Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Adelges abietis
(eastern spruce gall aphid)

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Datasheet

Adelges abietis (eastern spruce gall aphid)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 16 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Adelges abietis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • eastern spruce gall aphid
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Metazoa
  •     Phylum: Arthropoda
  •       Subphylum: Uniramia
  •         Class: Insecta
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • A. abietis can be invasive even in countries where is it is probably native, e.g. in Germany (Thalenhorst, 1974), Norway (...
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    OX10 8DE
    UK
    compend@cabi.org
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Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Adelges abietis (Linnaeus, 1758)

Preferred Common Name

  • eastern spruce gall aphid

Other Scientific Names

  • Chermes abietis Linnaeus, 1758
  • Sacchiphantes abietis (Linnaeus) Curtis, 1844

International Common Names

  • English: spruce gall aphid, eastern; spruce pineapple gall adelges
  • Spanish: pulgon galicola de la picea
  • French: chermes de l'epicea; chermes du sapin; puceron a galle conique de l'epinette

Local Common Names

  • Denmark: ananasgalleus, gul
  • Finland: havukirva, iso
  • Germany: Gallenlaus, Gelbe Fichten-; Gallenlaus, Grosse Fichten-; Wollaus, Gelbliche Fichten-
  • Italy: Cherme dell'abete rosso
  • Netherlands: Sparappelgalluis
  • Norway: grangallelus, gul
  • Sweden: granbarrlus, stoerre
  • USA: eastern spruce gall aphid

EPPO code

  • ADLGAB (Sacchiphantes abietis)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page A. abietis can be invasive even in countries where is it is probably native, e.g. in Germany (Thalenhorst, 1974), Norway (Walberg, 1980) and Switzerland (Fluckiger et al., 1999). Most of the references cited in the distribution list of this datasheet mention this adelgid damaging spruce trees in their respective countries.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Metazoa
  •         Phylum: Arthropoda
  •             Subphylum: Uniramia
  •                 Class: Insecta
  •                     Order: Hemiptera
  •                         Suborder: Sternorrhyncha
  •                             Unknown: Aphidoidea
  •                                 Family: Adelgidae
  •                                     Genus: Adelges
  •                                         Species: Adelges abietis

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

IndiaWidespreadBlackman and Eastop, 1994
-Himachal PradeshPresentNHM, 1958

Africa

MoroccoPresentIntroducedBlackman and Eastop, 1994

North America

CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-British ColumbiaPresentIntroducedMattson et al., 1999
-New BrunswickPresentIntroducedFidgen et al., 1994
USAPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-ConnecticutPresentIntroduced Invasive Schread, 1971
-IdahoPresentCook et al., 2012
-MainePresentIntroduced Invasive Canavera and DiGennaro, 1979
-MassachusettsPresentIntroduced Invasive Driesche & Elkington, 1987
-OhioPresentIntroduced Invasive Thielges and Campbell, 1971; Campbell and Balderston, 1972; Nielsen and Balderston, 1977
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroduced Invasive Cameron et al., 1973; Lasota et al., 1983
-West VirginiaPresentIntroduced Invasive Audley and Skelly, 1994

Europe

Czechoslovakia (former)PresentNativeNovak and Mensik, 1982
FinlandPresentNativeLoyttyniemi, 1971
FrancePresentNativeGaumont, 1978; Rohfritsch, 1981
GermanyPresentNativeThalenhorst, 1974
ItalyPresent Invasive Covassi and Binazzi, 1981; Faccoli and Mazzon, 2000
NorwayPresentNativeWalberg, 1980
PolandPresentNativeJaSkiewicz et al., 2002
SpainPresentIntroducedpre-1987Notario et al., 1987
SwedenPresentNativeEidmann and Eriksson, 1978; Björkman, 2000
SwitzerlandPresentNativeMitchell and Maksymov, 1977; Fluckiger et al., 1999
UKPresentIntroduced1922Carter, 1971; Carter, 1975; Carter, 1983
UkrainePresentNativeKolomoets, 1994
Yugoslavia (former)PresentNative1922NHM, 1966

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Freshwater Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Marine Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Protected agriculture (e.g. glasshouse production) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed forests, plantations and orchards Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Managed grasslands (grazing systems) Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Disturbed areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rail / roadsides Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Urban / peri-urban areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalNatural forests Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Natural grasslands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Riverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cold lands / tundra Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Deserts Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Littoral
Coastal areas Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Seedling stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Growing point / external feeding
Growing point / external feeding
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / external feeding
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Leaves / honeydew or sooty mould
Stems / distortion
Stems / distortion
Stems / external feeding
Stems / external feeding
Stems / galls
Stems / galls
Stems / internal feeding
Stems / internal feeding
Stems / lodging; broken stems
Stems / lodging; broken stems
Whole plant / external feeding
Whole plant / external feeding
Whole plant / internal feeding
Whole plant / internal feeding

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Aphidoletes abietis Predator
Cladosporium sphaerospermum Pathogen

Plant Trade

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Plant parts liable to carry the pest in trade/transportPest stagesBorne internallyBorne externallyVisibility of pest or symptoms
Leaves adults; eggs; larvae; nymphs Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Seedlings/Micropropagated plants adults; eggs; larvae; nymphs Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope
Stems (above ground)/Shoots/Trunks/Branches adults; eggs; larvae; nymphs Yes Yes Pest or symptoms not visible to the naked eye but usually visible under light microscope

Wood Packaging

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Wood Packaging not known to carry the pest in trade/transport
Loose wood packing material
Non-wood
Processed or treated wood
Solid wood packing material with bark
Solid wood packing material without bark

References

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Audley DE; Skelly JM, 1994. A Phomopsis species associated with nonlethal adelgid galls on upper crown branchlets of red spruce in West Virginia. Plant Disease, 78(6):569-571

Bj÷rkman C, 1998. Opposite, linear and non-linear effects of plant stress on a galling aphid. Scandinavian Journal of Forest Research, 13(2):177-183; 30 ref.

Bj÷rkman C, 2000. Interactive effects of host resistance and drought stress on the performance of a gall-making aphid living on Norway spruce. Oecologia, 123(2):223-231; 38 ref.

Björkman C; Larsson S, 1999. Insects on drought-stressed trees: four feeding guilds in one experiment. Physiology and genetics of tree-phytophage interactions. International Symposium, Gujan, France, 31 August-5 September, 1997., 323-335; [Les Colloques No. 90]; 15 ref.

Blackman RL; Eastop VF, 1994. Aphids on the world's trees: an identification and information guide. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Börner C, 1952. Europae centralis Aphides. Mitt. Thüring. Bot. Ges., Beiheft, 3-4:1-488.

Börner C; Heinze K, 1957. Aphidina - Aphidoidea. In: Sorauer P, ed. Handbuch der Pflanzenkrankheiten, 5: 1-355, Homoptera 2. Teil. Berlin, Germany: Paul Parey.

Cameron EA; Campbell RL; Adams LE, 1973. Insecticidal control of Adelges abietis in Pennsylvania. Journal of Economic Entomology, 66(3):811-812

Campbell RL; Balderston CP, 1972. Insecticidal control of eastern spruce gall aphid during autumn in Ohio. Journal of Economic Entomology, 65(6):1745-1746

Canavera DS; DiGennaro J, 1979. Characteristics of eastern spruce gall aphid attack among 24 white spruce seed sources in central Maine. Proceedings of the 26th Northeastern Forest Tree Improvement Conference, July 25 26, 1978. Contributed papers, 96-101; 5 ref.

Carter CI, 1971. Conifer Woolly Aphids (Adelgidae) in Britain. Forestry Commission Bulletin, 42:1-51.

Carter CI, 1975. Towards integrated control of tree aphids. Forest Record, No. 104:17 pp.

Carter CI, 1983. Some new aphid arrivals to Britain's forests. Proceedings and Transactions of the British Entomological and Natural History Society, 16(3/4):81-87

Cook SP; Merickel F; Ward K; Havill N, 2012. First report of Adelges abietis (Linneaus) (Hemiptera: Adelgidae) in Idaho. Pan-Pacific Entomologist, 88(4):435-436.

Covassi M; Binazzi A, 1981. Contributions to the knowledge of aphids of conifers. IV. Notes on some species of adelgids found in Italy (Homoptera Adelgidae). Redia, 64:303-330

Driesche RG van; Elkinton JS, 1987. Potential for increased use of biological control agents against pests of woody landscape plants in Massachusetts. Research Bulletin, Massachusetts Agricultural Experiment Station, No. 718:112-141

Eastop VF, 1963. International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature, 139-144.

Eastop VF, 1966. A taxonomic study of Australian Aphidoidea. Australian Journal of Zoology,14:399-592.

Eidmann HH; Eriksson M, 1978. Differences in infestation with the spruce gall aphid Sacchiphantes abietis in a Norway spruce progeny trial. Anzeiger fur Schadlingskunde Pflanzenschutz Umweltschutz, 51(12):177-183

Faccoli M; Mazzon L, 2000. Adelgid pests of Picea abies. Sherwood - Foreste ed Alberi Oggi, 6(5):27-28; 4 ref.

Fidgen JG; Teerling CR; McKinnon ML, 1994. Intra- and inter-crown distribution of the eastern spruce gall adelgid, Adelges abietis (L.), on young white spruce. Canadian Entomologist, 126(5):1105-1110

Fluckiger W; Braun S; Sheppard LJ, 1999. Nitrogen and its effect on growth, nutrient status and parasite attacks in beech and norway spruce. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution, 116:99-110.

Gaumont R, 1978. Practical tables for determining the principal forms of the Chermesidae (= Adelgidae) of France. Revue Forestiere Francaise, 30(1):21-36

JaSkiewicz B; Kmiec K; Golan K, 2002. Adelgids - pests on conifers. Ochrona Ros^acute~lin, 46(10):17-18.

Kolomoets TP, 1994. Pests of spruce. Zashchita Rastenii (Moskva), No. 10:35

Kraus C; Spiteller G, 1997. Comparison of phenolic compounds from galls and shoots of Picea glauca. Phytochemistry, 44(1):59-67; 26 ref.

Lasota JA; Waldvogel MG; Shetlar DJ, 1983. Fungus found in galls of Adelges abietis (L.) (Homoptera: Adelgidae): identification, within-tree distribution, and possible impact on insect survival. Environmental Entomology, 12(1):245-246

Loyttyniemi K, 1971. On the occurrence of Physokermes Targ. species (Hom., Lecaniidae) and Sacchiphantes abietis L. (Hom., Adelgidae) on various local races of Picea abies in Finland. Annales Entomologici Fennici, 37(1):60-64

Marchetti L, 2003. Plant protection in ornamental and forest plants. Informatore Agrario, 59(14):89.

Mattson WJ; Levieux J; Piou D, 1998. Genetic and environmental contributions to variation in the resistance of Picea abies to the gall-forming adelgid, Adelges abietis (Homoptera: Adelgidae). General Technical Report - North Central Research Station, USDA Forest Service, No. NC-199:304-314; 23 ref.

Mattson WJ; Yanchuk A; Kiss G; Birr B, 1999. Resistance to galling adelgids varies among families of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii P.). Physiology and genetics of tree-phytophage interactions. International Symposium, Gujan, France, 31 August-5 September, 1997., 51-64; [^italic~Les Colloques^roman~ No. 90]; 12 ref.

Mitchell RG; Maksymov JK, 1977. Observations of predation on spruce gall aphids within the gall. Entomophaga, 22(2):179-186

Nielsen DG; Balderston CP, 1977. Control of eastern spruce and Cooley spruce gall aphids with soil-applied systemic insecticides. Journal of Economic Entomology, 70(2):205-208

Notario A; Binazzi A; Baragano J; Garcia de Viedma M, 1987. Notes on three aphid species in Spain. Redia, 70:402-405

Novak B; Mensik P, 1982. Metals in the dry matter of adelgids, their galls, spruce needles and twigs (Aphidoidea -- Adelgidae). Acta Universitatis Palackianp Olomucensis Facultas Rerum Naturalium, 75:87-94

Rohfritsch O, 1981. A "defense" mechanism of Picea excelsa L. against the gall former Chermes abietis L. (Homoptera, Adelgidae). Zeitschrift fur Angewandte Entomologie, 92(1):18-26

Schread JC, 1971. Control of the eastern spruce gall aphid. Circular, Connecticut Agricultural Experimental Station, No. 242:5 pp.

Steffan AW, 1961. Die Stammes- und Siedlungsgeschichte des Artenkreises Sacchiphantes viridis (Adelgidae, Aphidoidea). Zoologica, Stuttgart, 39:1-113.

Steffan AW, 1968. Evolution and systematics of the Adelgidae (Homoptera Aphidina). A study of relationships based chiefly on ethology, cytology and karyology. Zoologica, Stuttgart Vol. 40, part 5, No. 115. pp. 139 - 2 tbls. [De, many ref. Price DM 180. From review in Waldhygiene 1970 8 (7/8), (256). De] [Cf. FA 32 No. 1088.].

Thalenhorst W, 1974. Investigations on the influence of atmospheric pollutants containing fluorine on the susceptibility of spruce to attack by the gall aphid Sacchiphantes abietis (L.). Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 81(12):717-727

Thielges BA; Campbell RL, 1971. Genetic resistance: alternative to chemical control. Ohio Report on Research and Development in Agriculture, Home Economics, and Natural Resources, 56(4):55-56

Tija B, 1973. Relation between phenol content and eastern spruce gall aphid resistance in Norway spruce. HortScience, 8(3):II, 279-280.

Tjia B; Houston DB, 1975. Phenolic constituents of Norway spruce resistant or susceptible to the eastern spruce gall aphid. Forest Science, 21(2):180-184

Walberg G, 1980. Provenance experiments with Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) from Germany and Norway. [Proveniensforsoek med gran (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) fra Tyskland og Norge.] Meldinger fra Norges Landbrukshoegskole, 59(25):1-29; 22 ref.

Distribution Maps

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