Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Schefflera actinophylla
(umbrella tree)

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Datasheet

Schefflera actinophylla (umbrella tree)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Schefflera actinophylla
  • Preferred Common Name
  • umbrella tree
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • S. actinophylla is a fast-growing, ornamental tree which has been introduced to many regions. It has highly invasive behaviour in tropical and subtropical areas and is classified as a weed in the Global Compend...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Schefflera actinophylla (octopus tree, umbrella plant); habit with Laysan albatross at Midway Mall Sand Island, Midway Atoll.  June 08, 2008
TitleInvasive habit with Laysan albatross
CaptionSchefflera actinophylla (octopus tree, umbrella plant); habit with Laysan albatross at Midway Mall Sand Island, Midway Atoll. June 08, 2008
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Schefflera actinophylla (octopus tree, umbrella plant); habit with Laysan albatross at Midway Mall Sand Island, Midway Atoll.  June 08, 2008
Invasive habit with Laysan albatrossSchefflera actinophylla (octopus tree, umbrella plant); habit with Laysan albatross at Midway Mall Sand Island, Midway Atoll. June 08, 2008©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Schefflera actinophylla (octopus tree, umbrella plant); habit with Laysan albatross at Midway Mall Sand Island, Midway Atoll.  June 08, 2008
TitleInvasive habit with Laysan albatross
CaptionSchefflera actinophylla (octopus tree, umbrella plant); habit with Laysan albatross at Midway Mall Sand Island, Midway Atoll. June 08, 2008
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Schefflera actinophylla (octopus tree, umbrella plant); habit with Laysan albatross at Midway Mall Sand Island, Midway Atoll.  June 08, 2008
Invasive habit with Laysan albatrossSchefflera actinophylla (octopus tree, umbrella plant); habit with Laysan albatross at Midway Mall Sand Island, Midway Atoll. June 08, 2008©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Schefflera actinophylla (octopus tree, umbrella plant); habit at Makawao, Maui.  March 30, 2001
TitleHabit
CaptionSchefflera actinophylla (octopus tree, umbrella plant); habit at Makawao, Maui. March 30, 2001
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Schefflera actinophylla (octopus tree, umbrella plant); habit at Makawao, Maui.  March 30, 2001
HabitSchefflera actinophylla (octopus tree, umbrella plant); habit at Makawao, Maui. March 30, 2001©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Schefflera actinophylla (octopus tree, umbrella plant); Leaves at Holida Inn Express Boynton Beach, Florida.  September 24, 2009
TitleFoliage
CaptionSchefflera actinophylla (octopus tree, umbrella plant); Leaves at Holida Inn Express Boynton Beach, Florida. September 24, 2009
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Schefflera actinophylla (octopus tree, umbrella plant); Leaves at Holida Inn Express Boynton Beach, Florida.  September 24, 2009
FoliageSchefflera actinophylla (octopus tree, umbrella plant); Leaves at Holida Inn Express Boynton Beach, Florida. September 24, 2009©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Schefflera actinophylla (octopus tree, umbrella plant); fruit at Kakipi Gulch Haiku, Maui. June 17, 2009.
TitleHabit, showing foliage and fruits
CaptionSchefflera actinophylla (octopus tree, umbrella plant); fruit at Kakipi Gulch Haiku, Maui. June 17, 2009.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Schefflera actinophylla (octopus tree, umbrella plant); fruit at Kakipi Gulch Haiku, Maui. June 17, 2009.
Habit, showing foliage and fruitsSchefflera actinophylla (octopus tree, umbrella plant); fruit at Kakipi Gulch Haiku, Maui. June 17, 2009.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Schefflera actinophylla (octopus tree, umbrella plant); flowers and fruit at Kakipi Gulch Haiku, Maui.  June 17, 2009
TitleFlowers and fruit
CaptionSchefflera actinophylla (octopus tree, umbrella plant); flowers and fruit at Kakipi Gulch Haiku, Maui. June 17, 2009
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Schefflera actinophylla (octopus tree, umbrella plant); flowers and fruit at Kakipi Gulch Haiku, Maui.  June 17, 2009
Flowers and fruitSchefflera actinophylla (octopus tree, umbrella plant); flowers and fruit at Kakipi Gulch Haiku, Maui. June 17, 2009©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Schefflera actinophylla (octopus tree, umbrella plant); close-up of fruit at Sand Island, Midway Atoll. June 01, 2008.
TitleClose-up of fruits
CaptionSchefflera actinophylla (octopus tree, umbrella plant); close-up of fruit at Sand Island, Midway Atoll. June 01, 2008.
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Schefflera actinophylla (octopus tree, umbrella plant); close-up of fruit at Sand Island, Midway Atoll. June 01, 2008.
Close-up of fruitsSchefflera actinophylla (octopus tree, umbrella plant); close-up of fruit at Sand Island, Midway Atoll. June 01, 2008.©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Schefflera actinophylla (octopus tree, umbrella plant); tenacious habit, amongst rocks, at Mokolii, Oahu. April 19, 2005
TitleTenacious, invasive habit
CaptionSchefflera actinophylla (octopus tree, umbrella plant); tenacious habit, amongst rocks, at Mokolii, Oahu. April 19, 2005
Copyright©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0
Schefflera actinophylla (octopus tree, umbrella plant); tenacious habit, amongst rocks, at Mokolii, Oahu. April 19, 2005
Tenacious, invasive habitSchefflera actinophylla (octopus tree, umbrella plant); tenacious habit, amongst rocks, at Mokolii, Oahu. April 19, 2005©Forest Starr & Kim Starr - CC BY 4.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Schefflera actinophylla (Endl.) Harms

Preferred Common Name

  • umbrella tree

Other Scientific Names

  • Aralia longipes W. Bull
  • Brassaia actinophylla Endl.
  • Brassaia singaporensis Ridl.

International Common Names

  • English: Australian umbrella tree; ivy tree; octopus tree; Queensland umbrella tree
  • Spanish: cheflera
  • French: arbre ombrelle; arbre pieuvre

Local Common Names

  • Brazil: arvore-polvo
  • Germany: Queensland-strahlenaralie; Schefflera, Strahlenblütige
  • Micronesia, Federated states of: tuhke kihs
  • Portugal/Madeira: arvore-guarda-chuva

EPPO code

  • SCHAC (Schefflera actinophylla)

Summary of Invasiveness

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S. actinophylla is a fast-growing, ornamental tree which has been introduced to many regions. It has highly invasive behaviour in tropical and subtropical areas and is classified as a weed in the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012). It produces thousands of seeds that can be easily dispersed by animals (mainly birds and bats). Seeds have high germination rates, and high densities of seedlings and young plants have been reported near seed sources, which are able to grow in shaded areas as well as in sunny open areas (Gucker, 2011). S. actinophylla is able to form dense thickets that can reduce the amount of light, space, and nutrients available to native plants (Langeland et al., 2008). In addition, this species has a dense root network that can pressurize building foundations and block plumbing joints and pipes in urban areas (Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2007).

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Araliales
  •                         Family: Araliaceae
  •                             Genus: Schefflera
  •                                 Species: Schefflera actinophylla

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Araliaceae includes about 43 genera and 1450 species, largely distributed in tropical regions with a reduced number of species in temperate zones (Stevens, 2012). Plants within this family are predominantly shrubs or trees, rarely herbs and vines.

The genus Schefflera is pantropical and includes over half of the species described for this family (Plunkett et al., 2005). Recent studies have shown that the genus Schefflera is broadly polyphyletic within Araliaceae and five major lineages or clades have been recognized. These five clades correspond perfectly to geographic distributions: two morphologically distinct clades are centered in the southwest Pacific, and three other clades are centered in the Neotropics, Southeast Asia, and Africa-Madagascar (Plunkett et al., 2005; Frodin et al., 2009).

Description

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Evergreen, fast-growing tree, up to 12 m height, with single or multi-stemmed trunks, and greenish bark. Leaves are alternate with petioles up to 61 cm long, palmately compound with mostly 7-16 leaflets, these shiny, light green, oblanceolate, up to 30 cm long, and entire margins (or sparsely toothed when young). Flowers are borne in dense clusters that form a large, red, showy inflorescence at stem tips above foliage. Fruits are purplish black, round, fleshy drupes up to 7 mm in diameter (Gilman and Watson, 1994).

Plant Type

Top of page Perennial
Seed propagated
Tree
Woody

Distribution

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S. actinophylla is native to northern Queensland in Australia, New Guinea, and Java and it has become weedy where introduced in southern Queensland (Russell-Smith, 1991; Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2011). It was introduced as an ornamental in Singapore, Madeira, the Canary Islands, Mexico, the Galapagos Islands, Florida, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Hispaniola, Lesser Antilles, Hawaii and Pacific islands, where it has escaped from gardens and yards and invaded both disturbed and native unaltered forests (Gucker, 2011). Half of Joy Island in Pohnpei (Federated States of Micronesia) is covered with S. actinophylla (Englberger, 2009).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

Christmas Island (Indian Ocean)PresentIntroduced Invasive Swarbrick and Hart, 2001
IndonesiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-JavaPresentNativeLangeland et al., 2008
-MoluccasPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
SingaporePresentIntroduced Invasive Chong et al., 2009

Africa

Spain
-Canary IslandsPresentIntroducedVerloove and Reyes-Betancort, 2011

North America

BermudaPresentIntroduced Invasive Varnham, 2006
MexicoPresentIntroducedCarnevali et al., 2005Yucatan Peninsula
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-FloridaPresentIntroduced Invasive Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2011Category I
-HawaiiPresentIntroduced Invasive Wagner et al., 1999

Central America and Caribbean

AnguillaPresentIntroducedWaugh, 2009Cultivated
BahamasPresentIntroducedCorrell and Correll, 1982Cultivated
CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive González-Torres et al., 2012
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Cultivated
Netherlands AntillesPresentIntroducedMori et al., 2007
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced Invasive
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Cultivated: St. Croix

South America

BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Sao PauloPresentIntroducedForzza et al., 2012Subspontaneous
EcuadorPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Galapagos IslandsPresentIntroducedCharles Darwin Foundation, 2008Potentially invasive

Europe

PortugalPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-MadeiraPresentIntroducedVieira Silva RMda, 2002
SpainPresentPresent based on regional distribution.

Oceania

American SamoaPresentIntroducedSpace and Flynn, 2000
AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
-QueenslandPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
-South AustraliaPresentIntroduced Invasive Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2007
Cook IslandsPresentIntroducedSpace and Flynn, 2002Potential invader
FijiPresentIntroduced Invasive Smith, 1985; Englberger, 2009
French PolynesiaPresentIntroducedFlorence et al., 2011Havai and Tahiti Islands
GuamPresentIntroducedFosberg et al., 1979; Englberger, 2009Cultivated
Marshall IslandsPresentIntroducedFosberg et al., 1979Cultivated
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentIntroduced Invasive Meyer, 2000; Englberger, 2009Pohnpei Islands. Under eradication in Pohnpei
NauruPresentIntroducedThaman et al., 1994Cultivated
New CaledoniaPresentIntroducedMacKee, 1994
Norfolk IslandPresentIntroducedRoyal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2012
PalauEradicatedSpace et al., 2009
Papua New GuineaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
SamoaPresentIntroducedSpace and Flynn, 2002Cultivated
Solomon IslandsPresentIntroducedHancock et al., 1988
TongaPresentIntroducedSpace and Flynn, 2001Cultivated

History of Introduction and Spread

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S. actinophylla was introduced to Hawaii in about 1900. Currently this species is common as an ornamental in lowlands, where it escapes from cultivated areas to become a serious weed and an invasive species in natural areas (Wagner et al., 1999; PIER, 2012). In Florida, S. actinophylla was introduced in 1927 and by the late 1970s it was reported as “escaped from cultivation” and listed as a Category I invasive plant by the Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council in 1996 (Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2011). By 1997, the species occurred in 44% of preserves in southern Florida (Bradley and Gann, 1999).

In the West Indies, S. actinophylla was probably introduced from Florida as an ornamental. It was listed as an invasive plant in 2003 for the Bahamas (Kairo et al., 2003); and in 2012 for Cuba (González-Torres et al., 2012) and Puerto Rico (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012). In 2010, S. actinophylla was first reported for the Canary Islands, where it was introduced as a fast-growing, flowering landscape tree. On these islands, it has been recorded germinating below the crown of leaves of the native palm Phoenix canariensis (Verloove and Reyes-Betancort, 2011).

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of S. actinophylla is high. It is available to the public through internet sites and is also sold in nurseries. In additions, the species is used commonly by landscapers to be planted in gardens and yards because it attracts birds (Gilman and Watson, 1994; Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2007; Gucker, 2011). Considering that S. actinophylla is a successful invader that can escape from gardens and is able to colonize disturbed areas as well as natural undisturbed forest, the probability of colonizing new areas remains high.

Habitat

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S. actinophylla grows in full sun or partial shaded areas on a wide variety of well-drained soils. In its native range, this species occurs in tropical lowland or monsoon rain forests (Russell-Smith, 1991). Outside its native range, it can be found invading xeric hammocks, scrublands, sand hill, beach dunes, coastal forests, mesic forests, ruderal communities, riparian areas, and secondary forests mainly in low elevations (Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2007; Gucker, 2011). Because S. actinophylla is shade tolerant, it is able to invade disturbed and undisturbed forests (Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011).

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Present, no further details Natural
Coastal dunes Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal dunes Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial-managed
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Natural
Terrestrial-natural/semi-natural
Natural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural forests Present, no further details Natural
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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S. actinophylla has been documented shading out the threatened species nodding pinweed (Lechua cernua) in Florida (Langeland et al., 2008). In addition, seedlings of this species may germinate in the crotches or branches of large trees and in this case the plant will grow as an epiphyte that can strangle and eventually kill host trees (Menninger, 1971).

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

Chromosome numbers in the genus Schefflera are relatively uniform, generally with 2n = 24 or 48, and both diploid and tetraploid counts have been reported for S. actinophylla (Yi et al., 2004). 

Reproductive Biology

Flowers of S. actinophylla are hermaphroditic and it is suggested that this species is capable of self-pollination (Brown and Hopkins, 1995). In Florida, flowers of S. actinophylla are visited by the red-whiskered bulbuls Pycnonotus jocosus, which escaped from captivity around 1960 (Carleton and Owre, 1975). 

Physiology and Phenology

In Australia, flowering activity occurs mostly during spring and summer (Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011). In Hawaii, S. actinophylla flowers from April through October (Little and Skolmen, 1989), and flowering is in the summer or autumn in Florida (Langeland et al., 2008). S. actinophylla requires full sun to flower (Gilman and Watson, 1994), and fruits appear about 6 weeks or more after flowering (Menninger, 1971). 

Environmental Requirements

S. actinophylla is restricted to warmer areas with minimum temperatures averaging above 1.7°C (Broschat and Meerow 1991), although a few days of frost are tolerated (Little and Skolmen, 1989). It grows in sunny open areas as well as in shaded areas on well-drained soils (including clay, loam, sand, slightly alkaline, acidic soils; Gilman and Watson, 1994). S. actinophylla has moderate tolerance to drought and poor tolerance to salty soils, and it can inhabit areas from sea level to 750-1000 m altitude (Little and Skolmen, 1989).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
As - Tropical savanna climate with dry summer Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in summer) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 32
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 1.7

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall5003600mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • heavy
  • light
  • medium

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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S. actinophylla reproduces by seeds and each tree can produce thousands of seeds that can be dispersed by birds and bats. In Florida, seeds are dispersed mainly by birds including crows, starlings, mockingbirds, and parrots (Gucker, 2011).

Pathway Causes

Top of page
CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Escape from confinement or garden escapeSeeds are dispersed by birds and bats Yes Yes Gilman and Watson, 1994; PIER, 2012
Landscape improvement Yes Yes Gucker, 2011
Nursery trade Yes Yes Gucker, 2011
Ornamental purposes Yes Yes Gucker, 2011

Impact Summary

Top of page
CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Environmental Impact

Top of page

S. actinophylla is commonly used as an ornamental in yards and gardens because it attracts birds. Unfortunately, birds and other animals (i.e., bats) can easily disperse thousands of seeds into adjacent disturbed forests as well as into native unaltered forests. Once established, S. actinophylla achieves high population densities, altering native plant communities by displacing native species, and changing community structures and ecological functions of invaded habitats (Gucker, 2011; PIER, 2012). In addition, the epiphytic growth form can strangle and eventually kill host trees (Menninger, 1971). In Florida, it is out-competing the threatened species Lechua cernua (Langeland et al., 2008). S. actinophylla can also damage pipes and housing foundations (Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011) and cause contact dermatitis in sensitive individuals (Gucker, 2011).

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Lechea cernua (nodding pinweed)National list(s) National list(s)FloridaCompetition - shadingFlorida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2011; Gucker, 2011

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Has a broad native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Host damage
  • Infrastructure damage
  • Modification of successional patterns
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts forestry
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
Impact mechanisms
  • Causes allergic responses
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Competition - strangling
  • Competition
  • Poisoning
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

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Many Schefflera species are grown as ornamentals and potted-plants. The genus Schefflera is the second most important interior tree genus after Ficus (Chen et al., 2002). Numerous cultivars of S. actinophylla are commonly planted in gardens and yards in tropical, subtropical, and temperate areas (Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2007). S. schefflera is valued by landscapers because it attracts birds to gardens (Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2007).

Uses List

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General

  • Ornamental

Ornamental

  • Potted plant
  • Propagation material
  • Seed trade

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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S. actinophylla is relatively similar to Schefflera arboricola. These two species can be differentiated by the colour of their flowers and by tree-size (height). S. actinophylla is a relatively large tree usually growing 6-12 metres tall while S. arboricola is a shrub or relatively small tree usually growing 3-4 metres tall. Additionally, S. actinophylla has pinkish-red to red flowers whereas S. arboricola has greenish-yellow flowers (Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, 2011).

Prevention and Control

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Mechanical Control

S. actinophylla is difficult to eradicate. Seedlings and young plants should be pulled up. Fruits and branches with fruits should be removed from treated areas. Larger trees should be cut, and follow-up treatments are required to control sprouts (Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries 2007; Gucker, 2011). 

Chemical Control

S. actinophylla is very difficult to control with herbicides (Thayer, 1998). Effects of herbicide may not be seen for months, and follow-up treatments are necessary. When this species is growing as an epiphyte, herbicide applications require care to avoid damaging host plants. N-phosphonomethyl-glycine (glyphosate) or 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl-oxy acetic acid (triclopyr) can be used as foliar applications on seedlings and young plants. In the case of larger trees, it is recommended to cut notches into the cambium around the stem and apply undiluted glyphosphate or triclopyr (Englberger, 2009), or to cut and then treat the stumps with the following herbicides:

  • N-phosphonomethyl-glycine (glyphosate): apply on cut stump, or paint basal green bark
  • 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl-oxy acetic acid (triclopyr) + 4-amino-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinecarboxylic acid (picloram): apply on basal bark

Repeated applications of herbicides are necessary in order to avoid re-sprouts (Motooka et al., 2003; Englberger, 2009). 

References

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Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

Bradley K; Gann GD, 1999. The status of exotic plants in the preserves of southern Florida. In: Florida's garden of good and evil: Proceedings of the 1998 joint symposium of the Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council and the Florida Native Plant Society, June 3-7, 1998, Palm Beach Gardens, Florida [ed. by Jones, D. T. \Gamble, B. W.]. 36-41.

Broschat TK; Meerow AW, 1991. Betrock's Reference Guide to Florida Landscape Plants. Hollywood, Florida, USA: Betrock Information Services.

Brown ED; Hopkins MJG, 1995. A test of pollinator specificity and morphological convergence between nectarivorous birds and rainforest tree flowers in New Guinea. Oecologia, 103(1):89-100.

Carleton AR; Owre OT, 1975. The red-whiskered bulbul in Florida: 1960-1971. The Auk, 92(1):40-57.

Carnevali G; Tapia-Muñoz JL; Duno Stefano Rde; Hernández-Aguilar S; Daniel TF; Coe F; Ortíz JJ; Diego N; Itzá LC; Pat FM, 2005. Notes on the flora of the Yucatan Peninsula III: new records and miscellaneous notes for the peninsular flora II. Harvard Papers in Botany, 9(2):257-296.

Charles Darwin Foundation, 2008. Database inventory of introduced plant species in the rural and urban zones of Galapagos. Galapagos, Ecuador: Charles Darwin Foundation.

Chen J; Henny RJ; McConnell DB, 2002. Development of new foliage plant cultivars. In: Trends in new crops and new uses. Proceedings of the Fifth National Symposium, Atlanta, Georgia, USA, 10-13 November, 2001 [ed. by Janick, J.\Whipkey, A.]. Alexandria, USA: ASHS Press, 466-472.

Chong KY; Tan HTW; Corlett RT, 2009. A checklist of the total vascular plant flora of Singapore: native, naturalised and cultivated species. Singapore: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research, National University of Singapore, 273 pp. http://lkcnhm.nus.edu.sg/nus/pdf/PUBLICATION/LKCNH%20Museum%20Books/LKCNHM%20Books/flora_of_singapore_tc.pdf

Correll DS; Correll HB, 1982. Flora of the Bahama Archipelago. Vaduz, Germany: J. Cramer, 1692 pp.

Englberger K, 2009. Invasive weeds of Pohnpei: A guide for identification and public awareness. Kolonia, Federated States of Micronesia: Conservation Society of Pohnpei, 29 pp.

Florence J; Chevillotte H; Ollier C; Meyer JY, 2011. [English title not available]. (Base de données botaniques Nadeaud de l'Herbier de la Polynésie Française (PAP).) . http://www.herbier-tahiti.pf

Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2011. Florida EPPC's 2011 Invasive Plant Species List. http://www.fleppc.org/list/11list.html

Forzza RC; Leitman PM; Costa AF; Carvalho Jr AA, et al. , 2012. List of species of the Flora of Brazil (Lista de espécies Flora do Brasil). Rio de Janeiro, Brazil: Rio de Janeiro Botanic Garden. http://floradobrasil.jbrj.gov.br/2012/

Fosberg FR; Sachet MH; Oliver RL, 1979. A geographical checklist of the Micronesian dicotyledonae. Micronesica, 15:222.

Frodin DG; Lowry PPII; Plunkett GM, 2009. Schefflera (Araliaceae): taxonomic history, overview and progress. Plant Diversity and Evolution, 128:561-595.

Gilman EF; Watson DG, 1994. Shefflera actinophylla: schefflera. Fact Sheet ST-585. Shefflera actinophylla: schefflera. Fact Sheet ST-585. Gainesville, FL, USA: University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences Extension, Environmental Horticultural Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service. http://hort.ufl.edu/database/documents/pdf/tree_fact_sheets/schacta.pdf

González-Torres LR; Rankin R; Palmarola A (eds), 2012. Invasive plants in Cuba. (Plantas Invasoras en Cuba.) Bissea: Boletin sobre Conservacion de Plantad del Jardin Botanico Nacional, 6:1-140.

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Delivering Alien Invasive Species Inventories for Europe (DAISIE)http://www.europe-aliens.org/speciesFactsheet.do?speciesld=50539#
Florida Exotic Pest Plant Councilhttp://www.fleppc.org
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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13/12/12 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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