Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Salix fragilis
(crack willow)

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Datasheet

Salix fragilis (crack willow)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 19 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Salix fragilis
  • Preferred Common Name
  • crack willow
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •       Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •         Class: Dicotyledonae
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • S. fragilis is an adaptable tree with a capacity to disperse over wide areas along watercourses by vegetative reproduction. The consequences of invasion include severe economic, environmental, biodiversity and social impacts. It has a history of inv...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Salix fragilis (8.5 m high and 40 years old) in typical habitat. River Salvono, Bolzano, Northern Italy.
TitleTree habit
CaptionSalix fragilis (8.5 m high and 40 years old) in typical habitat. River Salvono, Bolzano, Northern Italy.
CopyrightPaola Paiero
Salix fragilis (8.5 m high and 40 years old) in typical habitat. River Salvono, Bolzano, Northern Italy.
Tree habitSalix fragilis (8.5 m high and 40 years old) in typical habitat. River Salvono, Bolzano, Northern Italy.Paola Paiero
Branch of Salix fragilis with leaves.
TitleLeaves
CaptionBranch of Salix fragilis with leaves.
CopyrightPaola Paiero
Branch of Salix fragilis with leaves.
LeavesBranch of Salix fragilis with leaves.Paola Paiero

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Salix fragilis L.

Preferred Common Name

  • crack willow

Variety

  • Salix fragilis f. bullata (Rehder) Rehder
  • Salix fragilis var. decipiens (Hoffm.) W. D. J. Koch

International Common Names

  • English: white Welsh willow
  • Spanish: bardaguera blanca; sauce frágil
  • French: saule fragile
  • Portuguese: salgeiro-fragil

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Bruchweide; Knackweide
  • Italy: salice fragile
  • Netherlands: kraakwilg
  • Slovakia: vrba krenka
  • Slovenia: krhka vrba
  • Sweden: knäckerpil; skörpil

EPPO code

  • SAXFR (Salix fragilis)

Summary of Invasiveness

Top of page S. fragilis is an adaptable tree with a capacity to disperse over wide areas along watercourses by vegetative reproduction. The consequences of invasion include severe economic, environmental, biodiversity and social impacts. It has a history of invasiveness in a number of countries including South Africa, New Zealand and Australia.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Spermatophyta
  •             Subphylum: Angiospermae
  •                 Class: Dicotyledonae
  •                     Order: Salicales
  •                         Family: Salicaceae
  •                             Genus: Salix
  •                                 Species: Salix fragilis

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

Top of page S. fragilis is placed in subgenus Salix, section Salix, along with S. alba and S. babylonica (Newsholme, 1992). The specific epithet 'fragilis' means fragile, relating to the brittle, easily broken branches, as does the English common name, 'crack willow'.

According to Jalas and Suominen (1976), the area of original distribution of S. fragilis is much smaller than that reported in distribution maps, because a large number of plants identified as S. fragilis are hybrids, for example S. rubens (a hybrid with S. alba). Other hybrids exist, cultivated as ornamentals, such as S. x tinctoria (S. fragilis x S. pentandra), S. x alopecuroides (S. fragilis x S. triandra) and others that are not as common (Meikle, 1978).

Skvortsov (1999) mentions S. fragilis var. sphaerica, interesting as a ornamental species, with a dense spherical crown and a short trunk, common since the 18th century in the Baltic countries and still popular in Lithuania. Newsholme (1992) notes several varieties and hybrids; apart from S. fragilis var. fragilis, the crack willow, he lists var. furcata (S. 'Latungensis') with brighter brown, glossy branchlets and coarsely serrate leaves, sporadic throughout Scotland, England, also recorded in Belgium and Switzerland; var. russelliana (Bedford willow), larger overall than S. fragilis var. fragilis, and the most frequently planted variety in the UK and Ireland; S. fragilis var. decipiens (white Welsh willow) - only male trees occur in the UK, both sexes have been found in Germany and Austria; and S. fragilis var. bullata, a compact many-branched shrub rarely exceeding 4 m tall. Weber (2003) notes a hybrid formed with S. alba in the USA.

Description

Top of page S. fragilis is a robust tree, usually 10-15 m high, with a short, thick trunk, bark greyish, coarsely and deeply fissured when adult; branches spread to form a broad, rounded crown; twigs soon glabrous and rather lustrous, olive-brown, easily brittle at the place of attachment to the branch. Leaves lanceolate, long acuminate (9-15 cm long, 1.5-3 cm wide) dark shining green above and glaucous below. Catkins appear with the leaves in April and May, terminals on short, lateral shoots. Capsule 4-5 mm long, 2.5 mm wide rather ovoid. Male flower with two stamens (Meikle, 1984; Newsholme, 1992). The distinctive catkins appear with new leaves in the spring.

Plant Type

Top of page Broadleaved
Perennial
Tree
Vegetatively propagated
Woody

Distribution

Top of page S. fragilis is a tree with a Central European range, extending from western Europe (Spain and France) to the Balkans and Greece, relatively rare in the Mediterranean area (Sardinia and Corsica), to the northern areas of Asia Minor and Caucasus (Georgia); it is present in southern Scandinavia only (Jalas and Suominen, 1976; Skvortsov, 1999). However, according to Jalas and Suominen (1976) the area of original distribution of the species is much smaller than that reported in distribution maps, because a large number of plants identified as S. fragilis are hybrids, for example, S. rubens (a hybrid with S. alba).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasivePlantedReferenceNotes

Asia

ArmeniaPresentNative Natural
Georgia (Republic of)PresentNative Natural
KazakhstanPresentNative Natural
TurkeyPresentNative Natural

Africa

BotswanaPresentIntroduced Invasive Planted Buss, 2002
South AfricaPresentIntroduced Invasive Planted Henderson , 2001; Henderson, 2001
South AfricaPresentIntroduced Invasive Planted Henderson , 2001; Henderson, 2001

North America

CanadaPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-OntarioPresentIntroduced Invasive Planted Urban Forest Associates Inc., 2002
USAPresentIntroduced Planted
-ColoradoPresentIntroduced
-ConnecticutPresentIntroduced
-IdahoPresentIntroduced
-IllinoisPresentIntroduced
-IndianaPresentIntroduced
-IowaPresentIntroduced
-KansasPresentIntroduced
-KentuckyPresentIntroduced
-MainePresentIntroduced
-MarylandPresentIntroduced
-MassachusettsPresentIntroduced
-MichiganPresentIntroduced
-MinnesotaPresentIntroduced
-MissouriPresentIntroduced
-MontanaPresentIntroduced
-NebraskaPresentIntroduced
-New HampshirePresentIntroduced
-New JerseyPresentIntroduced
-New YorkPresentIntroduced
-North DakotaPresentIntroduced
-OhioPresentIntroduced Invasive Cleveland Museum of Natural History, 2002
-PennsylvaniaPresentIntroduced
-Rhode IslandPresentIntroduced
-South DakotaPresentIntroduced
-UtahPresentIntroduced
-VermontPresentIntroduced
-VirginiaPresentIntroduced
-WashingtonPresentIntroduced
-West VirginiaPresentIntroduced
-WisconsinPresentIntroduced
-WyomingPresentIntroduced

Europe

AlbaniaPresentNative Natural
AndorraPresentNative Natural
AustriaPresentNative Natural
BelarusPresentNative Natural
BelgiumPresentNative Natural
Bosnia-HercegovinaPresentNative Natural
BulgariaPresentNative Natural
CroatiaPresentNative Natural
Czech RepublicPresentNative Natural
Czechoslovakia (former)PresentNative
DenmarkPresentNative Natural
EstoniaPresentNative Natural
FinlandPresentIntroduced Planted
FrancePresentNative Natural
-CorsicaPresentNative Natural
GermanyPresentNative Natural
GibraltarPresentNative Natural
GreecePresentNative Natural
HungaryPresentNative Natural
IrelandPresentNative Natural
ItalyPresentNative Natural
LatviaPresentNative Natural
LiechtensteinPresentNative Natural
LithuaniaPresentNative Natural
LuxembourgPresentNative Natural
MacedoniaPresentNative Natural
MoldovaPresentNative Natural
MonacoPresentNative Natural
NetherlandsPresentNative Natural
NorwayPresentNative Natural
PolandPresentNative Natural
PortugalPresentNative Natural
RomaniaPresentNative Natural
Russian FederationPresentPresent based on regional distribution.
-Central RussiaPresentNative Natural
-Southern RussiaPresentNative Natural
SerbiaPresentNative Natural
SlovakiaPresentNative Natural
SloveniaPresentNative Natural
SpainPresentNative Natural
SwedenPresentNative Natural
SwitzerlandPresentNative Natural
UKPresentNative Natural
-Channel IslandsPresentNative Natural
UkrainePresentNative Natural
Yugoslavia (former)PresentNative Natural

Oceania

AustraliaPresentIntroduced Invasive Planted Weber, 2003
-New South WalesPresentIntroduced Invasive Planted Anon., 2000
-South AustraliaPresentIntroduced Invasive Planted Anon., 2000
-TasmaniaPresentIntroduced Planted Anon., 2000
-VictoriaPresentIntroduced Planted Anon., 2000
New ZealandPresentIntroduced1880 Invasive Holm and et al. , 1979; Cronk and Fuller , 1995; Owen , 1996

History of Introduction and Spread

Top of page Where introduced, S. fragilis is an invader of river corridors, lakesides and wetlands (Weber, 2003). In Australia, S. fragilis is only associated with streamside habitats because the vegetative reproduction method requires twigs to be dispersed downstream (Anon., 2000). In was introduced into eastern states of the USA in colonial times (Newsholme, 1992).

Binggeli (1999) classifies S. fragilis as a moderately invasive woody species. In South Africa, it is declared a category 2 invader, capable of transforming habitat according to the Conservation of Agricultural Resources Act, 1983 (Henderson, 2001). S. fragilis is also demonstrating invasive behaviour in Botswana (Buss, 2002). The tree was introduced to New Zealand in 1880 and is now one of many weeds of concern on conservation lands (Owen, 1996). In Australia the planting of Salix species began soon after Europeans arrived but occurred on a large-scale from the 1950s to the 1970s and has only been discontinued relatively recently. S. fragilis is one of the most serious and widespread naturalized and invasive exotic willows in Australia, where it occurs in the states of Victoria, New South Wales, South Australia and Tasmania (Anon., 2000). Many hybrids of S. fragilis have also become naturalized in Australia, and S. fragilis is one of a number of Salix species designated Weeds of National Significance in Australia (Anon., 2000). The sale or cultivation of most willows is prohibited in New South Wales and South Australia (Anon., 2000). In Canada, S. fragilis is reported to be moderately invasive in wetlands where it can displace native Salix species in southern Ontario (Urban Forest Associates, 2002) and in the USA it is considered invasive in Cleveland, Ohio (Cleveland Museum of Natural History, 2002).

Risk of Introduction

Top of page S. fragilis is one of a number of willow species that has caused particular problems in Australia, exacerbated by a previous history of widespread planting. It has the capacity to disperse along river systems and the consequences of potential invasion should be evaluated prior to introduction in climate zones where it could naturalize.

Habitat

Top of page S. fragilis is well adapted to a montane-submediterranean climate, colonizing riparian habitats, as does S. alba and hybrids between this and S. fragilis (Beismann et al., 1997). It is found along river valleys and mountain creeks, lakes, and wet soils between cultivated fields. It is found along ditches, channels and roads, where it can easily spread by means of wind-broken twigs and branches and root suckers (Martini and Paiero, 1988). It is widespread in cultivated landscapes, and is usually missing from undisturbed habitats (Skvortsov, 1999).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
 
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalRiverbanks Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)

Biology and Ecology

Top of page Genetics

There is a wide variation in this species, evident from the large numbers of intraspecific and interspecific hybrids known (see Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature).

Physiology and Phenology

Catkins appear with the leaves in spring (Hillier Nurseries Ltd., 1994). S. fragilis establishes easily via branch cuttings struck into moist ground. Harvesting for fuelwood involves coppicing or lopping when the wood is required, often during the summer when the ground is not too wet to restrict access.

Reproductive Biology

S. fragilis has a dioecious flowering system (Weber, 2003). Almost all reproduction is asexual and twigs and small branches, which are very prone to damage in the wind, are able to float to new locations where they form new plants (Agricultural & Resource Management Council of Australia & New Zealand, Australian & New Zealand Environment & Conservation Council and Forestry Ministers, 2000; Weber, 2003). Weber (2003) reports that the majority of individuals in Australia are male clones.

Environmental Requirements

S. fragilis is a temperate species preferring moist habitats. It is found where annual rainfall is 500-2000 mm, but with no more than a 2-month dry season. It can tolerate very low temperatures, down to -25°C. S. fragilis is found almost exclusively on riversides, stream banks, pond sides, boggy ground and dry river beds with a permanent water table not far from the soil surface. It prefers lighter soils to heavy clays and acid soils to alkaline, and will tolerate infertile soils.

Latitude/Altitude Ranges

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Latitude North (°N)Latitude South (°S)Altitude Lower (m)Altitude Upper (m)
60 36 0 1000

Air Temperature

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Parameter Lower limit Upper limit
Absolute minimum temperature (ºC) -25
Mean annual temperature (ºC) 5 16
Mean maximum temperature of hottest month (ºC) 15 24
Mean minimum temperature of coldest month (ºC) 0 10

Rainfall

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ParameterLower limitUpper limitDescription
Dry season duration02number of consecutive months with <40 mm rainfall
Mean annual rainfall5002000mm; lower/upper limits

Rainfall Regime

Top of page Bimodal
Winter

Soil Tolerances

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Soil drainage

  • free
  • seasonally waterlogged

Soil reaction

  • acid
  • neutral

Soil texture

  • light
  • medium

Special soil tolerances

  • infertile

Notes on Natural Enemies

Top of page In the UK, willow species, including S. fragilis, are host to a very large number of herbivorous insects, and provide a winter host for an aphid (Cavariella aegopodii), which is a serious pest of carrot crops (Savill, 1991). Rust diseases (Melampsora spp.) are also problematic in the UK (Heyer, 1992). Willow beetles (Phratora spp.) can damage foliage (Kendall and Wiltshire, 1996).

Means of Movement and Dispersal

Top of page S. fragilis twigs and branches that have broken from the parent tree are carried by water downstream where they establish as new trees.

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Animal/plant collections None
Animal/plant products None
Biodiversity (generally) Negative
Crop production None
Environment (generally) Negative
Fisheries / aquaculture None
Forestry production None
Human health None
Livestock production None
Native fauna Negative
Native flora Negative
Rare/protected species Negative
Tourism None
Trade/international relations None
Transport/travel Negative

Impact

Top of page Willow debris can block streams during floods and damage bridges and roads (Anon., 2000). Where large infestations have established the costs of removal and restoration may be high.

Environmental Impact

Top of page Environmental damage from S. fragilis invasion includes changes to stream hydrology, higher erosion and sedimentation rates and flooding patterns, and they may also use more water than indigenous plant species and cause changes to nutrient cycling, water temperature, energy fluxes and general water quality may also result (Anon., 2000).

Impact: Biodiversity

Top of page There are negative consequences for biodiversity where S. fragilis becomes invasive since the thick canopy created when it is dominant is sufficient to shade out other plants and reduce invertebrate abundance (Weber, 2003). These changes may also affect fish (Anon, 2000). Flora and fauna associated with both the banks and aquatic environment may be affected.

Social Impact

Top of page Willows such as S. fragilis may impede recreational activities such as canoeing and fishing (Anon., 2000).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Tolerates, or benefits from, cultivation, browsing pressure, mutilation, fire etc
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Has high reproductive potential
Impact outcomes
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Negatively impacts tourism
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity
Impact mechanisms
  • Pest and disease transmission
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult/costly to control

Uses

Top of page S. fragilis is considered an important species in hedgerows, shelterbelts and windbreaks, along fields and field channels. It was one of a number of species planted in Australia to counteract erosion caused by land clearance and cattle grazing (Anon., 2000). S. fragilis is not a timber species (wood density is about 450 kg/m³ at 15% moisture content) and has been mainly used for fuelwood. S. fragilis was once an important species for basket-making industries. Although pollen and nectar are provided relatively early in the year, its use as bee forage is limited by its poor nutritional quality (Anon., 2000).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Erosion control or dune stabilization
  • Shade and shelter
  • Soil improvement
  • Windbreak

Fuels

  • Fuelwood
  • Miscellaneous fuels

General

  • Ornamental

Human food and beverage

  • Honey/honey flora

Materials

  • Wood/timber

Medicinal, pharmaceutical

  • Source of medicine/pharmaceutical
  • Traditional/folklore

Wood Products

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Wood gas (and other hydrocarbons

Prevention and Control

Top of page Grazing is thought to check the spread of willow and in Australia cattle, sheep, goats and possums feed on the trees. It is possible to burn willow in a hot fire and this kills trees but it is not a generally recommended method because fire may also affect native vegetation (Anon., 2000).

Weber (2003) suggests following similar mechanical control methods to those adopted for Salix cinerea, i.e. small individuals may be pulled or dug up, ensuring that the entire root system is extracted. In Australia mechanical removal of root mats and stems is practised where willows interfere with stream flow (Anon., 2000). Weber (2003) also suggests following similar chemical treatments as used on S. cinerea, i.e. herbicides may be applied according to the 'drill and fill' approach with herbicide applied to cut stumps to prevent resprouting with repeat applications if necessary. If removed for biological or other reasons in situtations where there is little risk to structures such as bridges, plants treated with herbicide may be left to decay over time (Anon., 2000).

Although not established at present, biological control techniques are of interest in Australia because there are no native willows in the country and because there are many potential insects and pathogens including the willow sawfly (Nematus oligospilus) that damages plants in New Zealand. The Keith Turnbull Research Institute, Frankston, Australia, have conducted some preliminary investigations into biological control (Anon., 2000).

References

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Anon., 2000. Weeds of National Significance Willow (Salix taxa, excluding S. babylonica, S. x calodendron and S. x reichardtii) Strategic Plan. National Weeds Strategy Executive Committee, Launceston, New Zealand. Agricultural and Resource Management Council of Australia and New Zealand, Australian and New Zealand Environment and Conservation Council and Forestry Ministers.

Beismann H; Barker JHA; Karp A; Speck T, 1997. AFLP analysis sheds light on distribution of two Salix species and their hybrid along a natural gradient. Molecular Ecology, 6(10):989-993.

Binggeli P, 1999. Invasive woody plants. http://members.lycos.co.uk/WoodyPlantEcology/invasive/index.html.

Buss CM, 2002. The potential threat of invasive tree species in Botswana. Department of Crop Production and Forestry, Ministry of Agriculture, Government of Botswana, 40 pp.

Cleveland Museum of Natural History, 2002. Invasive, non-native vs. native plants of the Cleveland region. http://www.cmnh.org/collections/botany/documents/Invasive_Plants_of_Northeast_Ohio.html.

Cronk QCB; Fuller JL, 1995. Plant invaders: the threat to natural ecosystems. London, UK: Chapman & Hall.

Cronk QCB; Fuller JL, 1995. Plant invaders: the threat to natural ecosystems. London, UK; Chapman & Hall Ltd, xiv + 241 pp.

Henderson L, 2001. Alien Weeds and Invasive Plants. Plant Protection Research Institute Handbook No. 12. Cape Town, South Africa: Paarl Printers.

Heyer S, 1992. The rust diseases of willows in Britain. Proceedings of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, 98B, 119-134.

Holm L; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DL, 1979. A Geographical Atlas of World Weeds. Toronto, Canada: John Wiley and Sons Inc.

Holm LG; Pancho JV; Herberger JP; Plucknett DL, 1979. A geographical atlas of world weeds. New York, USA: John Wiley and Sons, 391 pp.

Jalas J; Suominen J, 1976. Atlas Florae Europeae. Distribution of vascular plants in Europe. Vol. 3. Salicaceae to Balanophoraceae. Helsinki, Finland.

Kendall DA; Wiltshire CW, 1996. An applied study of clonal resistance to willow beetle attack in SRC willows. ETSU [Energy Technology Support Unit (UK)] Biomass Study B/M4/00532/27. 38 pp.

Martini F; Paiero P, 1988. I salici d'Italia. Trieste, Italy: LINT.

Meikle RD, 1978. Salix. In: Stace CE, ed Hybridization and the flora of the British Isles. London, UK: Academic Press.

Meikle RD, 1984. Willows and poplars of Great Britain and Ireland. London, UK: BSDI.

Newsholme C, 1992. Willows: the genus Salix. London, UK: BT Batsford Ltd.

Owen SJ, 1996. Ecological weeds on conservation land in New Zealand: A database. Department of Conservation, Wellington, New Zealand: DOC Science Publications. http://www.hear.org/weedlists/other_areas/nz/nzecoweeds.htm.

Rechinger KH, 1964. Salix L. In: Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA, eds Flora Europaea, Volume 1. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Rechinger KH, 1964. Salix L. In: Tutin TG, Heywood VH, Burges NA, Valentine DH, Walters SM, Webb DA, eds. Flora Europaea, Volume 1. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.

Rice PM, 1997. INVADERS Database System (http://invader.dbs.umt.edu). Missoula, Montana, USA: Division of Biological Sciences, University of Montana.

Savill PS, 1991. The Silviculture of Trees used in British forestry.

Skvortsov AK, 1999. Willows of Russia and adjacent countries. Taxonomical and geographical revision. Report Series No. 39. 307 pp. Joensuu, Finland: Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Joensuu.

Skvortsov AK, 1999. Willows of Russia and adjacent countries. Taxonomical and geographical revision. Report Series No. 39. Joensuu, Finland: Faculty of Mathematics and Natural Sciences, University of Joensuu. 307pp.

Tutin TG; Burges NA; Chater AO; Edmonson JR; Heywood VH; Moore DM; Valentine DH; Walters SM; Webb DA, 1993. Flora Europaea. Volume 1. 2nd edition. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. World Wide Web page at http://www.rbge.org.uk/forms/fe.html.

Urban Forest Associates, 2002. Invasive exotic species ranking for Southern Ontario. Urban Forest Associates Inc., Canada. http://www.serontario.org/pdfs/exotics.pdf.

Weber E, 2003. Invasive plant species of the world: A reference guide to environmental weeds. Wallingford, UK: CAB International, 548 pp.

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Distribution Maps

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