Invasive Species Compendium

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Soybean mosaic virus
(soybean mosaic)

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Datasheet

Soybean mosaic virus (soybean mosaic)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 14 July 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Pest
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Soybean mosaic virus
  • Preferred Common Name
  • soybean mosaic
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Virus
  •   Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •     Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •       Family: Potyviridae
  •         Genus: Potyvirus

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Extreme leaf blistering (natural infection).
TitleSymptoms on leaf - blistering
CaptionExtreme leaf blistering (natural infection).
CopyrightL. Bos
Extreme leaf blistering (natural infection).
Symptoms on leaf - blisteringExtreme leaf blistering (natural infection).L. Bos
Progressive necrosis of leaf veins, petioles and stems developing into bud necrosis caused in particular soyabean genotypes.
TitleSymptoms on leaf - necrosis
CaptionProgressive necrosis of leaf veins, petioles and stems developing into bud necrosis caused in particular soyabean genotypes.
CopyrightM. E. Irwin
Progressive necrosis of leaf veins, petioles and stems developing into bud necrosis caused in particular soyabean genotypes.
Symptoms on leaf - necrosisProgressive necrosis of leaf veins, petioles and stems developing into bud necrosis caused in particular soyabean genotypes.M. E. Irwin
Leaf mosaic, rugosity and malformation following mechanical inoculation with SMV.
TitleSymptoms on leaf - mosaic
CaptionLeaf mosaic, rugosity and malformation following mechanical inoculation with SMV.
CopyrightM. E. Irwin
Leaf mosaic, rugosity and malformation following mechanical inoculation with SMV.
Symptoms on leaf - mosaicLeaf mosaic, rugosity and malformation following mechanical inoculation with SMV.M. E. Irwin
Growth reduction and foliar abnormalities in soyabean seedling after infection from the seed.
TitleSymptoms in seedling
CaptionGrowth reduction and foliar abnormalities in soyabean seedling after infection from the seed.
CopyrightM. E. Irwin
Growth reduction and foliar abnormalities in soyabean seedling after infection from the seed.
Symptoms in seedlingGrowth reduction and foliar abnormalities in soyabean seedling after infection from the seed.M. E. Irwin
Mosaic and crinkle symptoms on soyabean in Thailand.
TitleSymptoms on soyabean
CaptionMosaic and crinkle symptoms on soyabean in Thailand.
CopyrightMitsuro Kameya-Iwaki
Mosaic and crinkle symptoms on soyabean in Thailand.
Symptoms on soyabeanMosaic and crinkle symptoms on soyabean in Thailand.Mitsuro Kameya-Iwaki
Damaged soyabeans (top left and right); healthy beans (below). The extent of seed coat mottling depends on cultivar, virus strain and temperature, and may be caused by other virus infections and/or environmental and genetic factors.
TitleSeed coat mottling
CaptionDamaged soyabeans (top left and right); healthy beans (below). The extent of seed coat mottling depends on cultivar, virus strain and temperature, and may be caused by other virus infections and/or environmental and genetic factors.
CopyrightL. Bos
Damaged soyabeans (top left and right); healthy beans (below). The extent of seed coat mottling depends on cultivar, virus strain and temperature, and may be caused by other virus infections and/or environmental and genetic factors.
Seed coat mottlingDamaged soyabeans (top left and right); healthy beans (below). The extent of seed coat mottling depends on cultivar, virus strain and temperature, and may be caused by other virus infections and/or environmental and genetic factors.L. Bos
Seed coat mottling, often associated with soybean mosaic virus, but may also be caused by other virus infections and/or environmental and genetic factors.
TitleSeed coat mottling
CaptionSeed coat mottling, often associated with soybean mosaic virus, but may also be caused by other virus infections and/or environmental and genetic factors.
CopyrightL. Bos
Seed coat mottling, often associated with soybean mosaic virus, but may also be caused by other virus infections and/or environmental and genetic factors.
Seed coat mottlingSeed coat mottling, often associated with soybean mosaic virus, but may also be caused by other virus infections and/or environmental and genetic factors.L. Bos

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Soybean mosaic virus Gardner & Kendrick (1921)

Preferred Common Name

  • soybean mosaic

Other Scientific Names

  • soja virus 1
  • soybean mosaic potyvirus
  • soybean virus 1

International Common Names

  • English: soybean crinkle
  • Spanish: mosaico de la soya
  • French: virus de la mosaïque du soja
  • Russian: virus mozaiki soi
  • Arabic: tabarkosh fool el-soya
  • Chinese: dàh dòu chian wén bìng
  • Portuguese: mosaico commum da soja

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Sojabohnenmosaik-Virus
  • India: soybean mosaic rog
  • Indonesia: virus mosaik kedelai
  • Italy: mosaico della soia
  • Japan: mosaic-byô
  • Korea, DPR: kong mosaic byung; mosaic-byeong
  • Netherlands: sojamozaïekvirus
  • Thailand: bi-dhang
  • Turkey: soya fasülyesi mozayik virüsü

English acronym

  • AMV
  • SMV

EPPO code

  • SMV000 (Soybean mosaic potyvirus)

Taxonomic Tree

Top of page
  • Domain: Virus
  •     Unknown: "Positive sense ssRNA viruses"
  •         Unknown: "RNA viruses"
  •             Family: Potyviridae
  •                 Genus: Potyvirus
  •                     Species: Soybean mosaic virus

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

ChinaPresentXu et al., 1986a; Xu et al., 1986b; CMI, 1970
-GuizhouPresentZhang et al., 2000
-HenanPresentZhan et al., 2006
-JiangsuPresentChen et al., 1981
-SichuanPresentChen et al., 1984
IndiaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Andhra PradeshPresentKumari et al., 2002
-DelhiPresentCMI, 1970
-KarnatakaPresentNaik and Murthy, 1992
-Madhya PradeshPresentChalam et al., 2004
-Tamil NaduPresentUsman et al., 1973
-West BengalPresentChattopadhyay and Das, 1956
IranWidespreadEskandari, 1978
IraqPresentShafik and Al-Jubori, 1987
JapanPresentCMI, 1970; Takahashi et al., 1980
-HokkaidoPresentIizuka and Yoshida, 1988
KazakhstanPresentCMI, 1970
Korea, Republic ofWidespreadCho et al., 1977; Cho and Goodman, 1979; Cho et al., 1984
MalaysiaPresentCMI, 1970
PakistanWidespreadAli and Hassan, 1993
PhilippinesPresentQuimio and Calilung, 1993
Sri LankaPresent
TaiwanPresentCMI, 1970; Muryama and Han, 1971; Chang, 1991
ThailandPresentTsuchizaki et al., 1982
TurkeyPresentFidan and Yorganci, 1989

Africa

EthiopiaPresentMengistu and Sinclair, 1979
MoroccoPresentLockhart and Fischer, 1976
South AfricaPresentCMI, 1970
TanzaniaPresentCMI, 1970
UgandaPresentCMI, 1970
ZambiaWidespreadCMI, 1970; Javaid and Ashraf, 1978
ZimbabwePresentCMI, 1970

North America

CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-AlbertaPresentCMI, 1970
-British ColumbiaPresentCMI, 1970
-ManitobaPresentCMI, 1970
-New BrunswickPresentCMI, 1970
-Nova ScotiaPresentCMI, 1970; Buzzell and Tu, 1984
-OntarioWidespreadCMI, 1970; Tu, 1986; Tu and Buzzell, 1987
-QuebecPresentCMI, 1970
-SaskatchewanPresentCMI, 1970
USAPresentCMI, 1970
-HawaiiPresentCMI, 1970
-IowaPresentHill et al., 1980
-KentuckyPresent
-MississippiWidespreadPitre et al., 1979
-NebraskaPresentGiesler and Ziems, 2006
-New YorkRestricted distributionProvvidenti et al., 1982
-North DakotaPresentNelson and Domier, 2009
-OhioPresent
-VirginiaWidespreadTolin and Roane, 1975; Hunst and Tolin, 1982

Central America and Caribbean

JamaicaPresentCMI, 1970

South America

ArgentinaPresentLaguna et al., 1985
BrazilPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-ParanaWidespreadAlmeida, 1980
-Rio Grande do SulPresentHagedorn et al., 1968
ChilePresentMorales et al., 1990
ColombiaPresent
VenezuelaPresentCMI, 1970

Europe

BulgariaPresentCMI, 1970
CroatiaPresentVrataric and Sudaric, 2009
GermanyPresentCMI, 1970
ItalyWidespreadCrezcenzi et al., 1993; CMI, 1970
MoldovaPresentTeleutsa, 1979
PolandPresentMarcinowska et al., 1982; Jezewska et al., 2015
PortugalWidespreadCMI, 1970; Borges and Sequeira, 1988
RomaniaPresentCMI, 1970
Russian FederationPresentMuraveva, 1973
-Central RussiaPresentBakaeva, 1976
-Russian Far EastWidespreadOrchinnikova, 1973; CMI, 1970
-SiberiaPresentCMI, 1970
SwedenPresentCMI, 1970
UkrainePresentBilyk, 1965; CMI, 1970
Yugoslavia (former)PresentNikolic, 1951; Taruka et al., 1987
Yugoslavia (Serbia and Montenegro)PresentTaruka et al., 1987

Oceania

AustraliaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-New South WalesPresentCMI, 1970
-QueenslandPresentCMI, 1970
New ZealandPresentCMI, 1970

Growth Stages

Top of page Flowering stage, Fruiting stage, Vegetative growing stage

List of Symptoms/Signs

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SignLife StagesType
Fruit / abnormal shape
Fruit / lesions: black or brown
Fruit / reduced size
Inflorescence / blight; necrosis
Leaves / abnormal forms
Leaves / abnormal leaf fall
Leaves / abnormal patterns
Roots / reduced root system
Seeds / discolorations
Stems / dieback
Stems / stunting or rosetting
Whole plant / dwarfing
Whole plant / plant dead; dieback

Vectors and Intermediate Hosts

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VectorSourceReferenceGroupDistribution
Acyrthosiphon pisumBos, 1972. Insect
Aphis craccivoraHalbert et al., 1981. Insect
Aphis fabaeBos, 1972. Insect
Aphis glycinesInsect
Myzus persicaeBos, 1972. Insect
Rhopalosiphum maidisInsect

References

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Ali A, Hassan S, 1993. Ecology and epidemiology of soybean mosaic virus in the North West Frontier Province of Pakistan. Pakistan Journal of Phytopathology, 5(1-2):21-28

Almeida AMR, 1980. Survey of soybean common mosaic and bud blight viruses in different regions of Parana State. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 5(1):125-128

Almeida AMR, 1995. Evaluation of soybean mosaic tolerance to soybean mosaic virus. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 20(1):24-29.

Almeida AMR, Silveira JM, 1983. Effect of the age of inoculation of soyabean plants with soyabean common mosaic virus and of the percentage of infected plants on the yield and some economic characteristics. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 8(2):229-236

Anjos JR, Jarlfors U, Ghabrial SA, 1992. Soybean mosaic potyvirus enhances the titer of two comoviruses in dually infected soybean plants. Phytopathology, 82(10):1022-1027

Bakpva EV, 1976. The resistance of varieties of soybean to virus diseases in the Alma-Ata region. Tr. Dal'nevost. NII S.-Kh., 19:215-220

Bellardi MG, Marani F, Bertaccini A, 1993. Detection of soybean mosaic virus (SMV) in Chrysanthemum frutescens. Phytopathologia Mediterranea, 32(2):156-158

Bilyk LH, 1965. Identification of soybean mosaic viruses in the Ukraine. Mikrobiologicheskii Zhurnal, 27:35-40.

Borges MLV, Sequeira JC, 1988. Protection of legumes in relation to virus infection. Comunicacoes, Jornadas Portuguesas de Proteaginosas Oeiras, Portugal; Estacao Agronomica Nacional, 281-304

Bos L, 1972. Soybean mosaic virus. CMI/AAB Descriptions of Plant Viruses No, 93.

Bos L, 1978. Seed-borne viruses. In: L Chiarappa and WB Hewitt (eds) Plannt Health and Quarantine in International Transfer of Genetic Resources (2nd Printing). CRC Press Cleveland Ohio, 39-69.

Bos L, 1982. Crop losses caused by viruses. Crop Protection, 1(3):263-282

Bos L, 1992. Potyviruses, chaos or order? Archives of Virology, Supplementum 5:31-46. Vienna, Austria; Springer-Verlag.

Bos L, 1996. Virus spread with plant propagation material; importance, mechanisms of infection, detection, and control.

Bos L, 1999. Economic impact of viruses. In: Bos L, Plant viruses, unique and intriguing pathogens - a textbook of plant virology. Leiden, The Netherlands: Backhuys Publishers, 247-260.

Bos L, Makkouk KM, 1994. Insects in relation to virus epidemiology in cool season in food legumes. In: Muehlbauer FJ, Kaiser WJ, eds. Expanding the Production and Use of Cool Season Food Legumes. Dordrecht, Germany: Kluwer Academic Publishers, 305-332.

Bottenberg H, Irwin ME, 1992. Using mixed cropping to limit seed mottling induced by soybean mosaic virus. Plant Disease, 76(3):304-306

Bowers GR Jr, Goodman RM, 1979. Soybean mosaic virus: infection of soybean seed parts and seed transmission. Phytopathology, 69(6):569-572

Bowers GR Jr, Goodman RM, 1991. Strain specificity of soybean mosaic virus seed transmission in soybean. Crop Science, 31(5):1171-1174

Brlansky RH, Derrick KS, 1979. Detection of seedborne plant viruses using serologically specific electron microscopy. Phytopathology, 69(1):96-100

Bryant GR, Durand DP, Hill JH, 1983. Development of a solid-phase radioimmunoassay for detection of soybean mosaic virus. Phytopathology, 73(4):623-629

Bryant GR, Hill JH, Bailey TB, Tachibana H, Durand DP, Bennet HI, 1982. Detection of soybean mosaic virus in seed by solid-phase radioimmunoassay. Plant Disease, 66(8):693-695

Buss GR, Chen P, Tolin SA, Roane CW, 1989. Breeding soybeans for resistance to soybean mosaic virus. In: AJ Pascale (ed.) Proceedings 4th World Soybean Research Conference Buenos Aires, Argentina, 3-9 March 1989:1144-1154.

Buzzell RI, 1983. Tolerance/resistance to soybean mosaic virus. Soybean Genetics Newsletter, 10:9-10.

Buzzell RI, Tu JC, 1984. Inheritance of soybean resistance to soybean mosaic virus. Journal of Heredity, 75(1):82

Calvert LA, Ghabrial SA, 1983. Enhancement by soybean mosaic virus of bean pod mottle virus titre in doubly infected soybeans. Phytopathology, 73(7):992-997

Castano J M, Tamayo M PJ, Morales G FJ, 1982. 'Monroe' bean (Phaseolus vulgaris): a local lesion assay variety for bean common mosaic and soybean mosaic viruses. Turrialba, 32(3):329-332

Castano M, Morales FJ, 1983. Seed transmission of soybean mosaic virus in Phaseolus vulgaris L. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 8(1):103-107

Chalam VC, Khetarpal RK, Mishra A, Anju Jain, Gupta GK, 2004. Seed transmission of Soybean mosaic virus in soybean cultivars. Journal of Mycology and Plant Pathology, 34(1):86-87.

Chang CA, 1991. Virus diseases and their transmission of legume crops in Taiwan. Integrated control of plant virus diseases. Proceedings of the International Workshop TARI, Taichung, Taiwan, April 9-14, 1990 [edited by Kiritani, K.; Su, H.J.; Chu, Y.I.] Taipei, Taiwan; Food and Fertilizer Technology Center for the Asian and Pacific Region, 99-110

Chattopadhyay SB, Das CR, 1956. The occurrence of some virus diseases of agricultural crop plants in West Bengal. Botanical Society Bengal Bulletin, 9:42-45.

Chen Y, Chu M, Sun J, 1981. Identification of a mosaic virus disease of soybean in Jiangsu. Acta Phytopathologica Sinica, 11(1):31-36

Chen ZY, Ruan YL, Jin DD, 1984. Rapid diagnosis of soyabean mosaic disease by electron microscopy in Szechwan. Shanghai Agricultural Science and Technology, No.6:26

Cho EK, Choi SH, Hwang CY, 1984. Epidemiology of soybean mosaic virus diseases. Korean Journal of Plant Protection, 23(4):197-202

Cho EK, Chung BJ, 1976. Studies on identification and classification of soybean virus diseases in Korea I. Preliminary studies on a soybean virus disease. Korean Journal of Plant Protection, 15(2):61-68

Cho EK, Chung BJ, Lee SH, 1977. Studies on identification and classification of soybean virus diseases in Korea. II. Etiology of a necrotic disease of Glycine max. Plant Disease Reporter, 61(4):313-317

Cho E-K, Goodman RM, 1979. Strains of soybean mosaic virus: classification based on virulence in resistant soybean cultivars. Phytopathology, 69(5):467-470

Cho EK, Goodman RM, 1982. Evaluation of resistance in soybeans to soybean mosaic virus strains. Crop Science, 22(6):1133-1136

Christie RG, Edwardson JR, 1977. Light and Electron Microscopy of Plant Virus Inclusions. Florida Agricultural Experiment Stations Monograph Series, 9:150 pp.

Clark AJ, Perry KL, 2002. Transmissibility of field isolates of soybean viruses by Aphis glycines. Plant Disease, 86(11):1219-1222; 27 ref.

CMI, 1970. Distribution Maps of Plant Diseases, Map No. 390, Edn 2. Wallingford, UK: CAB International.

Conover RA, 1948. Studies of two viruses causing mosaic diseases of soybean. Phytopathology, 38:724-735.

Costa AS, Da Costa Lima Neto V, Almeida LD, Bulisani E, 1978. Systemic invasion of bean varieties of certain groups by the soybean mosaic virus. Fitopatologia Brasileira, 3:27-37.

Crescenzi A, Palmieri G, Ragozzino A, 1993. Infections of soybean mosaic potyvirus in Campania. Informatore Agrario, 49(8):135-136

Demski JW, Jellum MD, 1975. Single and double virus infection of soybean: plant characteristics and chemical composition. Phytopathology, 65(10):1154-1156

Demski JW, Kuhn CW, 1989. Soybean mosaic virus. In: Sinclair JB, Backman PA, eds. Compendium of Soybean Diseases 3rd ed. St Paul Minn., USA: APS Press, 55-57.

DeVasconcelos TAT, 1966. Contribuao para o estudo do virus do mosaico da soja. Anais do Instituto Superior de Agronomia, Lisboa, 26:181-221.

Dhingra KL, Chenulu VV, 1980. Effect of soybean mosaic virus on yield and nodulation of soybean cv. Bragg. Indian Phytopathology, 33(4):586-590

Diaco R, Hill JH, Hill EK, Tachibana H, Durand DP, 1985. Monoclonal antibody-based biotin-avidin ELISA for the detection of soybean mosaic virus in soybean seeds. Journal of General Virology, 66:2089-2094.

Domier LL, Steinlage TA, Hobbs HA, Wang Yi, Herrera-Rodriguez G, Haudenshield JS, McCoppin NK, Hartman GL, 2007. Similarities in seed and aphid transmission among Soybean mosaic virus isolates. Plant Disease, 91(5):546-550. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

Dunleavy JM, Quiniones SS, Krass CJ, 1970. Poor seed quality and rugosity of leaves of virus-infected Hood soybeans. Phytopathology, 60:883-886.

Eggenberger AL, Stark DM, Beachy RN, 1989. The nucleotide sequence of a soybean mosaic virus coat protein-coding region and its expression in Escherichia coli, Agrobacterium tumefaciens and tobacco callus. Journal of General Virology, 70(7):1853-1860

El-Amrety AA, El-Said HM, Salem DE, 1985. Effect of soybean mosaic virus infection on quality of soybean seed. Agricultural Research Review, 63(2):155-164

El-Amrety AA, El-Said HM, Salem DE, 1985. Evaluation of response of different soybean cultivars to soybean mosaic virus infection. Agricultural Research Review, 63(2):145-153

El-Amretz AA, El-Said HM, Salem DE, 1987a. Evaluation of response of different soybean cultivars to soybean mosaic virus infection. Agricultural Research Review, 63:145-153.

El-Amretz AA, El-Said HM, Salem DE, 1987b. Effect of soybean mosaic virus infection on quality of soybean seed. Agricultural Research Review, 63:155-164.

Eskandari F, 1978. Studies on soybean mosaic in Iran. Zeitschrift fur Pflanzenkrankheiten und Pflanzenschutz, 85(11):686-688

Fett WF, 1978. Volunteer soybeans: survival sites for soybean pathogens between seasons in southern Brazil. Plant Disease Reporter, 62(11):1013-1016.

Fidan U, Yorganci U, 1989. Investigations on the detection and seed transmission of the virus diseases occurring on the pulse crops in pgean Region. I. The identification of viruses infecting pulse crops in pgean Ragion. Journal of Turkish Phytopathology, 18(3):93-105

Fiedorow Z, 1994. Incidence of harmfulness of soybean mosaic virus (SMV). Rocznikin Nauk Rolniczych, SeraE Ochrana Roslin (Poland), 23(1-2):13-20.

Frenkel MJ, Jilka JM, Shukla DD, Ward CW, 1992. Differentiation of potyviruses and their strains by hybridization with the 3 non-coding region of the viral genome. Journal of Virological Methods, 36(1):51-62

Galvez GE, 1963. Host-range, purification, and electron microscopy of soybean mosaic virus. Phytopathology, 53:388-393.

Gardner NW, Kendrick JB, 1921. Soybean mosaic. Journal of Agricultural Research, 22:111-114.

Ghabrial SA, Pickard CM, Stuckey RE, 1977. Identification and distribution of virus diseases of soybean in Kentucky. Plant Disease Reporter, 61(8):690-694

Giesler LJ, Ziems AD, 2006. Incidence of Alfalfa mosaic virus, Bean pod mottle virus, and Soybean mosaic virus in Nebraska soybean fields. Plant Health Progress, April:1-6. http://www.plantmanagementnetwork.org/pub/php/management/2006/virus/

Golnaraghi AR, Shahraeen N, Pourrahim R, Farzadfar S, Ghasemi A, 2004. Occurrence and relative incidence of viruses infecting soybeans in Iran. Plant Disease, 88(10):1069-1074. http://www.apsnet.org

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Goodman RM, Oard JH, 1980. Seed transmission and yield losses in tropical soybeans infected by soybean mosaic virus. Plant Disease, 64(10):913-914

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Gunasinghe UB, Irwin ME, Kampmeier GE, 1988. Soybean leaf pubsecence affects aphid vector transmission and field spread of soybean mosaic virus. Annals of Applied Biology, 112(2):259-272

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Guo JQ, 1992. The critical levels of seed borne incidence for controlling the damage to soybean caused by soybean mosaic virus. Journal of the Northeast Agricultural College, 23:220-225.

Gupta UP, Joshi RD, 1976. Influence of soybean mosaic virus infection on free amino acid content in nodules of soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr.). Acta Phytopathologica Academiae Scientiarum Hungaricp, 11(1/2):33-36

Gupta UP, Joshi RD, 1976a. Effect of soybean mosaic virus infection on nodulation in soybean - Glycine max (L.) Merr. Fertilizer Technology, Sindri, India, 13(2/3):117-121.

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Halbert SE, Irwin ME, 1981. Effect of soybean canopy closure on landing rates of aphids with implications for restricting spread of soybean mosaic virus. Annals of Applied Biology, 98(1):15-19

Halbert SE, Irwin ME, Goodman RM, 1981. Alate aphid (Homoptera: Aphididae) species and their relative importance as field vectors of soybean mosaic virus. Annals of Applied Biology, 97(1):1-9

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Hartwig EE, Keeling BL, 1982. Soybean mosaic virus investigations with susceptible and resistant soybeans. Crop Science, 22(5):955-957

Hepperly PR, Bowers GR Jr, Sinclair JB, Goodman RM, 1979. Predisposition to seed infection by Phomopsis sojae in soybean plants infected by soybean mosaic virus. Phytopathology, 69(8):846-848

Hill EK, Hill JH, Durand DP, 1984. Production of monoclonal antibodies to viruses in the potyvirus group: use in radioimmunoassay. Journal of General Virology, 65(3):525-532

Hill JH, Alleman R, Hogg DB, Grau CR, 2001. First report of transmission of Soybean mosaic virus and Alfalfa mosaic virus by Aphis glycines in the New World. Plant Disease, 85(5):561; 4 ref.

Hill JH, Benner HI, 1980. Properties of soybean mosaic virus and its isolated protein. Phytopathologische Zeitschrift, 97(3):272-281

Hill JH, Benner HI, 1980. Properties of soybean mosaic virus ribonucleic acid. Phytopathology, 70(3):236-239

Hill JH, Benner HI, Deusen RAvan, 1994. Rapid differentiation of soybean mosaic virus isolates by antigenic signature analysis. Journal of Phytopathology, 142(2):152-162

Hill JH, Benner HI, Permar TA, Bailey TB, Andrews RE Jr, Durand DP, Deusen RAvan, 1989. Differentiation of soybean mosaic virus isolates by one- dimensional trypsin peptide maps immunoblotted with monoclonal antibodies. Phytopathology, 79(11):1261-1265

Hill JH, Lucas BS, Benner HI, Tachibana H, Hammond RB, Pedigo LP, 1980. Factors associated with the epidemiology of soybean mosaic virus in Iowa. Phytopathology, 70(6):536-540

Hobbs HA, Hartman GL, Wang Y, Hill CB, Bernard RL, Pedersen WL, Domier LL, 2003. Occurrence of seed coat mottling in soybean plants inoculated with bean pod mottle virus and soybean mosaic virus. Plant Disease, 87(11):1333-1336.

Hu YZ, Zhi HJ, Shen WB, XU LL, 1997. Studies on the changes of peroxidase activity in different resistant soybean cultivars to SMV. Soybean Science, 16(1):28-33.

Hunst PL, Tolin SA, 1982. Isolation and comparison of two strains of soybean mosaic virus. Phytopathology, 72(7):710-713

Iizuka N, 1973. Seed transmisssion of viruses in soybean. Bulletin Tohoku Agricultural Experiment Station, 46:131-141.

Iizuka N, Yoshida K, 1988. Incidence of mosaic disease in soybean in Hokkaido and seed transmission of the causal viruses. Research Bulletin of the Hokkaido Agricultural Experiment Station, 150:33-43.

Irwin ME, Goodman RM, 1981. Ecology and control of soybean mosaic virus. In: Maramorosch K, Harris KF, eds. Plant Diseases and Vectors; Ecology and Epidemiology. New York, USA: Academic Press, 181-220.

Irwin ME, Nault LR, 1996. Virus/vector control. Biotechnology and integrated pest management., 304-322.

Irwin ME, Schultz GA, 1981. Soybean mosaic virus. Plant Protection Bulletin, FAO, 29(3/4):41-55

Ishac YZ, El-Afifi SI, Abou-El-Nasr MA, Dougdog KA, 1983. Interaction between Rhizobium japonicum and soybean mosaic virus in soybean plants. 2. Effect on nodulation and efficiency of N-fixation. Egyptian Journal of Microbiology, (Special Issue):87-98.

Iwai H, Ito T, Sato K, Wakimoto S, 1985. Distribution patterns of soybean mosaic virus strains B and D in soybean seeds at different growth stages. Annals of the Phytopathological Society of Japan, 51(4):475-481

Javaid I, Ashraf M, 1978. Some observations on soybean diseases in Zambia and occurrence of Pyrenochpta glycines on certain varieties. Plant Disease Reporter, 62(1):46-47

Jayaram C, Hill JH, Miller WA, 1992. Complete nucleotide sequences of two soybean mosaic virus strains differentiated by response of soybean containing the Rsv resistance gene. Journal of General Virology, 73(8):2067-2077

Jezewska M, Trzmiel K, Zarzynska-Nowak A, Lewandowska M, 2015. Identification of Soybean mosaic virus in Poland. Journal of Plant Pathology, 97(2):357-362. http://sipav.org/main/jpp/index.php/jpp/article/view/3310/1981

Jolicoeur G, Hackam R. , Tu JC, 1982. The selective inactivation of seed-borne soybean mosaic virus by exposures to microwaves. Journal of Microwave Power, 17(4):341-344.

Jordan R, Hammond J, 1991. Comparison and differentiation of potyvirus isolates and identification of strain-, virus-, subgroup-specific and potyvirus group-common epitopes using monoclonal antibodies. Journal of General Virology, 72(1):25-36

Kendrick JB, Gardner MW, 1924. Soybean mosaic: seed transmission and effect on yield. Journal of Agricultural Research, 27:91-98.

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