Main|
|Mimosa (sensitive plants)||Fabaceae||Main|
|Mimosa pudica (sensitive plant)||Fabaceae||Other|
|Nelumbo nucifera (sacred lotus)||Nelumbonaceae||Main|
|Nelumbo nucifera (sacred lotus)||Nelumbonaceae||Other|
|Nephelium lappaceum (rambutan)||Sapindaceae||Main|
|Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)||Solanaceae||Main|
|Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco)||Solanaceae||Main|
|Passiflora edulis (passionfruit)||Passifloraceae||Main|
|Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean)||Fabaceae||Main|
|Populus deltoides (poplar)||Salicaceae||Main|
|Portulaca oleracea (purslane)||Portulacaceae||Main|
|Prunus persica (peach)||Rosaceae||Main|
|Punica granatum (pomegranate)||Punicaceae||Main|
|Ricinus communis (castor bean)||Euphorbiaceae||Main|
|Ricinus communis (castor bean)||Euphorbiaceae||Main|
|Rubus (blackberry, raspberry)||Rosaceae||Main|
|Solanum lycopersicum (tomato)||Solanaceae||Main|
|Solanum melongena (aubergine)||Solanaceae||Other|
|Solanum nigrum (black nightshade)||Solanaceae||Main|
|Syzygium samarangense (water apple)||Myrtaceae||Main|
|Tamarindus indica (Indian tamarind)||Fabaceae||Main|
|Vigna radiata (mung bean)||Fabaceae||Main|
|Vitis vinifera (grapevine)||Vitaceae||Main|
|Zea mays subsp. mays (sweetcorn)||Poaceae||Main|
|Ziziphus mauritiana (jujube)||Rhamnaceae||Main|
Growth StagesTop of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage
SymptomsTop of page As is typical of species in the genus Scirtothrips, eggs are laid in the youngest tissues of plants, and feeding by adults and larvae can result in extensive cell damage to these developing tissues, leading to leaf and fruit distortion, and flower fall.
A serious pest on castor, S. dorsalis infests shoots, leaves, flowers and young fruits. The growing tips, particularly the young leaves and axillary leaf branches, are the main targets of attack. The infested plant parts turn brown to black and in extreme cases there is total deformation and defoliation. Although infestation occurs throughout the year, it peaks during drier months.
On chillies S. dorsalis causes 'leaf curl disease'. The pest occurs in such large numbers that the young leaves shrivel; heavy infestation of the tender shoots, buds and flowers causes the leaves to curl badly and the leaves are shed, fresh buds becoming brittle, subsequently dropping down. The damage is essentially due to the retardation, and in some cases to the complete cessation, of the physiological functions of the leaves (Ramakrishna Ayyar and Subbiah, 1935). Ramakrishna Ayyar (1932) recorded this species as a major pest in southern India causing the so-called 'Murda disease', or dying back, of the young seedlings. S. dorsalis causes damage to almost any soft part of the plant particularly in the shoots and leaves. Damage ranges from the slight disruption of the tissues to total deformation and disruption. The growing tip of the plant and young leaves, especially the axillary leaves, are the main points of attack. The damage is due to continuous sucking of the cell sap, leading to necrosis of the cell tissues. Eggs are also laid inside the soft tissues and the larvae leave large circular holes causing deformation of plant parts. As a result the plants may remain stunted due to the defoliation and deformation of the leaves. Leaf curl disease is called 'mudatha' (leaf curl) or 'korivi' when the plant presents a stag-headed appearance (burnt faggot).
Dev (1964) recorded S. dorsalis on tea causing damage to buds, young leaves, tender shoots and occasionally to older leaves. The injured tissues turn brown and as a result of feeding in more or less continuous lines on the buds, marks appear as sand-paper lines in the epidermis of leaves. In acute infestations, the growth of the shoot is arrested, the leaves remain small, hard and brittle, and the affected leaves become crinkled and curly, and fall from the plant.
Heavy infestation of cotton plants at the early seedling stage, in particular the cotyledons and other young leaves, results in the leaves becoming brittle and falling prematurely. S. dorsalis is also evident in mixed cropping of cotton, chillies and onion. The incidence and infestation of this species in different ecological conditions in cotton fields is also known (Ananthakrishnan, 1969, 1971, 1984).
List of Symptoms/SignsTop of page
|Growing point / dead heart|
|Growing point / distortion|
|Growing point / external feeding|
|Inflorescence / fall or shedding|
|Leaves / abnormal colours|
|Leaves / abnormal forms|
|Leaves / abnormal leaf fall|
|Leaves / external feeding|
|Leaves / wilting|
|Whole plant / distortion; rosetting|
|Whole plant / dwarfing|
|Whole plant / plant dead; dieback|
Biology and EcologyTop of page
In India, where the life cycle has been studied particularly, females start ovipositing on Ricinus 3-5 days after emergence, and the total number of eggs laid ranges from 40 to 68. The life cycle is completed in 15-20 days, and the sex ratio is 6:1 females to males. On chillies, a single female lays 2-4 eggs per day for a period of about 32 days. The prepupa lasts for 24 hours and the pupa 3-5 days. Pupation takes place in the axils of leaves, in leaf curls and under the calyces of flower and fruits. In the Guntur area of India, S. dorsalis appears in two distinct periods: in the nurseries in August-September, when it is not serious, and from the third week of November to March.
S. dorsalis is a vector of Groundnut chlorotic fan-spot virus, Groundnut yellow spot virus and Tobacco streak virus.
Natural enemiesTop of page
|Natural enemy||Type||Life stages||Specificity||References||Biological control in||Biological control on|
Notes on Natural EnemiesTop of page Studies on natural enemies are recorded mainly from India, including the following reports. Franklinothrips megalops is a common predator of S. dorsalis on castor plants, each larva consuming 4-5 thrips a day. Erythrothrips asiaticus, a highly seasonal species, is also a predator on S. dorsalis, along with Mymarothrips garuda (Ananthakrishnan, 1984). The predaceous species Scolothrips indicus feeds on the larvae of S. dorsalis (Raizada Usha, 1965). Geocoris ochropterus is also reported as a potential predator of S. dorsalis (Sannigrahi and Mukhopadhyay, 1992). In Japan, parasitism of larval S. dorsalis at rates of up to 52% by the trichogrammatid, Megaphragma sp. have been recorded on grapes (Shibao et al., 2000).
ImpactTop of page Chillies suffer badly through heavy infestation by S. dorsalis of the tender shoot, buds and flowers. S. dorsalis is responsible for leaf curl disease of chillies. Heavy infestation causes the leaves to curl badly and the leaves to be shed, fresh buds become brittle and subsequently fall. During bad seasons, 25-55% of the total yield is lost (Ramakrishna Ayyar, 1932; Ramakrishna Ayyar and Subbiah, 1935).
Prevention and ControlTop of page
Suitable measures for the control of S. dorsalis on chillies include dusting or spraying with fenitrothion or malathion. The application of phosalone (Nandihalli and Thontadarya, 1986) and permethrin (Sanap and Nawale, 1987) were effective in reducing the population of S. dorsalis. The most recent information on chemical control is available through the website: http://mrec.ifas.ufl.edu/lso/thripslinks.htm.
Host-plant resistance studies are limited to work in India with chillies. The basis of resistance in four chilli cultivars tested appeared to be biochemical factors that impart specific response modulation the thrips (Gopichandran and Ananthakrishnan, 1996). A specific pattern of variation was evident in the population build-up in young, mature and senescent stages and the variations were also consistent in terms of varietal choice. Infestation induced a change in the profile of phenolic acids and flavonoids, and gallic acid was a predominant fraction in the resistant cultivars, substantiating its role in resistance to S. dorsalis. Of 308 accessions of chilli germplasm, only 17 were found to be promising in providing resistance to leaf curl resulting from thrips feeding damage (Babu et al., 2002).
Inter-cropping chilli with tomatoes was found to increase the yield of chillies and to reduce the populations of S. dorsalis on this crop (Manjunatha et al., 2001).
ReferencesTop of page
Amin BW, 1979. Leaf fall disease of chilly and pepper in Maharashtra, India. Pans, 25:131-134.
Amin BW, 1980. Techniques for handling thrips as a vectors of Tomato Spotted Welt and Yellow Spot Virus of groundnut, Arachis hypogea L. Occasional Paper Groundnut Entomology ICRISAT, 80(2):1-20.
Ananthakrishnan TN, 1969. Indian Thysanoptera. CSIR Zoology Monograph No.1. New Delhi, India: CSIR.
Ananthakrishnan TN, 1971. Thrips in agriculture, horticulture and forestry - diagnosis, bionomics and control. Journal of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi, 30:130-146.
Ananthakrishnan TN; Sen S, 1980. Taxonomy of Idian Thysanoptera. Zool Surv. India, Handbook. Ser. 1.
APPPC, 1987. Insect pests of economic significance affecting major crops of the countries in Asia and the Pacific region. Technical Document No. 135. Bangkok, Thailand: Regional Office for Asia and the Pacific region (RAPA).
Babu BS; Pandravada SR; Reddy KJ; Varaprasad KS; Sreekanth M, 2002. Field screening of pepper germplasm for sources of resistance against leaf curl caused by thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood) and mites (Polyphagotarsonemus latus Banks). Indian Journal of Plant Protection, 30(1): 7-12.
Bailey F, 1945. A revision of genus Scirtothrips Shull (Thysanoptera: Thripidae). Hilgardia, 13(35):329-362.
Cabrera-Asencio I; Ramirez A, 2007. Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae): a new record for Puerto Rico. (Scirtothrips dorsalis hood (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) un nuevo récord para Puerto Rico.) Journal of Agriculture of the University of Puerto Rico, 91(1/2):49-52.
Chakraborti S, 2004. Sustainable management of apical leaf curling in chilli. Journal of Applied Zoological Researches, 15(1): 34-36.
Chen YongSen; Huang GuoDi; Lan Wei; Mo YongLong; Zhou JunAn; Pu JinJi, 2010. A preliminary survey of mango plant diseases and insect pests in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomic Region. Chinese Bulletin of Entomology, 47(5):994-1001. http://www.ilib.cn/P-kczs.html
Dev HN, 1964. Preliminary studies on the biology of the Assam Thrips, Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood on tea. Indian Journal of Entomology, 26:184-194.
Diffie S; Srinivasan R, 2010. Occurrence of Leucothrips furcatus, Scirtothrips dorsalis, and Tenothrips frici (Thysanoptera: Thripidae) previously unreported from Georgia. Journal of Entomological Science, 45(4):394-396.
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