Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Salvinia auriculata
(giant salvinia)

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Datasheet

Salvinia auriculata (giant salvinia)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 09 July 2020
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Salvinia auriculata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • giant salvinia
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Pteridophyta
  •       Class: Filicopsida
  •         Order: Hydropteridales
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • Salvinia auriculata is a floating aquatic fern that is often grown as an aquatic ornamental, but has escaped cultivation and become invasive in many regions worldwide. It is highly competitive and capable of ex...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Typical infestation of S. auriculata.
TitleHabit
CaptionTypical infestation of S. auriculata.
Copyright©Kurt G. Kissmann
Typical infestation of S. auriculata.
HabitTypical infestation of S. auriculata.©Kurt G. Kissmann
Close-up of S. auriculata plants.
TitleHabit
CaptionClose-up of S. auriculata plants.
Copyright©Kurt G. Kissmann
Close-up of S. auriculata plants.
HabitClose-up of S. auriculata plants.©Kurt G. Kissmann
S. auriculata; plant parts from the auriculata complex: (a) plant with fronds, pending feathered-strings and axis with sporocarps; (b) "eggbeater" structures; (c) sporocarps with macro and micro-sporangia.
TitlePlant parts
CaptionS. auriculata; plant parts from the auriculata complex: (a) plant with fronds, pending feathered-strings and axis with sporocarps; (b) "eggbeater" structures; (c) sporocarps with macro and micro-sporangia.
Copyright©Kurt G. Kissmann
S. auriculata; plant parts from the auriculata complex: (a) plant with fronds, pending feathered-strings and axis with sporocarps; (b) "eggbeater" structures; (c) sporocarps with macro and micro-sporangia.
Plant partsS. auriculata; plant parts from the auriculata complex: (a) plant with fronds, pending feathered-strings and axis with sporocarps; (b) "eggbeater" structures; (c) sporocarps with macro and micro-sporangia.©Kurt G. Kissmann
Papilla and dividing hairs of S. rotundifolia out of the auriculata complex.
TitlePapilla
CaptionPapilla and dividing hairs of S. rotundifolia out of the auriculata complex.
Copyright©Kurt G. Kissmann
Papilla and dividing hairs of S. rotundifolia out of the auriculata complex.
PapillaPapilla and dividing hairs of S. rotundifolia out of the auriculata complex.©Kurt G. Kissmann

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Salvinia auriculata Aubl.

Preferred Common Name

  • giant salvinia

Other Scientific Names

  • Salvinia hispida Kunth.
  • Salvinia rotundifolia Willd.

International Common Names

  • English: African payal; butterfly fern; eared watermoss; roundleaf salvinia; water fern
  • Spanish: acordeón; helecho de agua; helecho mariposa; oreja de agua; oreja de elefante; oreja de ratón
  • Portuguese: murure-carrapatinho; samambaia-aquatica

Local Common Names

  • Germany: rundblaettriger schwimmfarn

EPPO code

  • SAVAU (Salvinia auriculata)

Summary of Invasiveness

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Salvinia auriculata is a floating aquatic fern that is often grown as an aquatic ornamental, but has escaped cultivation and become invasive in many regions worldwide. It is highly competitive and capable of extremely fast growth; high leaf and branch densities allow it to form continuous and large mats on the waters surface. It exhibits density-dependent morphological plasticity that increases its competitive potential. Under conditions of nutrient enrichment, it can form dense mats (>50 cm thick) that shade submersed aquatic plant species, impact fisheries and negatively affect recreational activities and transportation. Dense colonies can completely outcompete native flora, decrease biodiversity and contribute to habitat degradation. The species is listed as invasive in Chile, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Guyana, Taiwan, Zambia and Zimbabwe.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Pteridophyta
  •             Class: Filicopsida
  •                 Order: Hydropteridales
  •                     Family: Salviniaceae
  •                         Genus: Salvinia
  •                             Species: Salvinia auriculata

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The fern species within the Order Salviniales are the only group of plants that produce truly dimorphic spores: a condition known as heterospory. All other ferns are homosporous (Smith et al., 2006). The heterosporous ferns are monophyletic and assigned to two families, Marsileaceae and Salviniaceae (Nagalingum et al., 2006; Smith et al., 2006). Members of Salviniaceae are floating aquatic ferns and are grouped into two genera, Azolla and Salvinia. The genus Salvinia comprises 12 species all of which are morphologically quite similar. Characters such as soral arrangement, leaf hair structure and leaf shape and venation have been used to separate species within Salvinia (Jacono et al., 2001; Nagalingum et al., 2006; 2008).

Within the genus Salvinia, a group of four closely related species is often referred to as the Salvinia auriculata complex, Salvinia complex or giant salvinia complex. The four species assigned to this complex are: Salvinia auriculata Aublet., Salvinia molesta D.S. Mitchel, Salvinia herzogii de la Sota and Salvinia biloba Raddi (Forno et al., 1983Richerson and Jacono, 2005; Nagalingum et al., 2008). All these species are native to South America, making this region the most diverse for Salvinia. Even when these four species are taxonomically well defined with stable names, they are morphologically quite similar and sterile specimens are extremely difficult to distinguish. Consequently, they are often confused with one another and often misidentified (Moran, 1995; Miranda and Schwartsburd, 2016). This datasheet is focused on S. auriculata and the name used here refers to the 'species' not the 'complex'. 

Description

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The following description is adapted from Stolze (1983) and Moran (1995):

Salvinia auriculata is a small, free-floating fern that exhibits vegetative growth via ramets and produces stems bearing three densely villous leaves.

Rhizome with stele U-shaped in cross section; floating leaves drying green to brown, oblong-elliptic to nearly circular, apex obtuse or retuse, base cordate or subcordate, larger ones 1.5-2.5 cm long, under surface sparsely to moderately provided with minute, castaneous, septate trichomes, upper surface densely provided with short to greatly elongated papillae, these arranged in rows paralleling the main lateral veins and each of them developing at the apex a group of 4 trichomes which are all joined at their ends; submerged leaves (2-) 3-10 cm long; sporocarps 1.5-2.5 mm in diameter.

Plant Type

Top of page Aquatic
Perennial
Vegetatively propagated

Distribution

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Salvinia auriculata is native to South and Central America. It has been introduced and can be found naturalized in the West Indies, Taiwan, Belgium, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and Chile. In Guyana and Argentina, the status of this species is uncertain and is listed as both native and introduced (Caudales et al., 2000; Caluff and Fiallo, 2008; Fuentes et al., 2013; GRIIS, 2018; USDA-ARS, 2018).

It is listed as invasive in Chile, Cuba, Dominican Republic, Guyana, Taiwan, Zambia and Zimbabwe (Caluff and Fiallo, 2008; Chen et al., 2008; Mir, 2012; Fuentes et al., 2013; CIASNET, 2018; Hyde et al., 2018).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Last updated: 09 Jul 2020
Continent/Country/Region Distribution Last Reported Origin First Reported Invasive Reference Notes

Africa

ZambiaPresentIntroducedInvasiveHyde et al. (2018)Zambezi River
ZimbabwePresentIntroducedInvasiveHyde et al. (2018)Zambezi River

Asia

BangladeshPresentIntroducedHadiuzzaman Khondker (1993)
TaiwanPresent, Few occurrencesIntroducedInvasiveChen et al. (2008)

Europe

BelgiumPresentIntroducedAlien plants of Belgium (2018)
SpainPresentCueto and Fuentes Carretero (2015)Andalusia

North America

BelizePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
Cayman IslandsPresentGBIF (2009)
Costa RicaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
CubaPresentIntroducedInvasiveCaluff and Fiallo (2008); USDA-ARS (2009)Listed as a weed
Dominican RepublicPresentIntroducedInvasiveMir (2012); GBIF (2009)
El SalvadorPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
GuatemalaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
HondurasPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
MexicoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
NicaraguaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
PanamaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
Puerto RicoPresentIntroducedCaudales et al. (2000); GBIF (2009)
Trinidad and TobagoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)

South America

ArgentinaPresentUSDA-ARS (2018)Status uncertain and often listed as both native and introduced
BoliviaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
BrazilPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
ChilePresentIntroducedInvasiveFuentes et al. (2013); USDA-ARS (2009)
ColombiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2009)
EcuadorPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
French GuianaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
GuyanaPresentCIASNET (2018); USDA-ARS (2018)Status uncertain, listed as both native and introduced
ParaguayPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
PeruPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
SurinamePresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
UruguayPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)
VenezuelaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS (2018)

History of Introduction and Spread

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The species within the Salvinia complex are closely related and quite difficult to distinguish. Consequently, the names of the different species are frequently misapplied and the history of spread beyond their native ranges is difficult to track and characterize with certainty. For example, in Sri Lanka specimens collected before 1973 have been misidentified as Salvinia auriculata but this species is not present in Sri Lanka (IAS, 2018). Similarly, the name Salvinia auriculata has been reported for the United States but only Salvinia molesta has been introduced to the United States (where the entire complex is federally prohibited; USDA-NRCS, 2018).

In Africa, Salvinia auriculata has been known to exist on the Zambezi River since at least 1949, where it was collected near the Victoria Falls. There are no records of the specific time of introduction of this species to Africa. However, it has now become a pest in the Lake Kariva and the Zambezi River (Hattingh, 1961; Hyde et al., 2018). 

In Chile, Salvinia auriculata was first reported in the wild in 1961 (Fuentes et al., 2013). 

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Bangladesh   No No Hadiuzzaman Khondker (1993)
Taiwan Aquaculture (pathway cause) No No Chen et al. (2008)

Risk of Introduction

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Salvinia auriculata is a free-floating species that can easily spread by water via hydrochory among hydrologically connected waterbodies. Its relatively small size makes it easily transportable by water currents as well as by animals. S. auriculata is extensively commercialized in the horticultural trade (e.g. Chen et al., 2008) and it is also available for purchase online. Since the species spreads not only clonally but also by spores, there is an additional danger that ship ballast water that contains spores can spread Salvinia internationally via freshwater waterways (ISSG, 2006). 

Habitat

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Salvinia auriculata is a free-floating, non-rooted macrophyte that prefers slow-moving and still waters. It can be found in a wide variety of aquatic habitats including lakes, reservoirs, ponds, rivers, marshes, ditches, streams and paddy fields (Moran, 1995; Caudales et al., 2000; Liogier and Martorell, 2000). It can tolerate some salinity, occasional frost and high levels of sedimentation (Cavenaghi et al., 2005; UC-Davis, 2009).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Terrestrial
Terrestrial – ManagedCultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Natural
Cultivated / agricultural land Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Terrestrial ‑ Natural / Semi-naturalWetlands Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Wetlands Present, no further details Natural
Wetlands Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Freshwater
 
Irrigation channels Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Irrigation channels Present, no further details Natural
Irrigation channels Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Lakes Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Lakes Present, no further details Natural
Lakes Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Reservoirs Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Reservoirs Present, no further details Natural
Reservoirs Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Rivers / streams Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Rivers / streams Present, no further details Natural
Rivers / streams Present, no further details Productive/non-natural
Ponds Present, no further details Harmful (pest or invasive)
Ponds Present, no further details Natural
Ponds Present, no further details Productive/non-natural

Hosts/Species Affected

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Salvinia auriculata is a highly competitive species with a high growth rate. Under conditions of nutrient enrichment, it can form dense mats (>50 cm thick) that shade submersed aquatic plant species and impact fisheries (Bini et al., 1999). Dense colonies can completely outcompete native flora, decrease biodiversity and contribute to habitat degradation (ISSG, 2006; UC-Davis, 2009). 

It is a listed as weed of irrigated rice plantations (ISSG, 2006; UC-Davis, 2009).

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The chromosome number reported for Salvinia auriculata is 2n = 54 (Schneller, 1981).

Reproductive Biology 

Salvinia auriculata plants consist of ramets connected by rhizomes forming matted colonies. Each ramet is comprised of a node bearing two floating green leaves and one submerged leaf that functions as a root. The submerged leaf bears the spore-producing organs, which consist of a sori surrounded by a globose indusium (sporocarp). The sporocarps are resistant structures and their production occurs during the dry period, when clonal growth is unfavourable. During flood periods, asexual reproduction is favoured by formation of buds and by rhizome fragmentation. Both reproductive strategies allow this species to survive and colonize places with seasonal patterns, like temporary ponds that are subject to drought and flood periods (Coelho et al., 2005; Medeiros et al., 2017).

Under laboratory conditions, this species is capable of doubling its biomass approximately every 2-4 days (ISSG, 2006). This species in particular is capable of prolific generation of sori.

Physiology and Phenology

In Brazil, Salvinia auriculata produces sporocarps during the dry period and growth clonally during the rainy season (Coelho et al., 2005). Ramets can lie dormant in vegetation waiting for favourable growing conditions (ISSG, 2006). Abundant production of sori has been observed in temporary ponds that desiccate, indicating flexibility in the life history strategy that may convey tolerance of water level fluctuation and increased probability of survival (Coelho et al., 2005). 

Associations

In Brazil, Salvinia auriculata can be found growing associated with water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes), water lettuce (Pistia stratiotes) and Lemnaceae species (Bini et al., 1999). The species has also been reported to coexist with the South American spongeplant (Limnobium laevigatum) and Salvinia minima (Milne et al., 2007).

Environmental Requirements

Salvinia auriculata can grow in a wide variety of aquatic habitats but thrives in slow-moving, nutrient-rich, warm freshwater (Bini et al., 1999). It prefers tropical and subtropical areas with temperatures ranging from 20°C to 30°C. Growth is enhanced by enriched nutrient conditions and under suitable conditions it can quickly form dense and thick floating mats. Low growth rates have been observed when temperatures drop below 10°C. It is highly adaptable and can thrive in both shade and open sunny areas. It can also tolerate salinity conditions (Coelho et al., 2000; Medeiros et al., 2017). 

Water samples taken from a reservoir dominated by S. auriculata contained an average of 3.867 mg/L nitrate, 0.706 mg/L ammonia, 1.372 mg/L nitrite and 159.979 mg/L phosphate. Sediments were highly fertile and contained 68.87 mg/dm3 phosphorus (Velini et al., 2005).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Cyrtobagous salviniae Herbivore Whole plant not specific Salvinia molesta
Cyrtobagous singularis Herbivore Whole plant not specific
Simplicillium lanosoniveum Pathogen Leaves not specific

Notes on Natural Enemies

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A brown spot fungus Simplicillium lanosoniveum was recently discovered in a home aquarium in Taiwan (Chen et al., 2008). The weevil species, Cyrtobagous salviniae and Cyrtobagous singularis have been reported causing infestations in the species within the Salvinia complex (Tipping and Center, 2005; UC-Davis, 2009). 

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal

Salvinia auriculata is a free floating fern that spreads sexually by spores and vegetatively by clonal growth and rhizome fragmentation. Spores and vegetative fragments are dispersed by watercourses and during floods. Spores are also dispersed by wind. It also spreads to new areas by the dumping of aquatic garden waste but may also be spread by animals, vehicles and boats. 

Accidental Introduction

The discharge of ship ballast water contaminated with spores is likely a possible means of transmission of Salvinia auriculata. Additionally, since it is resistant to desiccation, it is easily transported on boating and other recreational equipment. It can also be spread as a contaminant in aquaculture trade (ISSG, 2009).

Intentional Introduction

Salvinia auriculata is commercialized as an aquarium plant and as an ornamental aquatic species (ISSG, 2006; USDA-ARS, 2018).

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive and negative
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive and negative

Economic Impact

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Salvinia auriculata can form dense floating mats that may cause numerous economic problems. Thick mats can impede recreational activities and navigation on lakes and waterways, increase flooding risk, impact water quality and clog waterways, water intakes and irrigation channels. It can also interfere with power generation and decrease the integrity of fisheries. It is also a weed of irrigated rice plantations (Bini et al., 1999; ISSG, 2009; USDA-ARS, 2018). 

Environmental Impact

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Salvinia auriculata is an extremely fast growing fern and under suitable environmental conditions populations it is capable of doubling every 2-4 days (Jacono, 2005). In areas with nutrient enrichment, it can form dense floating mats, more than 50 cm thick. Mats can displace native species, reduce waterflow and lower the light and oxygen levels in the water with negative impacts on diversity and abundance of freshwater species, including fish, insects and aquatic plants (Bini et al., 1999; Coelho et al., 2000; ISSG, 2009; Medeiros et al., 2017USDA-ARS, 2018).

Social Impact

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At high levels of growth, mats of Salvinia auriculata impedes navigation, tangles fishing line, interferes with recreational activities and reduces swimming access (Hobbs and Molina, 1983).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Tolerant of shade
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Benefits from human association (i.e. it is a human commensal)
  • Long lived
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Infrastructure damage
  • Modification of hydrology
  • Modification of natural benthic communities
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts cultural/traditional practices
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
  • Negatively impacts aquaculture/fisheries
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
  • Transportation disruption
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Interaction with other invasive species
  • Rapid growth
  • Rooting
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

Uses

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Economic Value

Salvinia auriculata is commercialized as an aquarium and ornamental aquatic plant. It can also be used in artificial wetlands to remove lead and presumably other heavy metal contaminants from wastewaters (Espinoza-Quiñones et al., 2009). Due to its rapid growth and uptake of nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrogen, S. auriculata can be effectively used as a mulch (UC-Davis, 2009). S. auriculata has also been suggested as a bioindicator in aquatic ecosystems where it can be used in monitoring water contaminated by cadmium (Wolff et al., 2012). 

Social Benefit 

Salvinia auriculata is detrimental to the reproduction of the mosquito Anopheles albimanus. Mats of Salvinia have had a demonstrable inhibitory effect on anopheline breeding. The mechanism in play is apparently an oviposition barrier to gravid A. albimanus. Some consideration has been given to using the plant as a control measure in certain areas (Hobbs and Molina, 1983).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity
  • Biological control
  • Wildlife habitat

Fuels

  • Biofuels

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo
  • Pet/aquarium trade

Materials

  • Mulches

Ornamental

  • Christmas tree
  • Cut flower
  • garden plant
  • Potted plant
  • Propagation material
  • Seed trade

Detection and Inspection

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Salvinia has a distinct growth form that makes it easier to identify than most submerged aquatic vegetation. Volunteer monitors should be trained on the identity and habit of this potential invader.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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Within the Salvinia complex, the two species that have been listed as noxious invasive species are Salvinia auriculata and Salvinia molesta. These two species share the common and defining character of ‘egg-beater like’ hairs; the upper leaf surfaces are covered with papillae, each having four hairs that re-join at the tip in an egg-beater or rattle-like shape (Richerson and Jacono, 2005). The floating leaves of both are orbicular to ovate. However, the floating leaves of S. molesta are larger, potentially reaching 4 cm long and 5 cm wide at maturity and the stalk of submersed S. auriculata leaves are generally sessile to subsessile and divide two or three times and recurve (Richerson and Jacono, 2005).

Prevention and Control

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Due to the variable regulations around (de)registration of pesticides, your national list of registered pesticides or relevant authority should be consulted to determine which products are legally allowed for use in your country when considering chemical control. Pesticides should always be used in a lawful manner, consistent with the product's label.

Prevention

The vegetative propagules of Salvinia auriculata are very easy to spread. Therefore, educational programmes are usually necessary to decrease this form of human-mediated population expansion. Teaching users how to clean equipment in a way that decreases the chance of transmission is one way to lessen the impact of the human vector. 

Control

Physical/Mechanical Control

Mechanical harvesting may be used to control small populations of Salvinia auriculata. Flame control was investigated as a possible control method and was able to achieve only 37% biomass reduction in S. auriculata (as opposed to the 90% reduction observed when flame-harvesting water hyacinth Eichhornia crassipes and Brachiaria subquadripara) (Marchi et al., 2005).

Biological Control

Although the weevil, Cyrtobagous salviniae, has been an effective biological control agent for Salvinia molesta infestations it has not proven effective for S. auriculata (UC-Davis, 2009).

Chemical Control

There is no information for the chemical control of Salvinia auriculata. However, the herbicides glyphosate, 2,4-D and trifluralin have been used to control Salvinia minima (Santos and Banzatto, 1998). Note that glyphosate and trifluralin are both potentially toxic to humans.

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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More research needs to be carried out to evaluate the range of impacts that the species has on natives.

References

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Alien plants of Belgium, 2018. Manual of the alien plants of Belgium. In: Manual of the alien plants of Belgium , Belgium: National Botanic Garden of Belgium.http://alienplantsbelgium.be/

Bini LM, Thomaz SM, Murphy KJ, Camargo AFM, 1999. Aquatic macrophyte distribution in relation to water and sediment conditions in the Itaipu Reservoir, Brazil. In: Hydrobiologia, 415 [ed. by Caffrey, J. M.\Barrett, P. R. F.\Ferreira, M. T.\Moreira, I. S.\Murphy, K. J.\Wade, P. M.]. 147-154

Caluff, MG, Fiallo, VR, 2008. Pteridophytic weeds of Cuba. (Malezas pteridofíticas de Cuba). Revista del Jardín Botánico Nacional, 29(1), 51-56.

Caudales, R, Hernández, EV, Pérez, AS, Liogier, HA, 2000. Aquatic and wetland plants of Puerto Rico. I. Pteridophyta. Anales del Jardín Botánico de Madrid, 57(2), 333-339.

Cavenaghi AL, Velini ED, Negrisoli E, Carvalho FT, Galo MLBT, Trindade MLB, Corrêa MR, Santos SCA, 2005. Monitoring problems with aquatic plants and characterization of water and sediment quality at UHE Mogi-Guaçu. (Monitoramento de problemas com plantas aquáticas e caracterização da qualidade de água e sedimento na UHE Mogi-Guaçu.) Planta Daninha, 23(2):225-231

Chen RS, Huang CC, Li JC, Tsay JG, 2008. First report of Simplicillium lanosoniveum causing brown spot on Salvinia auriculata and S. molesta in Taiwan. Plant Disease, 92(11):1589. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

CIASNET, 2018. Caribbean Invasive Alien Species Network. CIASNET.http://caribbeaninvasives.org/

Coelho FF, Lopes FS, Sperber CF, 2000. Density-dependent morphological plasticity in Salvinia auriculata Aublet. Aquatic Botany, 66(4):273-280

Coelho FF, Lopes FS, Sperber CF, 2005. Persistence strategy of Salvinia auriculata Aublet in temporary ponds of Southern Pantanal, Brazil. Aquatic Botany, 81(4):343-352. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03043770

Cueto M, Fuentes Carretero JM, 2015. About Marsilea strigosa Willd. and Salvinia natans (L.) All. in Andalusia (Spain). (Sobre Marsilea strigosa Willd. y Salvinia natans (L.) All. en Andalucía (España).) Acta Botanica Malacitana, 40:271-276. http://www.biolveg.uma.es/abm/Volumenes/vol40/40_Cueto_Fuentes-Carretero.pdf

Dickinson MB, Miller TE, 1998. Competition among small, free-floating, aquatic plants. American Midland Naturalist, 140(1):55-67

eFloras.org, 2008. Salvinia auriculata. In: Flora of North America . St Louis, Missouri\Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA: Missouri Botanical Garden and Cambridge\Harvard University Herbaria.

Espinoza-Quiñones FR, Módenes AN, Thomé LP, Palácio SM, Trigueros DEG, Oliveira AP, Szymanski N, 2009. Study of the bioaccumulation kinetic of lead by living aquatic macrophyte Salvinia auriculata. Chemical Engineering Journal, 150(2/3):316-322. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6TFJ-4VBDKR9-5&_user=6686535&_coverDate=08%2F01%2F2009&_rdoc=7&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%235228%232009%23998499997%231024612%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=5228&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=41&_acct=C000066028&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=6686535&md5=7f5c56b509225229e2c70f38d86d0b1c

Forno, I. W., Sands, D. P. A., Sexton, W., 1983. Distribution, biology and host specificity of Cyrtobagous singularis Hustache (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) for the biological control of Salvinia molesta. Bulletin of Entomological Research, 73(1), 85-95. doi: 10.1017/S0007485300013821

Fuentes, N., Pauchard, A., Sánchez, P., Esquivel, J., Marticorena, A., 2013. A new comprehensive database of alien plant species in Chile based on herbarium records. Biological Invasions, 15(4), 847-858. doi: 10.1007/s10530-012-0334-6

GBIF, 2009. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. http://data.gbif.org/species/

GRIIS, 2018. Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species. Online Database. In: Global Register of Introduced and Invasive Species . http://www.griis.org/

Hadiuzzaman Khondker SM, 1993. Salvinia auriculata Aublet - A new record of aquatic pteridophyte from Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Botany, 22(2):229-231

Hattingh, E. R., 1961. Problem of Salvinia auriculata Aubl. and associated weeds on Kariba Lake. Weed Research, 1(4), 303-6.

Hobbs JH, Molina PA, 1983. The influence of the aquatic fern Salvinia auriculata on the breeding of Anopheles albimanus in coastal Guatemala. Mosquito News, 43(4):456-459

Hyde, M. A., Wursten, B. T., Ballings, P., Coates Palgrave, M., 2018. Flora of Zimbabwe. In: Flora of Zimbabwe . http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/

IAS, 2018. Invasive Alien species in Sri Lanka. Online Database. In: Invasive Alien species in Sri Lanka . Colombo, Sri Lanka

ISSG, 2006. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Auckland, New Zealand: University of Auckland. http://www.issg.org/database

ISSG, 2009. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database

Jacono CC, 2005. Salvinia molesta D. S. Mitchell. Washington D.C., USA: United States Geological Survey, US Department of the Interior

Jacono, C. C., Davern, T. R., Center, T. D., 2001. The adventive status of Salvinia minima and S. molesta in the Southern United States and the related destribution of the weevil Cyrtobagous salviniae. Castanea, 66(3), 214-226.

Liogier, H. A., Martorell, L. F., 2000. Flora of Puerto Rico and adjacent islands: a systematic synopsis, (Edn 2 (revised)) . San Juan, Puerto Rico: La Editorial, University of Puerto Rico.382 pp.

Marchi SR, Velini ED, Negrisoli E, Corrêa MR, 2005. Using flame for control of emerged aquatic weeds. (Utilização de chama para controle de plantas daninhas emersas em ambiente aquático.) Planta Daninha, 23(2):311-319

Medeiros, J. C. C., Silva, J. C. F., Teodoro, G. S., Coelho, F. de F., 2017. Effects of shade on individual ramet growth and on clonal growth of the aquatic fern Salvinia auriculata (Salviniaceae). American Fern Journal, 107(1), 21-29. doi: 10.1640/0002-8444-107.1.21

Milne J, Lang P, Murphy K, 2007. Competitive interactions between Salvinia auriculata Aubl., Limnobium laevigatum (Humb. and Bonpl. ex Willd.) Heine, and other free-floating aquatic macrophytes under varying nutrient availability. Fundamental and Applied Limnology/Archiv für Hydrobiologie, 169(2):169-176. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/schweiz/fal/2007/00000169/00000002/art00007

Mir, C, 2012. (Estrategia Nacional de Especies Exóticas Invasoras Realizado en el marco del Proyecto “Mitigando las amenazas de las especies exóticas invasoras en el Caribe Insular). Dominican Republic: Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales Santo Domingo.

Miranda, C. V., Schwartsburd, P. B., 2016. Aquatic ferns from Viçosa (MG, Brazil): Salviniales (Filicopsida; Tracheophyta). Brazilian Journal of Botany, 39(3), 935-942. doi: 10.1007/s40415-016-0284-9

Moran RC, 1995. Psilotaceae a Salviniaceae. In: Flora Mesoamericana, 1 [ed. by Davidse G, Sousa Sánchez M, Chater AO]. Mexico City, Mexico: Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México. 1-470.

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PIER, 2018. Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk. In: Pacific Islands Ecosystems at Risk Honolulu, Hawaii, USA: HEAR, University of Hawaii.http://www.hear.org/pier/index.html

Raizer J, Amaral MEC, 2001. Does the structural complexity of aquatic macrophytes explain the diversity of associated spider assemblages? Journal of Arachnology, 29(2):227-237

Richerson MM, Jacono CC, 2005. Giant salvinia - Salvinia molesta. Washington D.C., USA: United States Geological Survey, US Department of the Interior

Santos, D. M. M. dos, Banzatto, D. A., 1998. Effects of herbicides on aquatic macrophytes. (Influência de herbicidas em macrófitas aquáticas). Pesquisa Agropecuária Brasileira, 33(6), 823-830.

Schneller, J. J., 1981. Chromosome number and spores of Salvinia auriculata Aublet S. Str. Aquatic Botany, 10(1), 81-84.

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Stolze RG, 1983. Ferns and fern allies of Guatemala. Part III. Marsileaceae, Salviniaceae, and the fern allies (including a comprehensive index to parts I, II, and III). Fieldiana, Bot, 12, 1-91.

Thomaz SM, Bini LM, Souza MC de, Kita KK, Camargo AFM, 1999. Aquatic macrophytes of Itaipu Reservoir, Brazil: survey of species and ecological considerations. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 42(1):15-22

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Distribution References

Alien plants of Belgium, 2018. Manual of the alien plants of Belgium. In: Manual of the alien plants of Belgium. Belgium: National Botanic Garden of Belgium. http://alienplantsbelgium.be/

CABI, 2020. CABI Distribution Database: Status as determined by CABI editor. Wallingford, UK: CABI

Caluff MG, Fiallo VR, 2008. Pteridophytic weeds of Cuba. (Malezas pteridofíticas de Cuba). Revista del Jardín Botánico Nacional. 29 (1), 51-56.

Caudales R, Hernández EV, Pérez AS, Liogier HA, 2000. Aquatic and wetland plants of Puerto Rico. I. Pteridophyta. Anales del Jardín Botánico de Madrid. 57 (2), 333-339.

Chen R S, Huang C C, Li J C, Tsay J G, 2008. First report of Simplicillium lanosoniveum causing brown spot on Salvinia auriculata and S. molesta in Taiwan. Plant Disease. 92 (11), 1589. HTTP://www.apsnet.org DOI:10.1094/PDIS-92-11-1589C

CIASNET, 2018. Caribbean Invasive Alien Species Network. CIASNET. http://caribbeaninvasives.org/

Cueto M, Fuentes Carretero J M, 2015. About Marsilea strigosa Willd. and Salvinia natans (L.) All. in Andalusia (Spain). (Sobre Marsilea strigosa Willd. y Salvinia natans (L.) All. en Andalucía (España).). Acta Botanica Malacitana. 271-276. http://www.biolveg.uma.es/abm/Volumenes/vol40/40_Cueto_Fuentes-Carretero.pdf

Fuentes N, Pauchard A, Sánchez P, Esquivel J, Marticorena A, 2013. A new comprehensive database of alien plant species in Chile based on herbarium records. Biological Invasions. 15 (4), 847-858. http://rd.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10530-012-0334-6 DOI:10.1007/s10530-012-0334-6

GBIF, 2009. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. In: Global Biodiversity Information Facility, http://data.gbif.org/species/

Hadiuzzaman Khondker S M, 1993. Salvinia auriculata Aublet - A new record of aquatic pteridophyte from Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Botany. 22 (2), 229-231.

Hyde M A, Wursten B T, Ballings P, Coates Palgrave M, 2018. Flora of Zimbabwe. In: Flora of Zimbabwe. http://www.zimbabweflora.co.zw/

Mir C, 2012. (Estrategia Nacional de Especies Exóticas Invasoras Realizado en el marco del Proyecto “Mitigando las amenazas de las especies exóticas invasoras en el Caribe Insular)., Dominican Republic: Ministerio de Medio Ambiente y Recursos Naturales Santo Domingo.

USDA-ARS, 2009. Cornus sericea. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN), Online Database, Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. http://www.ars-grin.gov/cgi-bin/npgs/html/tax_search.pl

USDA-ARS, 2018. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. In: Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysimple.aspx

Links to Websites

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WebsiteURLComment
GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gatewayhttps://doi.org/10.5061/dryad.m93f6Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.
Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS)http://griis.org/Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list.

Contributors

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18/08/18 Updated by: 

Julissa Rojas-Sandoval, Department of Botany-Smithsonian NMNH, Washington DC, USA

16/12/2009 Updated by:

Alison Mikulyuk, Wisconsin Dept of Natural Resources, Science Operations Center, 2801 Progress Rd, Madison, WI 53716, USA

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