Invasive Species Compendium

Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide

Datasheet

Salvinia auriculata
(giant salvinia)

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Datasheet

Salvinia auriculata (giant salvinia)

Summary

  • Last modified
  • 08 November 2018
  • Datasheet Type(s)
  • Invasive Species
  • Pest
  • Host Plant
  • Preferred Scientific Name
  • Salvinia auriculata
  • Preferred Common Name
  • giant salvinia
  • Taxonomic Tree
  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •   Kingdom: Plantae
  •     Phylum: Pteridophyta
  •       Class: Filicopsida
  •         Order: Hydropteridales
  • Summary of Invasiveness
  • S. auriculata is a productive free-floating aquatic fern native to South and Central America. It is capable of extremely fast growth; high leaf and branch densities allow it to form continuous ...

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Pictures

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PictureTitleCaptionCopyright
Typical infestation of S. auriculata.
TitleHabit
CaptionTypical infestation of S. auriculata.
Copyright©Kurt G. Kissmann
Typical infestation of S. auriculata.
HabitTypical infestation of S. auriculata.©Kurt G. Kissmann
Close-up of S. auriculata plants.
TitleHabit
CaptionClose-up of S. auriculata plants.
Copyright©Kurt G. Kissmann
Close-up of S. auriculata plants.
HabitClose-up of S. auriculata plants.©Kurt G. Kissmann
S. auriculata; plant parts from the auriculata complex: (a) plant with fronds, pending feathered-strings and axis with sporocarps; (b) "eggbeater" structures; (c) sporocarps with macro and micro-sporangia.
TitlePlant parts
CaptionS. auriculata; plant parts from the auriculata complex: (a) plant with fronds, pending feathered-strings and axis with sporocarps; (b) "eggbeater" structures; (c) sporocarps with macro and micro-sporangia.
Copyright©Kurt G. Kissmann
S. auriculata; plant parts from the auriculata complex: (a) plant with fronds, pending feathered-strings and axis with sporocarps; (b) "eggbeater" structures; (c) sporocarps with macro and micro-sporangia.
Plant partsS. auriculata; plant parts from the auriculata complex: (a) plant with fronds, pending feathered-strings and axis with sporocarps; (b) "eggbeater" structures; (c) sporocarps with macro and micro-sporangia.©Kurt G. Kissmann
Papilla and dividing hairs of S. rotundifolia out of the auriculata complex.
TitlePapilla
CaptionPapilla and dividing hairs of S. rotundifolia out of the auriculata complex.
Copyright©Kurt G. Kissmann
Papilla and dividing hairs of S. rotundifolia out of the auriculata complex.
PapillaPapilla and dividing hairs of S. rotundifolia out of the auriculata complex.©Kurt G. Kissmann

Identity

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Preferred Scientific Name

  • Salvinia auriculata

Preferred Common Name

  • giant salvinia

Other Scientific Names

  • Marsilea natans
  • Salvinia hispida
  • Salvinia minima BAK.
  • Salvinia natans
  • Salvinia radula
  • Salvinia rotundifolia

International Common Names

  • English: African payal; butterfly fern; eared watermoss; roundleaf salvinia; water fern
  • Portuguese: murure-carrapatinho; samambaia-aquatica

Local Common Names

  • Germany: Rundblaettriger Schwimmfarn

EPPO code

  • SAVAU (Salvinia auriculata)

Summary of Invasiveness

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S. auriculata is a productive free-floating aquatic fern native to South and Central America. It is capable of extremely fast growth; high leaf and branch densities allow it to form continuous mats on the water’s surface (Raizer and Amaral, 2001). It exhibits density-dependent morphological plasticity that increases its competitive potential (Coelho et al., 2000). Under conditions of nutrient enrichment (Milne et al., 2007), it shades submersed species, impacts fisheries, and negatively affects recreation and transportation (Bini et al., 1999). It is reported as a nuisance even in its native range (Thomaz et al., 1999). S. auriculata has been introduced to Taiwan, Bangladesh and likely elsewhere. Its native range includes Trinidad, Guyana, Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina, although some sources report broader nativity in Central and South America (USDA-ARS, 2008). The auriculata complex is prohibited federally in the United States as well as by the states California, Massachusetts, North Carolina, Oklahoma, South Carolina and Vermont.

Taxonomic Tree

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  • Domain: Eukaryota
  •     Kingdom: Plantae
  •         Phylum: Pteridophyta
  •             Class: Filicopsida
  •                 Order: Hydropteridales
  •                     Family: Salviniaceae
  •                         Genus: Salvinia
  •                             Species: Salvinia auriculata

Notes on Taxonomy and Nomenclature

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The heterosporous fern clade to which Salvinia auriculata belongs contains the two families Marsileaceae and Salviniaceae. These water ferns are the only group of plants to have evolved heterospory after the Paleozoic era; the group evolved and then diversified at the same time as flowering plants (Nagalingum et al., 2006). The family Salviniaceae is monogeneric, and includes ten species of Salvinia, all of which are highly morphologically similar (Jacono et al., 2001; USDA-ARS, 2008). The names Salvinia auriculata Aublet and Salvinia natans (Linnaeus) Allioni and Salvinia rotundifolia Willdenow are synonymous and have often been misapplied to Salvinia minima (eFloras.org, 2009).

A group of four closely-related species within the Salviniaceae is often referred to as the Salvinia auriculata complex, or giant salvinia. It is comprised of species S. auriculata Aublet., S. molesta D.S. Mitchel, S. herzogii de la Sota and S. biloba Raddi, which are morphologically quite similar (Richerson and Jacono, 2005). This review is primarily concerned with S. auriculata, but does occasionally generalize to the level of the auriculata complex where indicated.

Description

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S. auriculata is a small, free floating fern that exhibits vegetative growth via ramets and produces stems bearing three densely villous leaves. True roots are non-existent, but the third leaf is finely dissected, submerged, and performs the functions of nutrient and water uptake (Coelho et al., 2000). S.auriculata, S.molesta, S.herzogii and Salviniabiloba make up the S. auriculata complex. They share the common and defining character of "egg-beater like" hairs; the upper leaf surfaces are covered with papillae each having four hairs that rejoin at the tip in an egg-beater or rattle-like shape (Richerson and Jacono, 2005). The floating leaves of all four are orbicular to ovate. Those of S. auriculata, S. herzogii and S. biloba usually range from 1.5–2 cm long and 1.8–2.5 cm wide. The floating leaves of S. molesta are larger, potentially reaching 4 cm long and 5 cm wide at maturity (Richerson and Jacono, 2005). The stalk of submersed S. auriculata leaves are generally sessile to subsessile and divide two or three times and recurve. Branches can reach up to 1.5 cm in length. Stalks bear sori (sporocarps) and are 1-12 mm long and globose (Richerson and Jacono, 2005).

Distribution Table

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The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report.

Continent/Country/RegionDistributionLast ReportedOriginFirst ReportedInvasiveReferenceNotes

Asia

BangladeshPresentIntroducedHadiuzzaman Khondker, 1993
TaiwanPresent, few occurrencesIntroduced Invasive Chen et al., 2008

North America

MexicoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009

Central America and Caribbean

BelizePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
Cayman IslandsPresentGBIF, 2009
Costa RicaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
CubaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
Dominican RepublicPresentGBIF, 2009
El SalvadorPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
GuatemalaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
HondurasPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
NicaraguaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
PanamaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
Puerto RicoPresentGBIF, 2009
Trinidad and TobagoPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009

South America

ArgentinaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
BoliviaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
BrazilPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
ChilePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
ColombiaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
EcuadorPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
French GuianaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
GuyanaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
ParaguayPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
PeruPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
SurinamePresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
UruguayPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009
VenezuelaPresentNativeUSDA-ARS, 2009

Europe

SpainPresentCueto and Fuentes, 2015Andalusia

History of Introduction and Spread

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The species in the auriculata complex are very closely related and quite difficult to distinguish. Given this fact coupled with the fact that the species S. minima is frequently misapplied to S. auriculata, the history of this species’ spread beyond its native range is difficult to track and characterize with certainty. It has been reported that of the auriculata complex, only S. molesta has been introduced to the United States (where the entire complex is federally prohibited).

Introductions

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Introduced toIntroduced fromYearReasonIntroduced byEstablished in wild throughReferencesNotes
Natural reproductionContinuous restocking
Bangladesh   Hadiuzzaman Khondker (1993)
Taiwan Aquaculture (pathway cause) No Chen et al. (2008)

Risk of Introduction

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S. auriculata is a free-floating species that can easily spread via hydrochory among hydrologically connected waterbodies. Its relatively small size makes it easily transportable by water currents as well as by animals. S. auriculata has not been recently documented in horticultural trade in the United States (Richerson and Jacono, 2005), but it is commonly available elsewhere (e.g. Chen et al., 2008). In areas where the plant is not regulated, not only may it be available for sale directly, it may also be accidentally included in horticultural mailings as a hitchhiker. Since the species spreads not only clonally but also by spores, there is an additional danger that ship ballast water that contains spores can spread Salvinia internationally (ISSG, 2006).

Habitat

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S. auriculata is a free floating, non-rooted macrophyte that prefers slow-moving and still waters. It can be found in a wide variety of aquatic habitats including lakes, reservoirs, ponds, rivers, marshes, ditches, streams, and rice fields in mild conditions, although it can tolerate some salinity and occasional frost (UC–Davis, 2009). The species is potentiated by enriched nutrient conditions, where it is capable of density-dependent morphological plasticity that allows it to grow extremely densely (Coelho et al., 2000). However, dense mats do not form when temperatures drop below 10°C. It is adaptable and tolerant of high levels of sedimentation (Cavenaghi et al., 2005).

Habitat List

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CategorySub-CategoryHabitatPresenceStatus
Freshwater
 
Irrigation channels Principal habitat
Lakes Principal habitat
Reservoirs Principal habitat
Rivers / streams Secondary/tolerated habitat
Ponds Principal habitat

Hosts/Species Affected

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S. auriculata is a highly competitive species with a very high growth rate. In enriched conditions, it grows densely, and can occur in mats more than 0.5 m thick (UC–Davis, 2009). Colonies of salvinia can shade light from native submerged aquatic plant species. Dense colonies displace local flora, decrease biodiversity and contribute to habitat degradation (ISSG, 2006).

Biology and Ecology

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Genetics

The genus Salvinia contains ca. 10 closely-related species in the monogeneric family Salviniaceae. Chromosome counts are unavailable for this species.

Reproductive Biology

S. auriculata reproduces vegetatively with ramets. Branching and fragmentation of rhizomes leads to the production of many daughter plants. In fact, under laboratory conditions, the species is capable of doubling its biomass approximately every 2-4 days. Additionally, it enhances its ability to vegetatively spread and successfully propagate by taking advantage of its resistance to desiccation afforded by the stiff hairs on the surface of its leaves. The resulting slowing of the process of desiccation allows S. auriculata to spread long distances out of water (ISSG, 2006). This species in particular is capable of prolific generation of sori.

Physiology and Phenology

High rates of vegetative reproduction occur throughout the growing season. Additionally, ramets can lie dormant in vegetation until favourable growing conditions return (ISSG, 2006). Especially abundant production of sori was observed in temporary ponds that desiccate, indicating a flexibility in the species’ life history strategy that may convey tolerance of water level fluctuation and increased probability of survival (Coelho et al., 2005).

Associations

In Brazil, S. auriculata demonstrated an association with high nutrient concentration and was found along with Eichhornia crassipes, Pistia stratiotes and Lemnaceae species (Bini et al., 1999). The species has also been reported to coexist with Limnobioum laevigatum and S. minima (Milne et al., 2007).

Environmental Requirements

S. auriculata can grow in a wide variety of aquatic habitats, but does best in those with slow-moving water that are nutrient-enriched (Bini et al., 1999). Some physio-chemical data is reported from a reservoir in which S. auriculata is dominant. Water samples contained an average of 3.867 mg/L nitrate, 0.706 mg/L ammonia, 1.372 mg/L nitrite and 159.979 mg/L phosphate. Sediments were highly fertile and contained 68.87 mg/dm3 phosphorus (Velini et al., 2005).

Climate

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ClimateStatusDescriptionRemark
Af - Tropical rainforest climate Preferred > 60mm precipitation per month
Am - Tropical monsoon climate Preferred Tropical monsoon climate ( < 60mm precipitation driest month but > (100 - [total annual precipitation(mm}/25]))
Aw - Tropical wet and dry savanna climate Preferred < 60mm precipitation driest month (in winter) and < (100 - [total annual precipitation{mm}/25])
Cf - Warm temperate climate, wet all year Preferred Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, wet all year
Cw - Warm temperate climate with dry winter Preferred Warm temperate climate with dry winter (Warm average temp. > 10°C, Cold average temp. > 0°C, dry winters)

Natural enemies

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Natural enemyTypeLife stagesSpecificityReferencesBiological control inBiological control on
Cyrtobagous singularis
Paulinia acuminata

Notes on Natural Enemies

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A brown spot fungus Simplicillium lanosoniveum was recently discovered in a home aquarium in Taiwan (Chen et al., 2008). The weevil, Cyrtobagous salviniae, has been an effective biological control agent for S. molesta infestations and uses populations of S. minima for food and during reproduction (Tipping and Center, 2005). However, this weevil has not proven similarly effective on S. auriculata (UC–Davis, 2009). Several herbivorous insects are reported from field surveys. The semi-aquatic grasshopper Paulinia acuminata oviposits on salvinia fronds and has shown promise in the biological control of S. molesta (Julien et al., 2002). The curculionid Neohydronomus affinis which occurs naturally as a predator of water lettuce will also feed and oviposit on S. minima. Additional research should identify these species’ potential for application to S. auriculata.

Means of Movement and Dispersal

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Natural Dispersal (Non-Biotic)

Salvinia is a free-floating species. It is particularly adept at dispersing via hydrochory. Portions of mats can break off and move with water currents to establish in new locations.

Vector Transmission

Salvinia spreads vegetatively, and is fairly tolerant of desiccation due to its covering of thick, stiff leaf hairs. Thus, it is more capable than most species of hitchhiking long distances between waterbodies on animals (ISSG, 2006).

Accidental Introduction

The discharge of ship ballast water contaminated with spores may explain the initial introduction of S. minima outside of its native range. This is likely a possible means of transmission of S. auriculata as well. Additionally, since it is resistant to desiccation, it is easily transported on boating and other recreational equipment. It is also occasionally included as a contaminant in aquaculture mailings (ISSG, 2009).

Intentional Introduction

Salvinia is regarded as an interesting water garden specimen. In areas where the trade and transport of this species is not regulated, people may intentionally plant the species in areas where it may escape to natural environments (ISSG, 2006).

Impact Summary

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CategoryImpact
Cultural/amenity Positive and negative
Economic/livelihood Positive and negative
Environment (generally) Positive and negative
Human health Positive and negative

Economic Impact

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S. auriculata is capable of an extremely high rate of growth; laboratory plant populations are capable of doubling every 2-4 days (Jacono, 2003). In areas with nutrient enrichment, it can engage in very dense growth that can cause numerous economic problems. Thick mats of the plant can displace native species, impact water quality, impede recreational activities, and clog waterways, water intakes and irrigation channels. It can also interfere with power generation and decrease the integrity of fisheries (Bini et al., 1999). All of these factors present economic impacts that can be severe, although specific studies that quantify the economic damage have not been conducted.

Environmental Impact

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Impact on Habitat

At nuisance growth levels, S. auriculata can severely alter habitat via shading. It is native to tropical and mild temperate regions, but if anything can be learned from the introduction of very similar S. molesta in the United States, we can assume that the species is capable of colonizing cooler environments. Thus, a boom and bust growth pattern is likely when the species is highly productive during the summer, but quickly dies back as soon as temperatures decrease (Dickinson and Miller, 1998). The sudden pulse of decaying organic matter can cause nutrient overloads that stimulate algal blooms and dissolved oxygen crashes that cause fish kills.

Impact on Biodiversity

Rapidly growing Salvinia populations can overgrow and exclude native plants (Jacono, 2003).This corresponds to a decrease in local biodiversity, although specific studies that quantitatively measure this impact have yet to be conducted.

Social Impact

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At nuisance levels of growth, S. auriculata impedes navigation, tangles fishing line and otherwise interferes with recreation. Salvinia is capable of extremely dense growth, creating mats as thick as 0.5 m (UC–Davis, 2009). This species can reduce swimming access, founder livestock, and stimulate unsightly and possibly toxic algal blooms. Mats of dense vegetation can also interfere with mosquito control, although the species has been shown to interfere with the breeding of Anopheles albimanus (Hobbs and Molina, 1983).

Risk and Impact Factors

Top of page Invasiveness
  • Invasive in its native range
  • Proved invasive outside its native range
  • Abundant in its native range
  • Highly adaptable to different environments
  • Highly mobile locally
  • Fast growing
  • Has high reproductive potential
  • Has propagules that can remain viable for more than one year
  • Reproduces asexually
Impact outcomes
  • Altered trophic level
  • Damaged ecosystem services
  • Ecosystem change/ habitat alteration
  • Infrastructure damage
  • Modification of hydrology
  • Modification of natural benthic communities
  • Monoculture formation
  • Negatively impacts cultural/traditional practices
  • Negatively impacts livelihoods
  • Negatively impacts aquaculture/fisheries
  • Reduced amenity values
  • Reduced native biodiversity
  • Threat to/ loss of native species
  • Transportation disruption
Impact mechanisms
  • Competition - monopolizing resources
  • Competition - shading
  • Interaction with other invasive species
  • Rapid growth
Likelihood of entry/control
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally accidentally
  • Highly likely to be transported internationally deliberately
  • Difficult to identify/detect as a commodity contaminant
  • Difficult to identify/detect in the field

Uses

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Economic Value

S. auriculata can be used in artificial wetlands to remove lead and presumably other heavy metal contaminants from wastewaters (Espinoza-Quinones et al., 2009). Due to its rapid growth and uptake of nutrients such as phosphorus and nitrogen, S. auriculata can be effectively used as a mulch (UC-Davis, 2009).

Social Benefit

S. auriculata is detrimental to the reproduction of the mosquito Anopheles albimanus. Mats of Salvinia had a demonstrable inhibitory effect on anopheline breeding. The mechanism in play is apparently an oviposition barrier to gravid A. albimanus. Some consideration has been given to using the plant as a control measure in certain areas (Hobbs and Molina, 1983).

Uses List

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Environmental

  • Amenity
  • Biological control
  • Wildlife habitat

Fuels

  • Fuelwood

General

  • Botanical garden/zoo
  • Ornamental
  • Pet/aquarium trade

Materials

  • Mulches

Ornamental

  • Propagation material

Detection and Inspection

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Salvinia has a distinct growth form that makes it easier to identify than most submerged aquatic vegetation. Volunteer monitors should be trained on the identity and habit of this potential invader.

Similarities to Other Species/Conditions

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All Salvinia species have a distinct morphology that includes stems with multicellular hairs, leaves that spread horizontally and green, pubescent floating leaves. Sporocarps are borne on structures resembling cymes or on submerged leaves. Distinguishing among the various species in the Salvinia genus is difficult, and requires recognizing the differences in spore placement and leaf shape (Richerson and Jacono, 2005). There seems to have been some confusion regarding the taxonomy and morphology of this species, which makes it difficult to track the worldwide distributions of various members of the Salvinia genus.

Prevention and Control

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Prevention

The vegetative propagules of this species are very easy to spread. Therefore, educational programmes are usually necessary to decrease this form of human-mediated population expansion. Teaching users how to clean equipment in a way that decreases the chance of transmission is one way to lessen the impact of the human vector. Several individual states within the United States have legislated the regulation of the purchase, transportation, and introduction of this species.

In controlling invasive aquatic plants, small populations are always easier to eliminate than large ones. In order for control efforts to have the greatest chance of success, control and treatment should be carried out as soon after introduction as is possible.

Public Awareness

Numerous educational campaigns have been directed at informing the public about the danger of aquatic invasive species in regions in whichspecies from the auriculata complex poses problems. Agencies and non-profits typically distribute informational materials about the identification and control of these species, as well as how to report new invasions. Other educational campaigns have been directed toward informing the public about how to clean equipment in order to prevent the movement of invasive species.

Control

Cultural control and sanitary measures

Fragments and ramets are extremely easy to transport and are resistant to desiccation. Thus, it is of utmost importance to decrease the instances of accidental introduction by addressing humans as a vector. By establishing guidelines on how to properly clean equipment, dispose of water, and identify target plants, it is likely that instances of accidental transportation and release will be fewer.

Physical/mechanical control

Mechanical harvesting may be used to control small populations of Salvinia. Otherwise, as the plant is intolerant of salinity levels above 7 ppt, the use of salt water along coastal sites may present some opportunity for control (Jacono, 2003). Flame control was investigated as a possible control method and was able to achieve only 37% biomass reduction in S. auriculata (as opposed to the 90% reduction observed when flame-harvesting E. crassipes and Brachiaria subquadripara) (Marchi et al., 2005).

Movement control

Barriers and screens and booms have shown some ability to control the spread of local populations but require significant maintenance and clearing to be truly effective (ISSG, 2006). Since plants can spread via fragments, much attention has been focused on decreasing human-mediated dispersal. The plant is on a number of regulatory lists.

Biological control

The weevil, Cyrtobagous salviniae, has been an effective biological control agent for S. molesta infestations; however, this weevil has not proven similarly effective on S. auriculata (UC–Davis, 2009).

Chemical control

Glyphosate and trifluralin were both highly lethal to S. minima (although triflurin is a known human health hazard), while 2,4-D significantly inhibited growth (Santos and Banzatto, 1998).

Gaps in Knowledge/Research Needs

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More research needs to be carried out to evaluate the range of impacts that the species has on natives, as well as to further evaluate the impacts of the nutrient release during the winter.

References

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Bini LM; Thomaz SM; Murphy KJ; Camargo AFM, 1999. Aquatic macrophyte distribution in relation to water and sediment conditions in the Itaipu Reservoir, Brazil. In: Hydrobiologia, 415 [ed. by Caffrey, J. M.\Barrett, P. R. F.\Ferreira, M. T.\Moreira, I. S.\Murphy, K. J.\Wade, P. M.]. 147-154.

Cavenaghi AL; Velini ED; Negrisoli E; Carvalho FT; Galo MLBT; Trindade MLB; Corrêa MR; Santos SCA, 2005. Monitoring problems with aquatic plants and characterization of water and sediment quality at UHE Mogi-Guaçu. (Monitoramento de problemas com plantas aquáticas e caracterização da qualidade de água e sedimento na UHE Mogi-Guaçu.) Planta Daninha, 23(2):225-231.

Chen RS; Huang CC; Li JC; Tsay JG, 2008. First report of Simplicillium lanosoniveum causing brown spot on Salvinia auriculata and S. molesta in Taiwan. Plant Disease, 92(11):1589. HTTP://www.apsnet.org

Coelho FF; Lopes FS; Sperber CF, 2000. Density-dependent morphological plasticity in Salvinia auriculata Aublet. Aquatic Botany, 66(4):273-280.

Coelho FF; Lopes FS; Sperber CF, 2005. Persistence strategy of Salvinia auriculata Aublet in temporary ponds of Southern Pantanal, Brazil. Aquatic Botany, 81(4):343-352. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/journal/03043770

Cueto M; Fuentes Carretero JM, 2015. About Marsilea strigosa Willd. and Salvinia natans (L.) All. in Andalusia (Spain). (Sobre Marsilea strigosa Willd. y Salvinia natans (L.) All. en Andalucía (España).) Acta Botanica Malacitana, 40:271-276. http://www.biolveg.uma.es/abm/Volumenes/vol40/40_Cueto_Fuentes-Carretero.pdf

Dickinson MB; Miller TE, 1998. Competition among small, free-floating, aquatic plants. American Midland Naturalist, 140(1):55-67.

eFloras.org, 2013. Flora of North America. St Louis, Missouri: Missouri Botanical Garden and Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Herbaria, Cambridge, MA.

Espinoza-Quiñones FR; Módenes AN; Thomé LP; Palácio SM; Trigueros DEG; Oliveira AP; Szymanski N, 2009. Study of the bioaccumulation kinetic of lead by living aquatic macrophyte Salvinia auriculata. Chemical Engineering Journal, 150(2/3):316-322. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science?_ob=ArticleURL&_udi=B6TFJ-4VBDKR9-5&_user=6686535&_coverDate=08%2F01%2F2009&_rdoc=7&_fmt=high&_orig=browse&_srch=doc-info(%23toc%235228%232009%23998499997%231024612%23FLA%23display%23Volume)&_cdi=5228&_sort=d&_docanchor=&_ct=41&_acct=C000066028&_version=1&_urlVersion=0&_userid=6686535&md5=7f5c56b509225229e2c70f38d86d0b1c

GBIF, 2009. Global Biodiversity Information Facility. http://data.gbif.org/species/

Hadiuzzaman Khondker SM, 1993. Salvinia auriculata Aublet - A new record of aquatic pteridophyte from Bangladesh. Bangladesh Journal of Botany, 22(2):229-231.

Hobbs JH; Molina PA, 1983. The influence of the aquatic fern Salvinia auriculata on the breeding of Anopheles albimanus in coastal Guatemala. Mosquito News, 43(4):456-459.

ISSG, 2006. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Auckland, New Zealand: University of Auckland. http://www.issg.org/database

ISSG, 2009. Global Invasive Species Database (GISD). Invasive Species Specialist Group of the IUCN Species Survival Commission. http://www.issg.org/database

Jacono CC, 2005. Salvinia molesta D. S. Mitchell. Washington D.C., USA: United States Geological Survey, US Department of the Interior.

Marchi SR; Velini ED; Negrisoli E; Corrêa MR, 2005. Using flame for control of emerged aquatic weeds. (Utilização de chama para controle de plantas daninhas emersas em ambiente aquático.) Planta Daninha, 23(2):311-319.

Milne J; Lang P; Murphy K, 2007. Competitive interactions between Salvinia auriculata Aubl., Limnobium laevigatum (Humb. and Bonpl. ex Willd.) Heine, and other free-floating aquatic macrophytes under varying nutrient availability. Fundamental and Applied Limnology/Archiv für Hydrobiologie, 169(2):169-176. http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/schweiz/fal/2007/00000169/00000002/art00007

Nagalingum NS; Schneider H; Pryer KM, 2006. Comparative morphology of reproductive structures in heterosporous water ferns and a reevaluation of the sporocarp. International Journal of Plant Sciences, 167(4):805-815. http://www.journals.uchicago.edu/IJPS/journal/

Raizer J; Amaral MEC, 2001. Does the structural complexity of aquatic macrophytes explain the diversity of associated spider assemblages? Journal of Arachnology, 29(2):227-237.

Richerson MM; Jacono CC, 2005. Giant salvinia - Salvinia molesta. Washington D.C., USA: United States Geological Survey, US Department of the Interior.

Thomaz SM; Bini LM; Souza MC de; Kita KK; Camargo AFM, 1999. Aquatic macrophytes of Itaipu Reservoir, Brazil: survey of species and ecological considerations. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 42(1):15-22.

UC-Davis, 2009. Encycloweedia. Davis, California, USA: University of California - Davis. http://www.cdfa.ca.gov/phpps/ipc/encycloweedia/encycloweedia_hp.htm

USDA-ARS, 2009. Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Online Database. Beltsville, Maryland, USA: National Germplasm Resources Laboratory. https://npgsweb.ars-grin.gov/gringlobal/taxon/taxonomysearch.aspx

Velini ED; Negrisoli E; Cavenaghi AL; Correa MR; Bravin LF; Marchi SRDe; Trindade MLB; Arruda DP; Padilha FS, 2005. Characterization of water and sediment quality at the American reservoir related to the occurrence of aquatic plants. Planta Daninha, 23(2):215-223.

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16/12/2009 Updated by:

Alison Mikulyuk, Wisconsin Dept of Natural Resources, Science Operations Center, 2801 Progress Rd, Madison, WI 53716, USA

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