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Datasheet

Scaevola taccada (beach naupaka)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 15 November 2017
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Threatened Species
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Scaevola taccada
  • Preferred Common Name
  • beach naupaka
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • S. taccada is a dense, spreading shrub that forms rounded mounds from 1 to 3.5 m tall. According to the Global Compendium of Weeds (...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Scaevola taccada (naupaka); habit at Kekepa, Oahu. April 18, 2005
TitleHabit
CaptionScaevola taccada (naupaka); habit at Kekepa, Oahu. April 18, 2005
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2005 - CC-BY-3.0
Scaevola taccada (naupaka); habit at Kekepa, Oahu. April 18, 2005
HabitScaevola taccada (naupaka); habit at Kekepa, Oahu. April 18, 2005©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2005 - CC-BY-3.0
Scaevola taccada (naupaka); invasive habit at Inland, Kure Atoll.  May 20, 2001
TitleHabit
CaptionScaevola taccada (naupaka); invasive habit at Inland, Kure Atoll. May 20, 2001
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2001. CC-BY-3.0
Scaevola taccada (naupaka); invasive habit at Inland, Kure Atoll.  May 20, 2001
HabitScaevola taccada (naupaka); invasive habit at Inland, Kure Atoll. May 20, 2001©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2001. CC-BY-3.0
Scaevola taccada (naupaka); flowering at Kahului, Maui.  June 12, 2003
TitleFlowers
CaptionScaevola taccada (naupaka); flowering at Kahului, Maui. June 12, 2003
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2003 - CC-BY-3.0
Scaevola taccada (naupaka); flowering at Kahului, Maui.  June 12, 2003
FlowersScaevola taccada (naupaka); flowering at Kahului, Maui. June 12, 2003©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2003 - CC-BY-3.0
Scaevola taccada (naupaka); fruit at Waianapanapa, Maui.  June 23, 2009
TitleFruits
CaptionScaevola taccada (naupaka); fruit at Waianapanapa, Maui. June 23, 2009
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2009. CC-BY-3.0
Scaevola taccada (naupaka); fruit at Waianapanapa, Maui.  June 23, 2009
FruitsScaevola taccada (naupaka); fruit at Waianapanapa, Maui. June 23, 2009©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2009. CC-BY-3.0
Scaevola taccada (naupaka); seedlings at North Beach Sand Island, Midway Atoll.  June 10, 2008
TitleSeedlings
CaptionScaevola taccada (naupaka); seedlings at North Beach Sand Island, Midway Atoll. June 10, 2008
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2008. CC-BY-3.0
Scaevola taccada (naupaka); seedlings at North Beach Sand Island, Midway Atoll.  June 10, 2008
SeedlingsScaevola taccada (naupaka); seedlings at North Beach Sand Island, Midway Atoll. June 10, 2008©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2008. CC-BY-3.0
Scaevola taccada (naupaka); prostrate habit at Waihee Pt, Maui.  November 27, 2003
TitleProstrate habit
CaptionScaevola taccada (naupaka); prostrate habit at Waihee Pt, Maui. November 27, 2003
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2003 - CC-BY-3.0
Scaevola taccada (naupaka); prostrate habit at Waihee Pt, Maui.  November 27, 2003
Prostrate habitScaevola taccada (naupaka); prostrate habit at Waihee Pt, Maui. November 27, 2003©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2003 - CC-BY-3.0
Scaevola taccada; leaf damage by the larvae of Udea litorea (Lepidoptera; Crambidae). Kanaha Beach, Maui.
TitleLeaf damage
CaptionScaevola taccada; leaf damage by the larvae of Udea litorea (Lepidoptera; Crambidae). Kanaha Beach, Maui.
Copyright©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2004 - CC-BY-3.0
Scaevola taccada; leaf damage by the larvae of Udea litorea (Lepidoptera; Crambidae). Kanaha Beach, Maui.
Leaf damageScaevola taccada; leaf damage by the larvae of Udea litorea (Lepidoptera; Crambidae). Kanaha Beach, Maui. ©Forest & Kim Starr Images-2004 - CC-BY-3.0

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Scaevola taccada (Gaertn.) Roxb.

Preferred Common Name

  • beach naupaka

Other Scientific Names

  • Lobelia frutescens Mill.
  • Lobelia taccada Gaertn.
  • Scaevola billardieri Dieter.
  • Scaevola chlorantha de Vriese
  • Scaevola frutescens Krause
  • Scaevola koenigii Vahl
  • Scaevola lambertiana de Vriese
  • Scaevola latevaga Hance ex Walp
  • Scaevola leschenaultii A. DC.
  • Scaevola macrocalyx de Vriese
  • Scaevola piliplena Miq.
  • Scaevola plumerioides Nutt.
  • Scaevola sericea Vahl

International Common Names

  • English: beach cabbage; half-flower; naupaka; sea lettuce

Local Common Names

  • Australia: beach cabbage; beach scaevola; carwell cabbage; pipetree
  • Bahamas: Asian scaevola; Hawaiian seagrape; white inkberry
  • Cuba: sevola
  • Fiji: veveda
  • French Polynesia: naupata
  • Guam: nanasu
  • Samoa: to`ito`i
  • Tonga: ngahu
  • USA/Hawaii: naupaka kahakai

EPPO code

  • SWLTA (Scaevola taccada)

Summary of Invasiveness

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S. taccada is a dense, spreading shrub that forms rounded mounds from 1 to 3.5 m tall. According to the Global Compendium of Weeds (Randall, 2012), S. taccada is an agricultural and environmental weed. In Florida, it is listed as an invasive species Category I, defined as a plant that is invading and disrupting native plant communities (Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2011). This species is also considered invasive in Bermuda, the Bahamas and, some islands of the West Indies. S. taccada has fruits with a corky outer layer adapted to be dispersed by ocean currents. Fruits may float for up to one year, and can be easily dispersed along the coast line, canal banks, mangroves, and inland shorelines. The species also grows from cuttings, and plant fragments or stems may be dispersed on vegetation rafts.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Goodeniales
  •                         Family: Goodeniaceae
  •                             Genus: Scaevola
  •                                 Species: Scaevola taccada

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The family Goodeniaceae includes 12 genera and about 430 species distributed mostly in Australia, except for the genus Scaevola, which is pantropical (Stevens, 2012). Species within this family are common in arid and semi-arid climates.

The genus Scaevola includes about 100 species. S. taccada is a pantropical genus native to southeastern Asia, eastern Africa, Australia and the Pacific Islands, including Hawaii. The name of this species comes from the Greek “scaevus”, which means “left-handed” or “awkward”, describing the floral morphology (Wagner et al., 1990). Formerly, this species was subdivided into two varieties: S. taccada var. sericea occurring throughout the Pacific and Indian Oceans and with silky plant hairs on the stem and leaves, and S. taccada var. taccada occurring along the Atlantic coasts in tropical America and Africa and lacking hairs (Kaufman and Kaufman, 2007). However, these two varieties are no longer accepted and current classifications include both as S. taccada.

Description

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S. taccada is a dense, multi-stemmed shrub that generally grows up to 3 m in height. Leaves are light green, succulent, with a waxy covering and are alternately arranged along the stem. Blades are elongated and rounded at the tips, 5 to 20 cm long and 5 to 7 cm wide. Flowers are white, often with purple streaks, 8 - 12 mm long, and have a pleasant fragrance. They have an irregular shape with all 5 petals on one side of the flower making it appear to have been torn in half. Flowers grow in small clusters from the leaf axils near the ends of the stems. Fruits are white fleshy berries about 1 cm long. Seeds are beige, corky, and ridged (Wagner et al., 1990).  

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Perennial
Seed propagated
Shrub
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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S. taccada naturally occurs on tropical and subtropical coasts along the Indian Ocean, in China, SE Asia, and in the Pacific Islands including Hawaii. It is common in hot dry coastal areas. S. taccada has been introduced to Florida and some islands in the Caribbean region (Bahamas, Bermuda and West Indies) where it has become invasive (Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012). In 2012 it was recorded for the first time in Jamaica, during a survey of the Hellshire Hills in the Portland Bight Protected Area, where it was found on the beach between the tideline and treeline (BRIT Virtual Herbarium, 2014). Currently this species is also reported for the Caribbean coast of Venezuela (Grande and Nozawa, 2010). It is highly probable that the species has a wider geographical distribution than recorded, mainly in the West Indies and areas in the Caribbean coasts of Central and South America.

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

China
-FujianPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
-GuangdongPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
-GuangxiPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
Christmas Island (Indian Ocean)PresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
Cocos IslandsPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
IndiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
IndonesiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
Japan
-KyushuPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
-Ryukyu ArchipelagoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
MalaysiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
PhilippinesPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
Sri LankaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
TaiwanPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
ThailandPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012

Africa

KenyaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
MadagascarPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
MauritiusPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
RéunionPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
South AfricaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
TanzaniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012

North America

BermudaPresentIntroduced Invasive Department of Conservation Services Bermuda, 2011
USA
-FloridaPresentIntroduced Invasive Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2011Category I noxious weed in Florida
-HawaiiPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012

Central America and Caribbean

Antigua and BarbudaPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012Antigua
BahamasPresentIntroduced Invasive BEST Commission, 2003; Kairo et al., 2003; Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012
BarbadosPresentIntroducedBroome et al., 2007
BonairePresentIntroduced Invasive Burg et al., 2012; Smith et al., 2014Very abundant in Klein Bonaire
British Virgin IslandsPresentIntroducedAcevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2012Anegada, Virgin Gorda
Cayman IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2012
CubaPresentIntroduced Invasive Oviedo Prieto et al., 2012Reported as S. sericea
CuraçaoPresentIntroduced Invasive Burg et al., 2012; Smith et al., 2014
JamaicaPresentIntroducedBRIT Virtual Herbarium, 2014Recorded in survey of the Hellshire Hills, Portland Bight Protected Area
MartiniquePresentIntroduced Invasive Staples, 1989
Puerto RicoPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2012
Saint LuciaPresentIntroduced Invasive Graveson, 2011; Graveson, 2012Spreading at Cas en Basm; present at Jalousie
United States Virgin IslandsPresentIntroduced Invasive Acevedo-Rodríguez and Strong, 2012; USDA-ARS, 2012St. Croix, St. John

South America

VenezuelaPresentIntroducedGrande and Nozawa, 2010

Oceania

Australia
-Australian Northern TerritoryPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
-QueenslandPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
-Western AustraliaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
FijiPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
GuamPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
Micronesia, Federated states ofPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
New CaledoniaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
NiuePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
Papua New GuineaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012
Pitcairn IslandPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2012

History of Introduction and Spread

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S. taccada was introduced into Florida in the 1960s, probably from Hawaii. It has been sold in the nursery and landscape trade since the 1960s. In the 1970s and 1980s it was promoted for controlling beach erosion and in coastal landscaping (Kaufman and Kaufman, 2007). S. taccada escaped from cultivation by the early 1980s and spread through Florida and into many Caribbean islands including the Bahamas, Cayman Islands, Virgin Islands, and Puerto Rico. Currently, it forms dense stands on many beach dunes, coastal rock barrens, coastal strands, along saline shores, in mangroves, and in coastal forests in Florida and the West Indies (Lockhart, 2012; ISSG, 2012).

Risk of Introduction

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The risk of introduction of S. taccada is high, due to the high dispersal capacity of this species. S. taccada is adapted to dispersal by ocean currents, and fruits are able to float for months in the ocean and their seeds still germinate after having been in salt water for up to a year. One study on this species showed that seeds have higher germination rates after 250 days soaked in salt water (Bornhorst, 1996) and the rates of seedling establishment under natural conditions are also high. In addition, S. taccada roots easily from cuttings and it can be dispersed on vegetation rafts (Lockhart, 2012; ISSG, 2012).

Habitat

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S. taccada typically grows directly on beaches of tropical and subtropical coastal environments, including sand dunes, mangroves, and seagrape habitats. It shows a preference for beaches on coral sands. It grows within the salt spray area and is a pioneer plant on sandbanks. S. taccada prefers well drained sandy soils and it is a very salt tolerant scrub. S. taccada can also be found growing in coconut palm plantations and in forests in the inner-coastal plains.

Habitat List

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CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Littoral
Coastal areas Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal areas Principal habitat Natural
Coastal dunes Principal habitat Harmful (pest or invasive)
Coastal dunes Principal habitat Natural
Mangroves Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Mangroves Present, no further details Natural
Salt marshes Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Salt marshes Present, no further details Natural

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The number of chromosomes for this species is 16 with a ploidy level = 2n (Guerra, 2000). 

Reproductive Biology

Protandry is characteristic of flowers within the family Goodeniaceae. The stamens deposit the pollen into a cup at the top of the style while the flower is still in bud (Leins and Erbar, 1990). When flowers open, the stigmatic tissue pushes the pollen out, thus the flower is in its “male phase.” After all the pollen has been presented, the stigma is exserted and receptive for pollen. Consequently, species within this family require outcrossing in order to set fruits. In the case of S. taccada, the species is xenogamous but it also has the potential for self-pollination. Flowers open during both day and night for approximately 5 days and are visited and pollinated by insects, mainly bees. In this species, the prevalence of outcrossing and self-pollination may have evolved as an adaption to persist on a changing island environment (Liao, 2008). 

Physiology and Phenology

S. taccada plants can reproduce within their first or second year and produce flowers and fruits repetitively over the year (Lockhart, 2012)

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 19 32

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Mean annual rainfall5002500mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

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Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • alkaline
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • saline
  • shallow

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Mycosphaerella scaevolae Pathogen Leaves to genus Daly and Hennessy, 2007

Notes on Natural Enemies

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Mycosphaerella scaevolae is a fungal pathogen that causes leaf spot disease in Scaevola species. This disease has been found in Australia in S. taccada, and in Hawaii in S. taccada andother Scaevola species including S. chamissoniana, S. glabra, and S. mollis. M. scaevolae infects the host plant through natural openings in the leaves (stomata). Spores of the fungus are then produced on the lower surface of leaves and can be spread by wind, water droplets or by movement of infected material (i.e., cuttings). Infection results in large yellow (chlorotic) spots on leaves, which develop a brown, necrotic centre with age (Daly and Hennessy, 2007).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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S. taccada can be dispersed by seeds and by cuttings. Fruits are adapted to be dispersed by ocean currents, but they also can be dispersed by birds. Fruits in this species are able to float for months in the ocean. S. taccada can also be dispersed by stem segments floating on vegetation rafts. The stem segments easily resprout and new plants can be established.

Pathway Causes

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CauseNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Habitat restoration and improvement Yes Yes Kaufman and Kaufman, 2007
Landscape improvementLandscaping in coastal areas Yes Yes Kaufman and Kaufman, 2007
Medicinal useAsian traditional medicine Yes Yes USDA-ARS, 2012
Ornamental purposesGardens in coastal areas Yes Yes Kaufman and Kaufman, 2007

Pathway Vectors

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VectorNotesLong DistanceLocalReferences
Floating vegetation and debris Yes Yes ISSG, 2012
Soil, sand and gravelFruits, cuttings Yes Yes ISSG, 2012
WaterFruits may float for up to one year Yes Yes ISSG, 2012

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Negative

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Habitats

S. taccada colonizes sand dunes and competes with native coastal vegetation. It can rapidly form extensive monospecific thickets, providing a seed source for more rapid dispersal and colonization of other shoreline areas. In addition, the occurrence of stands of S. taccada in coastal areas can apparently result in an increased delivery of sediments and nutrients to the marine environment due to dune destabilization (Nero and Sealey, 2006). 

Impact on Biodiversity

In Florida, the Bahamas, and Puerto Rico S. taccada competes directly with the related native Scaevola plumieri (inkberry), which is a threatened species under US Federal Regulation (USDA-NCRS, 2012). In Florida, this species is also competing with the endangered species Argusia gnaphalodes, Okenia hypogaea, and Jacquemontia reclinata. In the Cayman Islands, S. taccada is out-competing most of the flora naturally associated with sandy beaches and it negatively impacts various critically endangered and vulnerable species including Chrysobalanus icaco, Scaevola plumieri, Pectis caymanensis var. robusta, P. caymanensis var. caymanensis, and Cordia sebestena var. caymanensis (Burton, 2008; Royal Botanic Gardens Kew, 2012). On islands in the Caribbean region, thickets of S. taccada on sandy beaches may prevent access of sea turtles to nesting areas.

Threatened Species

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Threatened SpeciesConservation StatusWhere ThreatenedMechanismReferencesNotes
Argusia gnaphalodes (sea rosemary)National list(s) National list(s)FloridaCompetition - shading; Competition - smotheringISSG, 2012
Chrysobalanus icaco (icaco plum)National list(s) National list(s)Cayman IslandsCompetition - shading; Competition - smotheringBurton, 2008
Cordia sebestena L. var. caymanensisNational list(s) National list(s)Cayman IslandsCompetition - shading; Competition - smotheringIUCN, 2012
Jacquemontia reclinata (beach clustervine)No DetailsFloridaCompetition - shading; Competition - smotheringISSG, 2012; Lockhart, 2012; USDA-NRCS, 2012
Okenia hypogaeaNational list(s) National list(s)FloridaCompetition - shadingISSG, 2012; Lockhart, 2012; USDA-NRCS, 2012
Pectis caymanensisNational list(s) National list(s)Cayman IslandsCompetition - shading; Competition - smotheringBurton, 2008
Scaevola plumieriNo DetailsBahamas; Cayman Islands; Puerto Rico; FloridaCompetition - shading; Competition - smotheringISSG, 2012; Lockhart, 2012
Tephrosia angustissima var. curtissiiNational list(s) National list(s)FloridaCompetition - shading; Competition - smotheringISSG, 2012; Lockhart, 2012; USDA-NRCS, 2012

Risk and Impact Factors

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Impact mechanisms

  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Competition - smothering
  • Competition - strangling
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting

Impact outcomes

  • Altered trophic level
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts tourism
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Soil accretion
  • Threat to/ loss of endangered species
  • Threat to/ loss of native species

Invasiveness

  • Abundant in its native range
  • Fast growing
  • Has a broad native range
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Reproduces asexually

Uses

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In Hawaii and the Pacific Islands, the pleasantly fragrant flowers and the seeds of S. taccada are used for making leis (traditional garlands). In some islands of the Pacific, S. taccada is used to prevent coastal erosion as well as for beach landscaping. It is also planted on beach crests to protect other ornamental and cultivated plants from salt spray.

S. taccada is also used in Polynesian and Asian traditional medicine as an antidiabetic, antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, anticoagulant and as a skeletal muscle relaxant. Extracts have shown selective anti-viral activity against Herpes Simplex Virus-1 and 2 and Vesicular Stomatitis Virus in vitro (Locher et al., 1995).

This species together with other Scaevola species is used in traditional Polynesian craft to construct reef-fishing nets and baskets (Aalbersberg et al., 1993).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Landscape improvement

General

  • Souvenirs

Materials

  • Fibre

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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S. taccada can be confused with Scaevola plumieri, because their flowers look very similar. However, S. plumieri has black fruits, and its leaves are smaller (to 10 cm long), with a smooth, entire leaf margin and straight edges slightly upwards. By contrast, S. taccada has white fruits and leaves that grow to about 21 cm in length and often have a few shallow indentations along its broad apex and straight edges slightly downwards (BEST, 2003; ISSG, 2012).

Prevention and Control

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Physical/Mechanical Control

S. taccada is difficult to control. Fleshy branches and stems are easy to hand-pull, but broken underground stems readily re-sprout if not completely removed (Lockhart, 2012). Seedlings and young plants should be hand-pulled and removed from the site. Adult plants may be removed by digging or hand-pulling and taken away (along with the seeds) from the site. 

Chemical Control

Because S. taccada grows in areas near to water sources and intertidal zones (i.e., seas and mangroves), mechanical control is preferred over chemical control. If mechanical removal is not possible, herbicides can be effective in dry dune habitat, but removal and treatment of this species in intertidal areas and mangrove areas requires more careful treatment. Plants of S. taccada can be cut down to the ground and treated with 50% triclopyr (ISSG, 2012). Eradication recommendation in Florida is basal application with 10% Garlon 4 (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyloxyacetic acid butoxyethyl ester) or stump application with 50% Garlon 3A (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyloxyacetic acid triethylamine salt) (ISSG, 2012).

Monitoring and re-treatment are necessary for at least two to three years after removal (Lockhart, 2012).

References

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Aalbersberg W; Nunn PD; Ravuvu A, 1993. Climate and agriculture in the Pacific Islands: future perspectives. Suva, Fiji: Institute of Pacific Studies, 80 pp.

Acevedo-Rodríguez P; Strong MT, 2012. Catalogue of the Seed Plants of the West Indies. Smithsonian Contributions to Botany, 98:1192 pp. Washington DC, USA: Smithsonian Institution. http://botany.si.edu/Antilles/WestIndies/catalog.htm

BEST Commission, 2003. The National Invasive Species Strategy for The Bahamas. Nassau, Bahamas: The Bahamas Environment, Science and Technology Commission, 34 pp.

Bornhorst HL, 1996. Growing native Hawaiian plants, a how-to guide for the gardener. Hong Kong, China: The Bess Press, Inc.

BRIT Virtual Herbarium, 2014. Atrium Biodiversity Information System for the Botanical Research Institute of Texas. Fort Worth, Texas, USA: Botanical Research Institute of Texas. http://atrium.brit.org

Broome R; Sabir K; Carrington S, 2007. Plants of the Eastern Caribbean. Online database. Barbados: University of the West Indies. http://ecflora.cavehill.uwi.edu/index.html

Burg WJ van der; Freitas J de; Debrot AO; Lotz LAP, 2012. Naturalised and invasive alien plant species in the Caribbean Netherlands: status distribution, threats, priorities and recommendations. Report of a joint IMARES/CARMABI/PRI project. Wageningen, Netherland: Plant Research International, 82 pp. http://www.ciasnet.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/02/C185-11%20Invasive%20plants%20Dutch%20Caribbean.pdf

Burton FJ, 2008. Threatened Plants of the Cayman Islands: the Red List. Richmond, UK: Royal Botanic Gardens Kew.

Daly A; Hennessy C, 2007. Mycosphaerella leaf spot of Scaevola taccada. Agnote - Northern Territory of Australia, No.I68:2 pp.

Department of Conservation Services Bermuda, 2011. Beach Naupaka (Scaevola sericea). Beach Naupaka (Scaevola sericea). http://bermudaconservation.squarespace.com/beach-naupaka/

Florida Exotic Pest Plant Council, 2011. Florida EPPC's 2011 Invasive Plant Species List. http://www.fleppc.org/list/11list.html

Grande JR; Nozawa S, 2010. Notes on the naturalization of Scaevola taccada (Gaertn.) Roxb. (Goodeniaceae) in coastal Venezuela. (Notas sobre la naturalización de Scaevola taccada (Gaertn.) Roxb. (Goodeniaceae) en las costas de Venezuela.) Acta Botanica Venezuelica, 33(1):33-40.

Graveson R, 2011. Plants of Saint Lucia: A Pictorial Flora of Wild and Cultivated Vascular Plants. http://www.saintlucianplants.com/index.html

Graveson R, 2012. The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). The Plants of Saint Lucia (in the Lesser Antilles of the Caribbean). http://www.saintlucianplants.com

Guerra M, 2000. Patterns of heterochromatin distribution in plant chromosomes. Genetics and Molecular Biology [Selected papers from the First Latin American Symposium on Plant Cytogenetics and Evolution, Recife, Brazil, 20-23 July 1999.], 23(4):1029-1041.

ISSG, 2012. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database

IUCN, 2012. IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Version 2012.2. www.iucnredlist.org/

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Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
Angiosperm Phylogeny Websitehttp://www.mobot.org/mobot/research/apweb/
Cayman Islands: Kew Royal Botanical Gardenshttp://herbaria.plants.ox.ac.uk/bol/cayman
Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plantshttp://plants.ifas.ufl.edu/
Flora of the West Indieshttp://botany.si.edu/antilles/WestIndies/
Florida Fish and Wildlife Conservation Commissionhttp://myfwc.com

Contributors

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25/01/13 Original text by:

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

Pedro Acevedo-Rodríguez, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

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